Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous medicinal plants in the south of Kerman, Iran

Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous medicinal plants in the south of Kerman, Iran

Author’s Accepted Manuscript Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous medicinal plants in the south of Kerman, Iran Mohammad Sadat-Hosseini, Mostafa...

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Author’s Accepted Manuscript Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous medicinal plants in the south of Kerman, Iran Mohammad Sadat-Hosseini, Mostafa Farajpour, Naser Boroomand, Farshad Solaimani-Sardou www.elsevier.com/locate/jep

PII: DOI: Reference:

S0378-8741(17)30446-4 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.02.006 JEP10710

To appear in: Journal of Ethnopharmacology Received date: 2 June 2016 Revised date: 20 January 2017 Accepted date: 2 February 2017 Cite this article as: Mohammad Sadat-Hosseini, Mostafa Farajpour, Naser Boroomand and Farshad Solaimani-Sardou, Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous medicinal plants in the south of Kerman, Iran, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.02.006 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting galley proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous medicinal plants in the south of Kerman, Iran Mohammad Sadat-Hosseinia,b*, Mostafa Farajpourc, Naser Boroomandd,e, Farshad SolaimaniSardouf a

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran Department of Horticultural Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran c Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Abourihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. b

d

Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran e Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran

f

Department of Arid Land and Desert Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of

Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] *

Corresponding author: Tel/Fax: +98-3443347070

Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance The aim of this study was to collect and document information concerning the medicinal plants used by indigenous people and traditional healers in the south of Kerman Province, Iran. Materials and methods Overall, 64 informants between the ages of 30 and 89 were interviewed about the modes of application and consumption of medicinal plants in the region. Quantitative analysis was 1

conducted that included informant consensus factor (ICF), use value (UV), relative frequency of citation (RFC) and cultural importance index (CI). Results and discussion In the current study, a total of 115 medicinal plants in 41 families were reported in the south of the Kerman region. Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae (with 14 species each) were the families with the most medicinal plants. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves at 26.17% and aerial parts (23.49%). Decoction (53%), liniment (23%) and infusion (9%) were the most common preparation methods. The highest UVs were obtained from the following medicinal plants: Amygdalus eburnea Spach, Genista tinctoria L., Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand., Fortuynia garcinii (Burm.f.) Shuttlew. and Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Mill. The ICF results indicated that cold-flu and fever were the most common diseases (0.67) in the south of Kerman. Conclusion Based on the current study, the south of Kerman has many potential medicinal plants, and these plants should be the focus of future research. Keywords: Ethnopharmacology, Medicinal plants, Kerman, Iran, Ethnobotany 1. Introduction Plants contain a variety of secondary metabolites that function as hormones, attractants, poisons, and repellents, among others (Mirahmadi et al., 2011). Many of the metabolites have pharmacological properties that have been and are used by humans (Hostettmann and Terreaux, 2000). Over the centuries, humans have depended on plants as sources of food and medicine, in addition to also meeting a variety of other requirements (Flaster, 1996). The earliest uses of medicinal herbs are traced back to approximately 4500 BC (Pei, 2001). Plants 2

were useful not only in the ancient medical systems but also continue to play a crucial role in the present healthcare systems. Worldwide, people use traditional medicines to meet some of their primary healthcare needs (WHO, 2002). Currently, the use of ethnobotanical information on medicinal and aromatic plants is gaining considerable attention in scientific communities (Heinrich, 2000). Iran is among the top ten countries worldwide with 8000 plant species and 1727 endemic species and therefore, is one of the most important centers globally for plant diversity (Yousofi, 2007). Traditional pharmacopoeia and medicinal plants have been studied in different areas of Iran, e.g., Turkaman Sahra (Ghorbani, 2005), West Azerbaijan (Miraldi et al, 2001), Baluchestan (Sadeghi et al., 2014), Sirjan (Nasab and Khosravi, 2014), Kohghiluyehva Boyer Ahmad (Mosaddegh et al., 2012), Kazeroon in Fars Province (Dolatkhahi et al., 2010) and Hormozgan (Safa et al., 2015). Saber-Amoli et al. (2004) introduced recorded 285 medicinal plants species in Kerman Province. With 3,665,000 hectares of natural resources, the south of Kerman Province has a wide variety of medicinal plants. However, very little is known about how local people use these plants as medicines to cure diseases. The primary cities of southeast Kerman Province with such plants are Jiroft, Kahnoj, Anbar-Abad, Qale-Ganj, Rudbar and Manujan. According to the 2006 Iranian census, the population of the region is 629,497 people. The populace includes 210,064 (33.37%) urban and 419,433 (66.62%) rural residents who habitually use or collect medicinal plants. Many parts of Iran, particularly the southeast, which is the center of agriculture in Iran with rangeland vegetation, have been affected by reduced rainfall due to climatic changes (Beheshti-Rad, 2015; Gonchei et al, 2010), and water shortage is one of the primary factors leading to the extinction of plants. Therefore, projects must be designed and studies conducted to save plant species, particularly useful medicinal plants. The objectives of this study were to collect and document information regarding the medicinal plants used

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by indigenous people and the treatments provided by traditional healers living in the southeast of Kerman Province. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Study area The study area was located in the southeast of Kerman Province with a longitudinal range from 55˚20´12.43̋ to 63˚52´38.28̋, a latitudinal range from 27˚31´23.35̋ to 29˚14´35.42̋ and elevation ranging from 143 m (Holes Jazmurian, nestled between the provinces of Kerman and Sistan-Baluchestan) to 3884 m (JabalBarez and Bahr Aseman mountains) above sea level. The South of Kerman Province has six cities that include Jiroft, Kahnoj, Anbar-Abad, Qhale-Ganj, Rudbar and Manujan (Fig. 1). Approximately 90% of the total area of natural resources in the province is forests, 483,000 ha (14%), pastures, 1,941,954 ha (56%), and desert, 1,038,000 ha (30%). Only 5% of the total area of the province is agricultural land; however, most of the agricultural lands are in the south of the province. Pastures and forests are associated with Jiroft, Kahnoj, Anbar-Abad and part of Manujan, but Qhale-Ganj, Rudbar and other parts of Manujan are desert. These regions are characterized by cold, dry weather at high altitudes in mountainous areas and by warmth and humidity in the low-lying areas. The average rainfall, annual temperature and range of humidity in these regions are approximately 140 mm, 25.7 °C and 34-66%, respectively. Several nomadic tribes with a rich historical background and that use medicinal plants and have their own traditional healers are in these regions: the Āsiābars, the Jebāl Bārezis, the Solaymāni Balučes, and the Mehnis. These tribes seasonally migrate within the Jiroft subprovince (the Central Burean of Irān, 1999). In this study, we used information from the nomadic tribes. Konar Sandal is one of the most important archaeological, historical sites in Iran and is located in Jiroft. Additionally,

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Halilroud is the most significant and only permanent river in the area, which drains into Lake Jazmurian. 2.2. Data collection and plant identification Data were collected from six districts of southeast Kerman from 2013 to 2015 from both villages and urban areas. With the aim of a quantitative approach to record the ethnomedicinal information, the participant observation method was used in combination with open-ended interviews and questionnaires (a questionnaire is provided in an online supplementary file). Additionally, other knowledgeable people of the region, including medicinal herb vendors, shepherds, farmers and herbalists, were among the interviewees. The people in local areas speak Persian, and therefore, the interviews were in Persian. A total of 64 informants (38 females and 26 males) between 30 and 89 years of age were interviewed. Information on vernacular names, medicinal uses, herbal part(s) as pharmacological agent and preparation and treatment methods was recorded, and the details are presented in Table 1. Medicinal plants were collected and labeled and preserved at the Herbarium Horticultural Department of the University of Jiroft for future studies. 2.3. Data analyses The ethnobotanical information was analyzed using reports on plants use. This index was defined as a combination of three variables, i, u and s, such that informant i mentioned the use of species s in the use category u. The number of plants and the number of informants that reported use of this species were counted. Quantitative value indices were calculated in this study. 2.3.1. Use-value (UV) The UV, a quantitative index used to determine the relative importance of an indigenous plant species, was calculated with the following formula: 5

UV =ΣUi/n where UV represents the use value of a species; Ui is the number of consumptions mentioned by each informant for a given species; n is the total number of informants interviewed that used a given species (Phillips and Gentry, 1993). 2.3.2. Informants consensus factor (ICF) Informant consensus factor (ICF) was employed to indicate homogeneity of the information. All citations were placed into ailment categories that each plant was claimed to affect. The ICF was calculated as follows: ICF =Nur - Nt / Nur - 1 where ‘Nur’ is the number of use citations in each category and ‘Nt’ is the number of species taken as medicine (Trotter and Logan, 1986). The index relative frequency of citation (RFC) (Tardio and Pardo-de Santayana, 2008) was calculated by dividing frequency of citation (FC) (the number of informants mentioning a useful species) by total number of informants in the survey (N). The RFC index does not consider the variable u (use category). The RFC index ranges from 0 (when nobody referred to a plant as a useful one) to 1 (when all informants mentioned it as useful). The RFC index was calculated with the following formula: RFC= FC/N The cultural importance index (CI) (Tardio and Pardo-de Santayana, 2008) was also calculated, and the following equation was used: 

CI = 









UR  N

6

The CI index accounts for the spread of the use (number of informants) for each species, in addition to the variety of uses. A t-test was used to compare plant uses for rural vs. urban, women vs. men and less than 50 years old vs. more than 50 years old. 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Plant diversity In the current study, a total of 115 medicinal plants in 41 families were collected from the south of the Kerman region. The following information about these medicinal plants is included in Table 1: local names, uses, parts used for medicinal effects and other information. Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae, each with 14 species, were the families with the most medicinal plants (Fig. 2). Similarly, Mosaddegh et al. (2012) and Sadeghi et al. (2014) report that for the Kohghiluyehva Boyer Ahmad and Saravan regions in Iran, respectively, the families Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae contained the most medicinal plants. Based on these two previous studies and the current study, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae are the dominant families for medicinal plants in the south of Kerman. 3.2. Plant parts used Plant parts used by local people to treat different ailments included leaves, aerial parts, stems, roots, bark, latex, skin, seed oils, bulbs, flowers and fruits (Fig. 3). The most frequently used parts were leaves (26.17%) followed by aerial parts (23.49%), fruits (18.79%), flowers (9.39%) and seeds (13%). In addition to the whole plant, skin and bulbs were the least consumed parts for herbal medicines. The difference in the rate of consumption of these parts might be due to the different concentrations of bioactive compounds. Leaves and aerial parts are active in photosynthesis and metabolite production (Ghorbani, 2005) and as a result, 7

based on many reports, these parts of medicinal plants are widely applied in different areas of Iran (Miraldi et al., 2001; Ghorbani, 2005; Mosaddegh et al., 2012). 3.3. Preparation and application modes The ways the medicinal plants are prepared for consumption or use are listed in Table 1. The most common preparation methods were as follow: decoction (53%), liniment (23%) and infusion (9%). Most preparations are taken orally and some are used topically; however, a few are used both orally and topically. For example, Blepharis persica (Burm.f.) Kuntez and Lawsonia inermis L. are used only as a topical, whereas Pistacia khinjuk Stocks and P. atlantica Desf. are used in both oral and topical applications Rajaei and Mohamadi (2012) studied the medicinal plants of the Hezar Mountains in the southeast of Iran. Similar to the results of the current study, the most common preparation method in the area they examined is decoction (44%), which is widely adopted by folk healers that tend to use bioactives effectively (Muhammad et al., 2015). In Iran, many traditional people prefer this method of preparation (Sharafzadeh and Alizadeh, 2012; Bahmani et al., 2014; Amiri et al., 2014). A total of 353 uses for medicinal plants were reported, which were categorized into 14 medicinal use categories. Most plants were used to treat diseases such as digestion problems (25.66%, 48 species), skin and hair disorders (9.62%, 18 species), metabolic disorders (9.09%, 17 species) and cold-flu and fever (8.02%, 15 species) (Fig. 4). The gastrointestinal system is ranked as the first use category for medicinal plants in studies in certain local parts of Iran, such as Kohghiluyeh va Boyr Ahmad (Mosaddegh et al., 2012), Sirjan (Nasab and Khosravi, 2014) and Turkmen Sahra (Ghorbani, 2005), and is also ranked the first use category in certain other parts of the world (Heinrich et al., 1998; Miraldi et al., 2001; Ghorbani et al., 2005). This ranking might be due to cultural tendencies, economic conditions 8

and regional habits. Skin and hair disorders were ranked the second use category for cures from medicinal plants. This region is characterized by high sunlight exposure, and long-term exposure to intense sunlight causes skin burns, skin cancers and hair disorders, which can be prevented with the use of medicinal herbs. 3.4. Comparison of different indices The ICF values were calculated for the categorized ailments (see Table 2). Fourteen primary ailment categories were identified: digestive system, metabolic problems, nervous system, skin and hair, cold-flu and fever, respiratory system, flavor/appetizing, eye problems, sedative, gynecological problems, cardiac system, musculoskeletal disorders, blood/wounds and liver problems. Cold-flu and fever had the highest ICF value (0.67) and included ailments such as pertussis, epilepsy, febrifuge, asthma and cough. Eye problems and cardiac system also had a high ICF value (0.62) and were followed by liver problems (0.6), sedative (0.6), blood/wounds (0.54) and musculoskeletal disorders (0.54). An ICF value of 0.5 was registered for metabolic, skin and hair and gynecological problems. Flavor/appetizing, respiratory system, digestive system and nervous system were ranked with the ICF values of 0.4, 0.37, 0.32 and 0.27, respectively. These low ICF values could be attributed to the tendency of people in local or urban communities to use orthodox medicines for curing recognized diseases, even in modern times (Upadhyay et al., 2011). However, high ICF values clearly reveal a significant number of reports on the use of these plants for a particular disorder category (Baydoun et al., 2015). Forty-eight medicinal plants were used against problems of the digestive system followed by those used for skin and hair disorders (18), metabolic problems (17), blood/wounds (16) and cold-flu and fever (15). The names of the most popular medicinal plants and the species with the most use reports are displayed in Figures 5 and 6, respectively. The most commonly referred to medicinal plants were Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch, and therefore, the two species are 9

recognized in the south part of Kerman (Fig. 5). Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Pers. and C. mahaleb had the maximum number of use-reports (23 UR), followed by Olea aucheri A.Chev. ex Ehrend. (20 UR), Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl and Convolvulus arvensis L. plants (17 UR) (Fig. 6). Mosaddegh et al. (2012) report that Teucrium polium L. had the maximum number of use-reports (10 UR) in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad Province, and in Sirjan, Malva sylvestris L. had the highest index (Nasab and Khosravi, 2014). Figures 7 and 8 shows the medicinal plants with the highest RFC and CI indices, respectively. According to the RFC index, Z. multiflora was ranked first because it was mentioned by many informants, and the RFC index is directly related to the number of informants that mention use. However, for the CI index, C. mahaleb and C. parthenium were ranked first, because CI is independent of the number of informants and considers the diversity of uses. The rankings based on each index are shown in Table 3, with differences in the ranking of the species for the different indices. The UV is an important tool for choosing the most valuable medicinal plants in any area that may be used for future pharmacological evaluations (Sadeghi et al., 2014). In this study, the UVs ranged from 0.07 to 0.57 (Table 1). With UVs higher than 0.42, Amygdalus eburnea, G. tinctoria, C. procera, F. garcinii and C. mahaleb were the most commonly used medicinal plants in the south of Kerman Province. The highest UV was observed for A. eburnea (0.57), and the lowest UV was recorded for Salvia mirzayanii Rech.f. & Esfand. (0.07), Ferula szowitsiana DC. (0.07) and Samolus valerandi L. (0.07). The two top medicinal plants, A. eburnea and G. tinctoria, are widely used for a variety of treatments, including as a sedative, for coughs and adult squirt, as a parasite repellent, and for gastric discomfort and abdominal pains and diarrhea. However, the three species with the lowest UV are used to cure only one ailment, with S. mirzayanii used for Alzheimer’s disease, F. szowitsiana for stomachache and 10

S. valerandi as a tonic. Although many treatments are reported in many studies for these three plants, these species may be the least used because of the decreasing numbers of traditional people and insufficient transfer of knowledge about the primary uses (Amirghofran et al., 2010; Iranshahy and Iranshahi, 2011; DominguesPassero et al., 2014; Van Wyk, 2008). To compare cultural effects, we used t-tests. Based on the t-tests, no significant difference was detected between rural and urban use of medicinal plants (t= 1.16, p= 0.24). Many urban people have agricultural land in rural areas, and therefore, they share their plant knowledge with another. However, significant differences in medicinal plant use were detected between women and men (t= 2.15, p= 0.03) and different ages (below and above 50 years old; t= -2.57, p= 0.01). Additionally, based on the results, women and older people (older than 50 years) had more knowledge of medicinal plants. In the area studied, women are the primary preparers and gatherers of medicinal plants. The knowledge of medicinal plants differed somewhat among nomadic tribes. For example, the Āsiābars tribe used Salvia macrosiphon Boiss for wound healing and the Solaymāni Balučes tribe used Stachys inflata Benth., Ferula ovina (Boiss.) and Prosopis cineraria for respiratory ailments, as a carminative and for skin rashes, respectively. 3.5. Plants known in other parts of Iran Foeniculum vulgare Mill. is frequently used for gastric discomfort in different parts of Iran (Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad, Mosaddegh et al., 2012; Turkmen Sahra, Ghorbani, 2005; Saravan, Sadeghi et al., 2014; West Azerbaijan, Miraldi et al., 2001 and Sirjan, Nasab and Khosravi, 2014). In this study, the result was similar. Teucrium polium, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., D. sophia and Capparis spinosa L. are used as the same traditional medicines in 11

Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad (Mosaddegh et al., 2012), Turkmen Sahra (Ghorbani, 2005) and Sirjan (Nasab and Khosravi, 2014). 3.6. Medicinal plants used in combination For the treatment of some diseases, people use a combination of several different plants, e.g., Glycyrrhiza glabra, Foeniculum vulgare, Teucrium polium, Achillea wilhelmsii, Nepeta cataria and Bunium persicum to treat the digestive system. For treatment of the common cold, a mixture of plants is boiled that can include Zataria multiflora, Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam., Trichodesma stocksii Boiss. and Sanguisorba minor Scop. Additionally, when people require a sedative, a mixture of C. parthenium and T. stocksii is used. 3.8. Side effects of medicinal plants The use of B. persicum for long periods and the simultaneous use of T. polium and A. wilhelmsii cause skin disorders. Glycyrrhiza glabra used to treat the digestive system may also cause excessive blood pressure in some people. 3.7. Comparative review of reported species in previous studies Zataria multiflora and B. persicum were the most popular plants mentioned by most informants and are widely used to treat problems of the respiratory and digestive systems by boiling in water. Daphne mucronata Royle and M. sylvestris are the most popular plants for use in Sirjan and Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad, respectively (Nasab and Khosravi, 2014; Mosaddegh et al., 2012). To identify the new medicinal plants reported in our study, a critical comparison was performed with previous reports (Mossadegh et al., 2012; Ghorbani, 2005; Nasab and Khosravi, 2014; Sadeghi et al., 2014; Miraldi et al., 2001; Sher at al., 2016; Dharmadasa et al., 2016; Baydoun et al., 2015; Ahmad et al., 2015; Eshtiaq et al., 2015; Altundag, & Ozturk, 12

2011). Although some medicinal plants are reported in some previous studies, because ethnopharmacology was not considered (e.g., Saber-Amoli et al., 2004), these studies were not compared with our study. The results of the comparison are shown in Table 4. In our study, two and twelve plants were cultivated and endemic, respectively. Additionally, 64 of the 115 plants are reported with medicinal use for the first time based on the comparison with the literature review, and for 37 plants, we report at least one new traditional use. For example, Nasab and Khosravi (2014) report that the fruit of Anethum graveolens L. is used for menstrual cramps; however, our results showed that leaf and seed of the plant are also used to treat cancer, osteoporosis and gastric discomfort. Approximately 26 of these plants are reportedly used in some other areas of Iran (Mozaffarian, 2013). Other species that have a wide variety of traditional uses included the following: Coriandrum sativum L., Dorema aucheri Boiss., Artemisia aucheri Boiss., Berberis integerrima Bunge, D. sophia, Sesamum indicum L., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Ricinus communis L., Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Lamium album L., Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) Benth., Anagallis arvensis L., Medicago sativa L., S. minor Scop., Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight & Arn., Cotoneaster persicus Pojark., D. mucronata and Verbena officinalis L. 4. Conclusions Our study documented the ethnopharmacological knowledge in the cities in the south of Kerman Province in Iran, including Jiroft, Kahnouj, Anbarabad, Rudbar, Manujan and QaleGanj. The current study recognized 115 medicinal plant species in 42 families that were useful for the treatment of many human diseases. More than 10% of the plants were endemic to Iran, indicating that the studied area is a unique center of medicinal plants in the country. Based on a literature review, many medicinal plants that grow in the south of Kerman are used in different parts of Iran. These findings showed that indigenous medicinal knowledge 13

continues to be used in the south of Kerman and throughout Iran. The people of the study area and in many parts of the country are Persian, indicating that many parts of Iran share a similar culture, and most aspects of culture are shared among members (Wan et al. 2007). Thus, a common culture might be one reason that many Iranian people use these medicinal plants. Furthermore, based on the current study, the south of Kerman has many potential medicinal plants that should be further screened for phytochemicals and analyzed for protection against human afflictions. The study area is usually faced with environmental stresses that include drought and salinity, among others, and therefore, research projects should be designed for this area with the priority to conserve the medicinal plants. Authors’ contribution statement Authors’ contributions are the following: MS-H, NB and FS-S designed and conducted the research. MS-H and MF analyzed the data and wrote the paper. Compliance with ethical standards Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgments We thank the University of Jiroft for financial support and Ms. Maryam Akbarizadeh for editing the manuscript.

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Sadeghi, Z., Kuhestani, K., Abdollahi, V., Mahmood, A., 2014. Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous medicinal plants of Saravan region, Baluchistan, Iran. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 153, 111-118. Safa, O., Soltanipoor, M. A., Rastegar, S., Kazemi, M., Nourbakhsh Dehkordi, K., Ghannadi, A., 2012. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 3, 64-81. Sharafzadeh, S., Alizadeh, O., 2012. Some medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2, 134-137. Sher, H., Bussmann, R. W., Hart, R., de Boer, H. J., 2016. Traditional use of medicinal plants among Kalasha, Ismaeli and Sunni groups in Chitral District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 188, 57-69. Tardío, J., Pardo-de-Santayana, M., 2008. Cultural importance indices: a comparative analysis based on the useful wild plants of Southern Cantabria (Northern Spain) 1. Economic Botany 62, 24-39. Trotter, R., Logan, M., 1986. Informant consensus: new approach for identifying potentially effective medicinal plants. In: Indigenous Medicine and Diet: Behavioural Approaches. Redgrave Publishers, Etkin NL. New York Upadhyay, B., Singh, K. P., Kumar, A., 2011. Ethno-veterinary uses and informants consensus factor of medicinal plants of Sariska region, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133, 14-25. Van Wyk, B.E., 2008. A review of Khoi-San and Cape Dutch medical ethnobotany. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119, 331-341.

18

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Table 1 Indigenous medicinal knowledge of plants from the study area

19

Pistacia khinjuk Stocks

Pistacia atlantica Desf.

Ammi majus L. Anethum graveolens L. Bunium persicum (Boiss.) Fedtsch. Conium maculatum L. Coriandrum sativum L.

Dorema aucheri Boiss. Ferula ovina (Boiss.) Boiss. Ferula szowitsiana DC.

Ferulago angulate (Schltdl.) Boiss. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Levisticum persicum Freyn & Bornm. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss Pimpinella saxifraga L. Psammogeton stocksii (Boiss.) Nasir Rhazya stricta Decne.

Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand.

Pergularia tomentosa L. Achillea eriophora DC.

Achillea wilhelmsii K.Koch

Artemisia aucheri Boiss.

Centaurea bruguieriana (DC.) Hand. Mazz. Centaurea solstitialis L. Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Pers.

Cichorium pumilum Jacq. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Lactuca serriola L. Onopordon leptolepis DC. Sonchus asper (L.) Hill Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip.

Hertia intermedia (Boiss.) Kuntze Berberis integerrima Bunge Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem. Nonea caspica (Willd.) G.Don

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Apiaceae Apiaceae Apiaceae

Apiaceae Apiaceae Apiaceae

Apiaceae Apiaceae Apiaceae Apiaceae Apiaceae Apiaceae Apocynaceae

Asclepiadaceae

Asclepiadaceae Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae

Asteraceae Berberidaceae Bignoniaceae Boraginaceae

Asteraceae Asteraceae

Apiaceae Apiaceae

Blepharis persica (Burm.f.) Kuntez Narcissus tazetta L.

Acanthaceae Amaryllidaceae

B.

Scientific name

Family

Kalkich Zarch Golparak Sezkouei

Kasni Kangar saharaei Kahou khardar Kangar Shirtighak Shirtighak Babouneh

Golgandom zard Babooneh

Golgandom

Jaz

Benjerask

Labashir Boumadaran

Kharak

Garchi Badiuon Karasm Jafari Jafari Kouhi Izbok Gish

Oshtork Anghouze shirin Anghouzeh

Showkaran Geshniz

Golsefid mitkham Ziresiah

Baneh

Kasour

Vernacular name (Persian) Khar sonbol Narges

Medicinal uses

Preparation

Leaf Fruit Bark of stem Leaf

Whole plant Root Leaf Aerial parts Leaf Leaf Aerial parts

Aerial parts Aerial parts

20

Epilepsy, anti-tumult Blood purifier, heat regulation Urinary problems Cardiac distress, nerve tonic, sedative

Eye diseases, skin rash Lactiferous, infected blotch, asthma, stomach ulcers, blood pressure, nerve tonic; leaf for migraine Antipyretic, blood purifier; root for appetizing Gastric discomfort, appetizing Bone and joint pains Urinary stone, abdominal pains, diarrhea Skin rash Skin ailments Parasite repellent, migraine, anti-inflammation

Decoction Decoction Decoction Decoction

Decoction, liniment Decoction Liniment Decoction Liniment Liniment Decoction

Liniment Infusion

Blood coagulation Liniment Sterility treatment, gastric discomfort Decoction, infusion Blood coagulation Hemorrhoids, stomachache, Decoction, liniment toothache Fruit Cough, Decoction, liniment bone and joint pains Fruit Nausea, diuretic Decoction Leaf, seed Leaf for anti-cancer, osteoporosis; seeds for gastric discomfort Decoction Seed Digestive, diuretic, respiratory tract infection, child squirt, parasite Infusion, chewy seed repellent Whole plant Pertussis, respiratory ailments Decoction Leaf Diabetes, intestinal infections Decoction Fruit Seasoning of food Latex Washing head hair Liniment Aerial parts Carminative Decoction Aerial parts Stomachache Decoction (with meat and vegetables) (latex) Aerial parts Carminative, flavoring of animal oil Decoction, dressing Fruit Gastric discomfort, bone and joint pains Decoction Aerial parts Stem as pickle, flavoring of food Decoction, dressing Leaf Stomachache, appetizing, epilepsy Decoction Leaf Stomachache Decoction Aerial parts Febrifuge Powder Fruit Toothache Liniment Latex Eye problems Leaf, root Leaf for sedative after snake, scorpion and insect bite; roots for gastric Decoction, dressing discomfort and migraine Remove inflammation of the skin Latex Leaf Parasite repellent Decoction Flower Antiepileptic Powder, decoction Leaf Wound healing Flower Wound healing Powder, decoction Leaf Blood coagulation Leaf Carminative Infusion, moisturized in water Seed Epilepsy Aerial parts Eye diseases, skin rash Liniment

Plant part used Leaf and seed Bulb Leaf Fruit

0.17 0.16 0.17 0.20

0.13 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.14 0.33 0.27

topical Oral Oral Topical Oral Topical Topical Oral

Oral Oral Oral Oral

0.22 0.12

0.12

0.10

0.10

0.20 0.09

0.44

0.40 0.08 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.25 0.17

0.08 0.08 0.07

0.22 0.14

0.20 0.25 0.19

0.16

0.23

0.20 0.14

UV

Topical Oral,

Topical

Oral

Oral

Oral Oral

Oral, topical

Oral Oral Oral Oral Oral Oral Topical

Topical Oral Oral

Oral Oral

Topical Oral, topical Oral, topical Oral, topical Oral Oral Oral

Mode of application

SK129 SK139 SK137 SK135

SK120 SK121 SK122 SK123 SK124 SK125 SK126

SK118 SK119

SK117

SK116

SK115

SK127 SK114

SK128

SK108 SK109 SK110 SK111 SK112 SK113 SK133

SK105 SK106 SK107

SK103 SK104

SK100 SK101 SK102

SK134

SK132

Voucher no. SK127 SK130

Trichodesma stocksii Boiss.

Cressa cretica L.

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. Scabiosa candollei DC.

Ephedra strobilacea Bunge Euphorbia helioscopia L.

Ricinus communis L. Fumaria parviflora Lam.

Lamium album L.

Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) Benth. Leonurus cardiaca L.

Mentha longifolia (L.) L.

Nepeta cataria L. Otostegia persica (Burm.f.) Boiss. Salvia compressa Vent. Salvia macrosiphon Boiss.

Salvia mirzayanii Rech.f. & Esfand. Stachys inflata Benth.

Teucrium polium L. Zataria multiflora Boiss. Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.

Dracocephalum polychaetum Bornm.

Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. Lawsonia inermis L. Malva microcarpa Pers.

Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce Gisekia pharnaceoides L.

Cucurbitaceae Dipsacaceae

Ephedraceae Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae Fumariaceae

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae

Liliaceae Lythraceae Malvaceae

Mimosaceae Molluginaceae

Convolvulus arvensis L.

Convolvulaceae

Convolvulaceae

Dianthus orientalis Adams

Cardaria draba (L.) Desv. Capparis spinosa L.

Caryophyllaceae

Brassicaceae Capparidaceae

Brassicaceae

Brassicaceae

Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl Fortuynia garcinii (Burm.f.) Shuttlew. Sisymbrium irio L.

Boraginaceae

Brassicaceae

Nonnea persica Boiss.

Boraginaceae

Kahour Bargdyereii

Peymaouk Hana Khatmi

Zarow

Kalpoureh Avishan Aghalaleh

Salvii Golmour

Nana Goldar Morporzou Moureshk

Pideneh

Melengou Dom shir

Gazaneh

Kenton Shahtere

Khimouk Shirbeng

Hanzal Talhkou

Alaf mourcheh

Pichak

Seed

Aerial parts

Fruit

Flower

Leaf

Fruit Aerial parts

Seed Leaf Flower

Nerve tonic, respiratory ailments, throat pains

Sedative

21

Febrifuge, pertussis, child fever Toothache, addiction treatment Abdominal pains, diarrhea, gastric discomfort Menstruation additive Wound healing Alzheimer's treatment Anti-inflammation, respiratory ailments Antimicrobial Abdominal pains, menstruation additive, cough Stomachache, pertussis, asthma, tonic, liver infection Sedative Influenza Rheumatism, flavoring Diuretic Hair tonic, prevention of hair loss, skin rash Throat protuberance, heat regulation, tooth mass Asthma, skin rash Remove bur from skin

Cough, constipation, adult squirt, carminative Cardiac distress Nerve tonic Flavoring of food and yogurt flavor

Asthma, cough, antipyretic, osteoporosis, lactiferous

Adult squirt, liver cysts, hypertension antipyretic Abdominal pains, diarrhea, bone and joint pains, Sedative, stomach ulcers Abdominal pains, diarrhea, root for parasite repellent, rheumatism Skin rash Abdominal pains, diarrhea, emetic Adult squirt, stomachache

Abdominal pains, diarrhea, jaundice, gynecological problem, wound healing, Antifungal, antibacterial

Toothache, nerve tonic, hiccups Headache

Urinary stone, adult squirt, stomachache, skin rash Stomach acidification, rheumatism Fruit and flower as pickle, parasite repellent Combined with sesame and olive for white hair

Parasite repellent, gastric discomfort, abdominal problem, febrifuge, skin rash Migraine, sedative, menstruation additive, spasm

Fruit Leaf Flower Leaf and flower Leaf Leaf Aerial parts Seed, Skin of root Aerial parts Leaf, Flower Aerial parts Aerial parts Flower Leaf Aerial parts

Leaf

Aerial parts Fruit and root Leaf Seed Aerial parts

Fruit Flower

Aerial parts

Aerial parts

Flower, Oil of plant

Aerial parts Skin of root, flower

Fruit Gharanphel

Mokou Dak

Khakshi

Makhleseh

Khakshi

Gavzaban

Chezkouei

Liniment, infusion

water,

Liniment Dressing

Dressing Decoction Decoction Liniment Moisturized with water

Decoction Decoction Decoction

Decoction Decoction

Infusion Dressing Decoction Decoction, liniment

Dressing

Decoction, moisturized with water Decoction

Infusion

Decoction Decoction

Decoction, liniment Dressing, decoction

Decoction

Liniment

Decoction, liniment

Liniment, decoction

Infusion

Decoction, liniment

Decoction, moisturized in liniment Decoction, infusion

Decoction

Decoction

Topical Oral Oral Topical Oral, topical Topical Topical

Oral Oral Oral

Oral Topical Oral Oral, topical Oral Oral

Oral

Oral Oral

Oral

Oral Oral, topical Oral Oral, topical Oral Oral

Oral, topical Topical

Oral, topical

Oral, topical Oral Oral, topical

Oral, topical Oral

Oral

Oral

0.25 0.20

0.33 0.16 0.19

0.10

0.13 0.22 0.14

0.07 0.15

0.15 0.22 0.23 0.30

0.19

0.30 0.29

0.17

0.38 0.17

0.38 0.43

0.33 0.21

0.29

0.38

0.28

0.10 0.20

0.22

0.44

0.40

0.14

0.25

SK173 SK170

SK154 SK156 SK171

SK169

SK166 SK167 SK168

SK164 SK165

SK160 SK161 SK162 SK163

SK159

SK157 SK158

SK155

SK152 SK153

SK150 SK151

SK145 SK149

SK147

SK146

SK148

SK143 SK144

SK142

SK141

SK140

SK138

SK136

Astragalus eremophilus Boiss. Sesamum indicum L.

Plantago ciliata Desf.

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv.

Hordeum vulgare L. Rumex vesicarius L. Anagallis arvensis L. Samolus valerandi L. Clematis ispahanica Boiss. Thalictrum minus L. Rhamnus persica P. Lawson Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C. Johnst. Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight & Arn. Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. Amygdalus communis L.

Papilionaceae Pedalicaceae

Plantaginaceae

Poaceae Poaceae

Poaceae Polygonaceae Primulaceae Primulaceae Ranunculaceae Ranunculaceae Rhamnaceae Rhamnaceae Rhamnaceae

Solanaceae

Rosaceae Rutaceae

Rosaceae Rosaceae

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

Rosaceae Rosaceae

Rhamnaceae Rosaceae

Medicago sativa L. Onobrychis altissima Grossh. Ononis spinosa L. Trifolium pratense L.

Papilionaceae Papilionaceae Papilionaceae Papilionaceae

Lycium depressum Stocks Zil

Jow Torshak Del pasand Alaf Chaspakou Sadabi Titoumari Toutlangou Konar

Garch Garch

Kowchak

Kalilolmolk Konjed

Yonjeh Esperes Karkhar Shabdar

Gag Ranginzard Motki

Nokhod kermani

Kharshotorkhazari

Aadour

Zeytoun

Mourdeneh

parts

Leaf Seed Seed Seed

Seed Seed

Aerial parts Aerial parts Root Aerial parts

Aerial parts Aerial parts Root

Fruit

Aerial Root

Aerial parts

Leaf and fruit

Leaf

Fruit

Fruit Leaf Aerial parts Aerial parts Aerial parts Aerial parts Fruit Fruit Leaf Fruit Konar Leaf and fruit Badamshirin Flower and leaf Fruit Amygdalus eburnea Spach BadamKouhi, Alouk Fruit and leaf Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Mill. Mahlab Leaf skin Fruit Cotoneaster kotschyi (C.K.Schneid.) Siahchou Latex G.Klotz Crataegus azarolus L. Kalkouhi Leaf and fruit Flower Crataegus pontica K.Koch Kalkouhi Leaf and fruit Flower Sanguisorba minor Scop. Gheytaron Aerial parts Amygdalus orientalis Mill. Archen Fruit Latex Cotoneaster persicus Pojark. Siahchou Fruit Haplophyllum tuberculatum Juss. Gahich Aerial parts

Dalbergia sissoo DC. Genista tinctoria L. Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

Alhagi pseudoalhagi (M. Bieb.) Desv. ex B. Keller & Shap.

Papilionaceae

Papilionaceae Papilionaceae Papilionaceae

Alhagi persarum Boiss. & Buhse

Papilionaceae

Cicer kermanense Bornm.

Olea aucheri A.Chev. ex Ehrend.

Oleaceae

Papilionaceae

Myrtus communis L.

Myrtaceae

22

Hypertension, sedative, spasms Cardiac distress Hypertension, sedative, spasms Cardiac distress Blood coagulation, hemorrhoids, Allergies, hair tonic Prevention of hair loss Heat regulation Antipyretic, headache Epilepsy, squirt

Blood coagulation, infections topical Eye problems, prostate problems Diuretic, inflammation of the urinary tract Blood purifier, asthma, bone and joint pains Asthma, adult squirt Prevention of hair loss, blood fat Leaf as antibacterial and for burns Seed as antipyretic, sedative Diuretic Flatulence, prevention of hair loss Diabetes, gout Appetizing, remove bur from skin Liver cysts, urinary stones Tonic Diuretic, joint pain, headache Gastric discomfort Adult squirt Blood purifier Common cold and as antimicrobial Stomach ulcers Intestinal infections Leaf for liver failure, parasite repellent, ulcer Fruit for child squirt Leaf for sedative; oil for cough, adult squirt, parasite repellent Liver cysts, nerve sedative, swollen joints, parasite repellent Reducing palpitations Child squirt, jaundice

Diuretic, hair tonic Insect repellent Gastric discomfort, abdominal pains, diarrhea Stomachache, stomach ulcers, stomach acidification

Leaf as antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-tumult; oil for diabetes, insect repellent, remove bur from skin, parasite repellent Hemorrhoids; leaf for rheumatism Diuretic Urinary stones

Infections topical, digestive, diuretic

Decoction

Decoction Decoction, liniment

Decoction Decoction, liniment

Decoction

Decoction

Infusion

Decoction, oil Decoction, dressing

Decoction Decoction, liniment Infusion Decoction Decoction Decoction Decoction Decoction Liniment Decoction Decoction Decoction, oil, infusion

Liniment Syrup Decoction Decoction, liniment

Decoction Decoction, liniment

Liniment Liniment, dressing Decoction Decoction, liniment

Liniment Decoction Decoction

Decoction, liniment

Cataplasm, decoction

Decoction, Liniment Cataplasm, decoction

Decoction, infusion

Oral Oral, topical Oral Oral, topical Oral

Oral

Oral

Oral Oral, topical Oral

Topical Topical Oral Oral, topical Oral Topical, oral Topical Oral Oral Oral, topical Oral Oral, topical Oral Oral Oral Oral Oral Oral Topical Oral Oral

Topical Oral Oral

Oral, topical

Oral Topical Oral, topical Oral

Topical, oral

0.29

0.15 0.17

0.23 0.43

0.29

0.20

0.40

0.57 0.43

0.10 0.31

0.14 0.20 0.14 0.07 0.30 0.22 0.33 0.17 0.17

0.14 0.33

0.33

0.10 0.12

0.16 0.22 0.33 0.21

0.20 0.50 0.14

0.10

0.13

0.16

0.29

0.33

SK210

SK209 SK201

SK204 SK208

SK200

SK199

SK198

SK195 SK196

SK207 SK194

SK182 SK187 SK177 SK189 SK197 SK205 SK202 SK203 SK206

SK191 SK190

SK186

SK193 SK188

SK183 SK184 SK185 SK192

SK179 SK180 SK181

SK178

SK176

SK175

SK174

SK172

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Daphne mucronata Royle

Verbena officinalis L. Fagonia bruguieri DC.

Solanaceae Thymelaeaceae

Verbenaceae Zygophyllaceae Shahbasand Esfand

Kahkenj Termengou Aerial parts Aerial parts

Leaf Aerial parts Leaf

23

Pertussis Nerve tonic Antioxidant, influenza, vermicide, arthritis Fever, nerve tonic Appetizing, vermicide, carminative Liniment Decoction, infusion

Decoction Decoction, dressing

Oral Oral, topical Topical Oral 0.13 0.12

0.11 0.33

SK213 SK214

SK211 SK212

0

Table 2 Diseases based categories and ICF. Use category Digestive system Metabolic (Diabetes and diuretic) Nervous system Skin & hair Cold/flu/fever Respiratory system Flavor/ Appetizing Eye problems Sedative Gynecology Cardiac system Musculoskeletal disorders Blood/ wound Liver problems

Use citation 70 33 16 35 43 9 21 9 26 7 9 25 34 16

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 24

No. of plant used 48 17 12 18 15 6 13 4 11 4 4 12 16 7

Category uses taxon ICF 0.32 0.5 0.27 0.5 0.67 0.37 0.40 0.62 0.60 0.50 0.62 0.54 0.54 0.60

14

Table 3 Comparison of important plants by using indices and species ranking based on each index.

Family

15

Scientific name

RFC

Lamiaceae Zataria multiflora Boiss. 0.4062 Apiaceae Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch. 0.3593 Asteraceae Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Pers. 0.3593 Brassicaceae Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl 0.2812 Cucurbitaceae Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. 0.2812 Boraginaceae Trichodesma stocksii Boiss. 0.2500 Papilionaceae Glycyrrhiza glabra L. 0.2500 Oleaceae Olea aucheri A.Chev. ex Ehrend. 0.2031 Rosaceae Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Mill. 0.2031 Convolvulaceae C. arvensis L. 0.1718 Caryophyllaceae Dianthus orientalis Adams 0.1718 Lamiaceae L.album L. 0.1400 Rosaceae Amygdalus eburnean Spach 0.1400 Lamiaceae Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) Benth. 0.1400 Asteraceae Achillea eriophora DC. 0.1250 Brassicaceae Fortuynia garcinii (Burm.f.) Shuttlew. 0.1250 Myrtaceae Myrtus communis L. 0.1093 Mimosaceae Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce 0.1093 Rhamnaceae Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight & Arn. 0.109 RFC, relative frequency of citation and CI, index of cultural importance.

16 17 18 19 20

Table. 4. Comparative presence-absence matrix for the recorded plant species.

21

25

CI

RFC ranking

CI ranking

0.2187 0.2187 0.3593 0.2656 0.2187 0.1562 0.1562 0.3125 0.3593 0.2656 0.2187 0.2187 0.2187 0.2031 0.1562 0.2031 0.1562 0.1562 0.1562

1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 9

4 4 1 3 4 6 6 2 1 3 4 4 4 5 6 5 6 6 6

Cotoneaster persicus Pojark.* Crataegus azarolus L. Crataegus pontica K.Koch

Cotoneaster kotschyi (C.K.Schneid.) G.Klotz*

Ammi majus L Amygdalus communis L. Amygdalus eburnea Spach Amygdalus orientalis Mill Anagallis arvensis L. Anethum graveolens L. Artemisia aucheri Boiss.* Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. Astragalus eremophilus Boiss. Berberis integerrima Bunge Blepharis persica (Burm.f.) Kuntez Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch. Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand Capparis spinosa L. Cardaria draba (L.) Desv. Centaurea bruguieriana (DC.) Hand. Mazz. Centaurea solstitialis L. Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Mill. Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Pers. Cicer kermanense Bornm. Cichorium pumilum Jacq. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. Clematis ispahanica Boiss. Conium maculatum L Convolvulus arvensis L Coriandrum sativum L.

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

D 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

E 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

F 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

G 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

H 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

I 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

J 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1

K 0 1 0

26

Dorema aucheri Boiss.* Dracocephalum polychaetum Bornm. Ephedra strobilacea Bunge Euphorbia helioscopia L. Fagonia bruguieri DC. Ferula ovina (Boiss.) Boiss.* Ferula szowitsiana DC Ferulago angulate (Schltdl.) Boiss Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fortuynia garcinii (Burm.f.) Shuttlew. Fumaria parviflora Lam. Genista tinctoria L. Gisekia pharnaceoides L. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Haplophyllum tuberculatum Juss. Hertia intermedia (Boiss.) Kuntze Hordeum vulgare L.** Lactuca serriola L. Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) Benth. Lamium album L. Lawsonia inermis L. Leonurus cardiaca L. Levisticum persicum Freyn & Bornm. Lycium depressum Stocks Malva microcarpa Pers. Medicago sativa L.** Mentha longifolia (L.) L. Myrtus communis L. Narcissus tazetta L. Nepeta cataria L. Nonea caspica (Willd.) G.Don

Scientific name Dalbergia sissoo DC. Daphne mucronata Royle Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Dianthus orientalis Adams

C 0 1 0

Alhagi pseudoalhagi (M. Bieb) Desv. ex B. Keller & Shap

B 0 0 0

A 0 1 0

Scientific name Achillea eriophora DC.* Achillea wilhelmsii K.Koch Alhagi persarum Boiss. & Buhse

B 0 0 1

C 0 0 1

D 0 0 1

E 0 0 0

F 0 1 0

G 0 0 0

H 0 0 0

I 0 0 0

J 0 0 0

K 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

A 0 1 1

Samolus valerandi L. Sanguisorba minor Scop.

Salvia mirzayanii Rech.f. & Esfand.*

Cressa cretica L. Olea aucheri A.Chev. ex Ehrend. Onobrychis altissima Grossh. Ononis spinosa L. Onopordon leptolepis DC. Otostegia persica (Burm.f.) Boiss.* Pergularia tomentosa L. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss Pimpinella saxifraga L. Pistacia atlantica Desf. Pistacia khinjuk Stocks Plantago ciliata Desf. Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce Psammogeton stocksii (Boiss.) Nasir Rhamnus persica P. Lawson Ricinus communis L. Rumex vesicarius L. Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C. Johnst. Salvia compressa Vent.* Salvia macrosiphon Boiss.*

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

27

Nonnea persica Boiss. Scabiosa candollei DC. Sesamum indicum L. Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv. Sisymbrium irio L. Sonchus asper (L.) Hill Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Stachys inflata Benth.* Stricta decne. Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip. Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem. Teucrium polium L. Thalictrum minus L. Trichodesma stocksii Boiss. Trifolium pratense L. Verbena officinalis L. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Zataria multiflora Boiss.* Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 & Arn.. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0220 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

A: (Mossadegh et al., 2012); B: (Ghorbani, 2005); C: Nasab and Khosravi (2014); D: (Sadeghi et al., 2014); E: (Miraldi et al., 2001); F: (Sher at al., 2016); G: (Dharmadasa et al., 2016); H: (Baydoun et al., 2015); I: (Ahmad et al., 2015); J: (Eshtiaq et al., 2015). K: (Altundag, & Ozturk, 2011). ** and * are cultivated and endemic plants, respectively. Plants with bold name not quoted in (A-K).

Fig. 1. Location map of Iran showing Kerman province (the study area)

28

Apiaceae Asteraceae Lamiaceae Papilionaceae Rosaceae Brassicaceae Rhamnaceae Boraginaceae Poaceae Anacardiaceae Asclepiadaceae Convolvulaceae Euphorbiaceae Primulaceae Ranunculaceae Solanaceae Acanthaceae Amaryllidaceae Apocynaceae Berberidaceae Bignoniaceae Capparidaceae Caryophyllaceae Cucurbitaceae Dipsacaceae Ephedraceae Fumariaceae Liliaceae Lythraceae Malvaceae Mimosaceae Molluginaceae Myrtaceae Oleaceae Pedalicaceae Plantaginaceae Polygonaceae Rutaceae Thymelaeaceae Verbenaceae Zygophyllaceae

No. of cited plants 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Family name

Fig. 2. Number of cited plants from respective plant family

29

Root 5%

Skin 2%

Latex 5%

Whole plants Bulb 1% 1%

Leaf 26%

Seed 9% Flower 9%

Aerial parts 23%

Fruit 19%

Fig. 3. Percentage of plant parts used

30

%citation/species

30 25 20

Species

15

citation

10 5 0

Fig. 4. Percentage of species and citation in each use category

31

Number of informants

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Name of medicinal plants

Fig. 5. The most commonly referred medicinal plants

32

Use reports

25 20 15 10 5 0

Name of plants

Fig. 6. Species with the highest number of use-reports.

33

Relative frequency of citation

0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0

Name of plants

Fig.7. Medicinal Plants with the highest relative frequency of citation

34

Cultural importance index

0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0

Name of plants

Fig. 8. Plants with the highest cultural importance index.

35

graphical abstract.

36