Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Maden (Elazig-Turkey)

Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Maden (Elazig-Turkey)

Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137 (2011) 469–486 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Ethnopharmacology journal homepage: www.elsevie...

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Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137 (2011) 469–486

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Ethnopharmacology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jethpharm

Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Maden (Elazig-Turkey) Ugur Cakilcioglu a,∗ , Selima Khatun b , Ismail Turkoglu c , Sukru Hayta d a

Elazig Directorate of National Education, Cumhuriyet Mah. Malatya Cad. No: 50, Elazig 23119, Turkey UGC Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Botany, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal, India c Department of Biology, Firat University, Elazig 23100, Turkey d Department of Biology, Bitlis University, Bitlis 13000, Turkey b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history: Received 10 March 2011 Received in revised form 27 May 2011 Accepted 30 May 2011 Available online 15 June 2011 Keywords: Ethnobotany Medicinal plants Traditional medicine Traditional uses FIC UV Maden Turkey

a b s t r a c t Aim of the study: This study aimed to identify wild plants collected for medical purposes by the local people of Maden County, located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, and to establish the uses and local names of these plants. Materials and methods: Field study was carried out over a period of approximately 2 years (2008–2010). During this period, 131 vascular plant specimens were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, local plant names, utilized parts and preparation methods of the plants were investigated and recorded. In the scope of the study, the plant species were collected; herbarium materials were prepared; and the specimens were entitled. The Zazas are of the major ethnic group in the region. In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. Results: A total of 88 medical plants belonging to 41 families were identified in the region. 4 plants out of 88 were recorded to be used for curative purposes for the first time. It was determined that the local names of four different kinds of plants used in Maden were same as the different kinds of plants used in different regions. The most encountered medicinal plant families were Urticaceae (>21%), Rosaceae and Lamiaceae (>17% of use-reports), Asteraceae (>13%), Fabaceae (>8%), Brassicaceae (>7%), Poaceae (>4%); the most common preparations were decoction and infusion. Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata, Rosa canina L. and Urtica dioica L. was the plants most used by the local people. Anthemis wiedemanniana Fisch. and Mey., Bunium paucifolium DC. var. brevipes (Freyn & Sint.) Hedge & Lam., Tchihatchewia isatidea Boiss., Thymus haussknechtii Velen. were found to be the endemic plants used for medical purposes in Maden, Turkey. The medicinal uses of Bunium paucifolium DC. var. brevipes (Freyn & Sint.) Hedge & Lam., Hippophae rhamnoides L. subsp. caucasica Roussi, Gladiolus atroviolaceus Boiss., Ixiolirion tataricum (Pallas) Herbert subsp. montanum (Labill.) Takht. were recorded for the first time. Conclusion: Herbal treatment has become a tradition for the residents of the study region. These plants, which are used in the treatment of many diseases. Comparison of the data obtained in this study from the plants growing in Maden with the experimental data obtained in the previous laboratory studies proved most of the ethnobotanical usages. Literature review showed that curative plants of Maden are used in different parts of the world in the treatment of the same or similar diseases. If a plant is used to treat the same disease in different places across the world then its pharmacologic effect could be accepted. It would be beneficial to conduct pharmacologic studies on such plants. These plants, used in the treatment of many different diseases, are in this region at abundant amounts. Drying enabled local people to use medicinal plants during all seasons of the year. This study identified not only the wild plants collected for medical purposes by local people of Maden County in the Eastern Anatolia Region, but also the uses and local names of these plants. It is tried to generate a source for persons studying in ethnobotany, pharmacology and chemistry sciences by comparing knowledge gained from traditionally used herbs with previous laboratory studies. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction ∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 506 793 66 09; fax: +90 424 22 42795. E-mail addresses: [email protected] (U. Cakilcioglu), shelly selima [email protected] (S. Khatun), [email protected] (I. Turkoglu), [email protected] (S. Hayta).

Turkey has a very extraordinary rich flora and a great knowledge of folkloric medicines, and consequently represents a potential resource for such studies (Hudson et al., 2000). Turkey is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of plant diversity. To date

0378-8741/$ – see front matter. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.05.046

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approximately 10,500 plant species have been identified within her borders and 30% of these are endemic (Davis, 1965–1985; Güner et al., 2000). Endemism is one of the most important indicators to evaluate environmental value of an area. In Turkey, the rate of endemism in plant species is relatively high when compared with other European countries (Ugulu et al., 2008). Medical folklore researches about diseases in which herbal drugs are used colloquially in Turkey, their effects and names have been going on increasingly since Republican period (1923) (Baytop, 1999). East Anatolia has a rich flora, due to its variable climate and high number of ecological zones. This diversity in flora provides a rich source of medicinal plants, which has long been utilized by Anatolian cultures, and hence accounts for the accumulation of remarkable medicinal folk knowledge in the region (Özgökc¸e and Özc¸elik, 2004). Documentation of the indigenous knowledge through ethnobotanical studies is important for the conservation and utilization of biological resources (Muthu et al., 2006). Therefore, establishment of the local names and indigenous uses of plants has significant potential societal benefits (Ba˘gcı, 2000). Majority of the Turkish people living in rural areas traditionally use plants. Generally, they use plants for nourishment and medical purposes. As the case in the other countries of the world, in recent years, the plants – used traditionally for curative purposes – have attracted attention of the researchers (Ekici et al., 1998; Yes¸ilada et al., 1999; Tuzlacı and Tolon, 2000; Dogan et al., 2004; S¸ims¸ek et al., 2004; Uzun et al., 2004; Kargıo˘glu et al., 2008; Kültür, 2008; Yıldırım et al., 2008; Koyuncu et al., 2009; Cansaran and Kaya, 2010; C¸akılcıo˘glu et al., 2010; Tuzlacı et al., 2010; Bulut, 2011; Günes¸ and Özhatay, 2011; Öztürk and Ölc¸ücü, 2011). This study identified not only the wild plants collected for medical purposes by local people of Maden County in the Eastern Anatolia Region, but also the uses and local names of these plants. Also, with a view that chemical researches about herbs used in traditional medicine are valuable in terms of treatment, we tried to create a source for researchers in ethnobotany, pharmacology and chemistry science by comparing the knowledge we gained with ethnobotany and previous laboratory studies in Turkey and world.

2. Materials and methods

Governership of Elazı˘g. Copper deposits in Maden County were explored by Asurians in 2000 B.C. However, it was reported that mankind first explored copper in 7000–8000 B.C. between the Euphrates and the Dicle Valleys, namely in the field of our study (Tarring and Cordero, 1958). Maden County is bounded to the east by Ergani and Dicle, to the west by Sivrice and Elazı˘g, to the south by Ergani, C¸ermik and C¸üngüs¸ and to the north by Palu and Alacakaya. It is situated between longitudes 39–40◦ east and latitudes 38–39◦ north. The county is 1054 m above sea level. The county is located on the slope of Mount Mihrap (1755 m). Mount Keyil (2052 m), Mount Suvar (2046 m), Mount Mihrap (1773 m), Mount Rute (1824 m) and Mount Runik (1807 m) are main highest mountains of the county. Behramaz and Gezin plains are located within the boundaries of the county. Today, the county serves as the center for 37 villages. As the county is situated between Elazı˘g and Diyarbakır, it has a rich culture, influenced by both cities. The Zazas are of the major ethnic group in the region, with small minorities of Turkish and Kurdish groups in the county. The Zazas’ native language is Zazaki, which belongs to the Iranian group of the Indo-European family of languages. The Zazas mostly live in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey (Arakelova, 1999–2000). Turkey’s population is 70.586.256 as of the date of 31th December 2007 (http://www.tuik.gov.tr/18.05.2008). As Turkish Republic recognizes only religious minorities about ethnicity of population, there exists a difficulty to access official and precise datum. People of Turkish origin are approximately 50 million and people of Kurdish and Zazaish origin are about 12 million 600 thousand (Demirtas¸, 2008). Today, the precise population number of people of Zazaish origin is not known (Kuzu, 2010). Zazaish people are a community who honorably preserved their own identity and adopted being neither Turkish nor Kurdish. However a significant part of Zazaish people adopt Kurdish upper identity today (Önder, 1999). A floristic study was initially conducted to determine the flora of our study area (C¸akılcıo˘glu and Civelek, 2011). In this study, 63 families, 284 types and 506 species and subspecies-level of taxons were identified. The number of endemic taxons was 45, with a ratio of 8.9% to the total flora. Study permit was obtained from the Maden County Administration and Gendarmerie for the questionnaire administered to the citizens of the towns and villages affiliated to Maden.

2.1. Study area Study area was located on the east of Anatolian diagonal, in the skirts of South-Eastern Taurus Mountains (C¸akılcıo˘glu et al., 2008), in the Upper Euphrates Region of the Eastern Anatolia Region (S¸engün, 2007). Maden (Fig. 1) belongs to the Iran-Turan Plant Geography Region and falls within the B7 grid square according to the Grid classification system developed by Davis (1965–1985). Maden County has always witnessed continuous interstate conflicts; it changed hands for a short time, as the Dicle Valley where it is located has always been one of the most important routes, and still constitutes a border between Mesopotamia and Anatolia. The district has therefore fallen under domination of many nations and hosted their civilizations and cultures (Yi˘git, 1995). According to the data obtained from the website of Maden County Administration (http://www.maden.bel.tr/, http://www.maden.gov.tr/), The history of Maden County dates back 2000 B.C. In 1450 B.C., the region was dominated by the Mitanni Kingdom AD followed in 30 B.C. to 180 AD by the Roman Empire and in 1077 AD by the Seljukians. In 1515, the region was annexed to the Ottoman Empire. Maden County was governed as a district governorship of Diyarbakır until 1889, as a lieutenant governorship between 1889 and 1924, and as a governorship between 1924 and 1927. After 1927 the county became the District

2.2. Interviews with local people A questionnaire was administered to the local people, through face-to-face interviews (Appendix A). Mean age of the respondents was 62 years (in 32–92 years range). Interviews were made on the busy hours of the common areas (bazaars, tea houses, farms, gardens etc.) visited by the citizens of Maden County and its villages. The respondents of the questionnaire are Turkish citizens. As we think that young people are not suitable for an ethnobotanical study, the questionnaire was only administered to people over 30 who know about medicinal plants. The people who had knowledge of plants were visited at least for two times; one of these visits is particularly paid to their houses. During the interviews, demographic characteristics of the study participants, and local names, utilized parts and preparation methods of the plants were recorded. The people who participated in the study were requested to indicate the wild plants they used. These plants were collected from the work book. Residents that only spoke the native language were interviewed with the help of pharmaceutical technician Menan Artan and the statistical calculations were made by botanist Selima Khatun.

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Fig. 1. Geographical location of the study area.

2.3. Plant materials Field study was carried out over a period of approximately 2 years (2008–2010). During this period, 131 vascular plant specimens were collected. The plants were pressed in the field and prepared for identification. Plants were identified using the standard text, “Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands” (Davis, 1965–1985; Davis et al., 1988) and were compared with the specimens in Fırat University Herbarium (FUH). The names of plant families were listed in alphabetic order. Scientific names of plant species were identified according to the International Plant Name Index (IPNI: http://www.ipni.org). In addition whether the names of the local plants are Turkish or nor was checked from the web page of Turkish Language Association (TLA) (http://tdkterim.gov.tr/bts/). After the taxon names were identified, instances of endemism and hazard categories (Ekim et al., 2000) were specified. We examined whether the plants used in had literature records or not. Primarily the domestic studies and then foreign studies were analyzed.

2.4. Calculations (1) Informant consensus factor (Trotter and Logan, 1986): it was calculated according to the following formula: FIC = Nur − Nt/Nur − 1, where Nur refers to the number of use citations in each category and Nt to the number of the species used. This method is to check homogeneity of the information: FIC values will be low (close to 0 value) if plants are chosen randomly or if informants do not exchange information about their use and values will be high (close to 1 value) if there is a well-defined selection criterion in the community and/or if information is given between the informants (Akerele, 1988; Afifi and Abu-Irmaileh, 2000; Kloutusos et al., 2001; AbuIrmaileh and Afifi, 2003). In other words, the medicinal plants that are presumed to be effective in treating a certain disease have higher FIC values (Teklehaymanot and Giday, 2007). Informant consensus factor was abbreviated as “FIC” and “ICF” in the previous articles (Gazzaneo et al., 2005; Al-Qura’n, 2009; Cakilcioglu and Turkoglu, 2010; Okello et al., 2010; Rokaya et al., 2010; Upadhyay et al., 2011). We chose to use this factor as “FIC”.

(2) The use value (Trotter and Logan, 1986), a quantitative method that demonstrates the relative importance of species known locally, was also calculated according to the following formula: UV = U/N, where UV refers to the use value of a species; U to the number of citations per species; and N to the number of informants. The current use of medicinal plants as conventional and modern drugs shows that they are actively used. There may be some plants which are currently not used for medicinal purposes but which may actually have medicinal effects (Kaya, 2006). Knowing the use value of a kind may be useful in determining the use reliability and pharmacological features of the related plant (Cakilcioglu and Turkoglu, 2010). 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Demographic characteristics of study participants Demographic characteristics of the respondents were determined and recorded through face-to-face interviews. Of the participants who took part in the questionnaire, 15 were between the ages of 32 and 40, 23 were between the ages of 41 and 50, 63 were between the ages of 51 and 60, and 42 were over the age of 61. Of the participants, 31 were residing in the region for less than 10 years; 112 were residing in the region for 11 years and above. A total of 121 were living in villages, 22 were living in Maden County. Of the participants, 98 were male, 45 were female. A total of 82 of the participants were primary school graduate, 22 were secondary school graduate, 29 were high school graduate and 10 were university graduates. 3.2. Interviews with locals and literature review The experiences of the local people were recorded during the interviews. Some of the information obtained were compared to the previous studies. Therefore, the comments made were tried to be confirmed. The researchers were accompanied during the questionnaire study by pharmaceutical technician Menan Artan and class teacher Mustafa C¸ic¸ek. Menan Artan is an inhabitant of Maden County and works at C¸akılcıo˘glu Pharmacy and knows the native language very well. She indicated that drinking daisy (Anthemis wiedemanniana Fisch. and Mey.) infusion three times a day is used to treat urinary tract

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infections. Also, it was reported that Anthemis wiedemanniana Fisch. and Mey, which is an endemic taxon of Turkey, showed antimicrobial, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity (Gilani et al., 2005; Kıvcak et al., 2007; Temraz and El-Tantawy, 2008). Enes Artan, the brother of Menan Artan, is a type-I diabetes patient. Their mother stated that his pre-prandial blood glucose level decreased from 230 mg/dl to 170 mg/dl when he drank 1 glass of absinthium tea (Artemisia vulgaris L.) on an empty stomach. Mustafa C¸ic¸ek is 51 years old and from the Tekevler village of Maden County. He indicated that he dried plenty of mint (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata), rosehip (Rosa canina L.) and thyme (Origanum vulgare L. – Thymus haussknechtii Velen.) plants in summer and kept them in fabric sacks; in winter, he gave dried herbs to his neighbors, which were beneficial in times of cold or flu. The preparations including thyme extract alleviate cough following common cold (Büechi et al., 2005) and decrease the severity and duration of bronchitis symptoms (Gruenwald et al., 2005). It was reported that Rosa canina L. showed anti-diabetic effect and antioxidant activity (Özcan, 2003; Orhan et al., 2009). Birkan Aslan, aged 47 years, specified that 3–5 cups fresh nettle (Urtica dioica L.) tea before meals helped weight loss. The nettle is used in Maden to treat colds and flu, diabetes, rheumatism and for losing weight. Previous studies showed that U. dioica results in analgesic and antimicrobial and antihyperglycemic activity (Bnouham et al., 2003; Gülc¸in et al., 2004). We recorded that residents of Tekevler village used the antitussive and analgesic effect of Hedera helix L. decoction. It was also reported that this herb showed hypoglycemic effect and leishmanicidic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities (Majester-Savornin et al., 1991; Ibrar et al., 2003; Mandade et al., 2010). In Maden, locals roast the matured fruit of Pistacia terebinthus L. and drink it as coffee. This coffee is also used as in urinary inflammations. Essential oils of Pistacia species were proved to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory effects and trigger gastric and duodenal anti-ulcer activity (Al-Said et al., 1986; Magiatis et al., 1999; Giner-Larza et al., 2001; Alma et al., 2004). In Maden and Sivrice (Cakilcioglu and Turkoglu, 2010), a garnish of Rhus coriaria L. is used to give a bitter taste in salads and dishes. It is also used as an antiseptic against minor injuries. R. coriaria extracts were reported to have strong antimicrobial effects and antioxidant activitiy (Dı˘grak et al., 2001; Özcan, 2003). Hanifi C¸ic¸ek, aged 55 years, said he used the decoction of Rheum ribes L., that he picked from the high mountains of Maden, to lower cholesterol and also used the infusion of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna for cardiac disorder. Rheum ribes is traditionally used in province of Kars to reduce cholesterol (Günes¸ and Özhatay, 2011). In a previous study, the antimicrobial activities of Rheum ribes extracts growing in Elazı˘g were analyzed, and were found to inhibit the growth of tested microorganisms at different rates (Kırba˘g and Zengin, 2006). S¸engül Kara from Küc¸ükova village, aged 38 years, indicated that she had spastic colon and gastritis and was in continuous pain. She said tea she made from Teucrium polium L. is very effective for such pains. In addition, she prepares a meal with yoghurt, Malva neglecta Wallr. that grows near the croplands, and M. neglecta, which is good for hemorrhoids. Malva neglecta L. was stated to have antiulcerogenic activity (Gürbüz et al., 2005). Teucrium polium L. extract was shown to induce hypoglycemic, antipyretic and intestinal motility activities (Autore et al., 1984; Yaniv et al., 1987; Gharaibeh et al., 1988; Suleiman et al., 1988). We recorded that Hypericum perforatum L. is used as a sedative in Hazar village. A comparative evaluation in the anxiety tests suggests sedative effects of H. perforatum (Coleta et al., 2001). Moreover, it was reported to have wound healing activity (Öztürk et al., 2007).

The antispasmodic activity of Achillea millefolium L. was in vivo demonstrated by a research on its aqueous-methanol extract (Yaeesh et al., 2006). Previous laboratory studies conducted in Maden and other parts of the world indicated the activity of some medicinal plants, which were also reported by the current study: Achillea wilhemsii C. Koch. (antihypertensive and hypolipidemic) (Asgary et al., 2000), Achillea aleppica DC. subsp. aleppica (anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and moderate antimicrobial activities) (I˙ s¸can et al., 2006), Anthemis tinctoria L. (antibacterial activity) (Akgül and Sa˘glıko˘glu, 2005), Carum carvi L. (antibacterial and hypoglycemic activity) (Lacobellis et al., 2005; Eidi et al., 2010), Reseda lutea L. (antibacterial activity) (Kumarasamy et al., 2002), Hypericum scabrum L. (antibacterial activity) (Kızıl et al., 2004). We encountered Gladiolus atroviolaceus Boiss., Hippophae rhamnoides L. subsp. caucasica Roussi, Ixiolirion tataricum (Pallas) Herbert subsp. montanum (Labill.) Takht. and an endemic Bunium paucifolium DC. var. brevipes (Freyn & Sint.) Hedge & Lam., which we found out during the interviews in the present study to be used for medical purposes, in some of floristic studies conducted in areas close to our area (Tatlı et al., 2002; Yıldız et al., 2004; Altıok and Behc¸et, 2005; Kurs¸at et al., 2005). There is no detailed information within the literature on the medical use of brevipes. These plants, used in the treatment of many different diseases, are in this region at abundant amounts. 3.3. Medicinal plants and associated knowledge The family, scientific name, local name, preparation and utilization methods of the medical plants used in Maden are given in Table 1. Interviews with the local people living in Maden country and villages indicated that 88 plants were used for curative purposes in the study area. The most common families are: Asteraceae (13 plants), Lamiaceae (9 plants), Rosaceae (8 plants), Brassicaceae (5 plants), Fabaceae (4 plants), Poaceae (4 plants), Caryophyllaceae (3 plants), and Polygonaceae (3 plants). In a study close to the study area (C¸akılcıo˘glu and Türko˘glu, 2008), Asteraceae (18 plants), Rosaceae (11 plants), Fabaceae (6 plants), Lamiaceae (8 plants), Polygonaceae (4 plants) families similarly took the first place in our study. In a study carried out in I˙ zmir, it was seen that plants belonging to the families of Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae (Ugulu et al., 2009); Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae in C¸atalca (Genc¸ and Özhatay, 2006); Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae in Merzifon (Ezer and Arısan, 2006) are used commonly by the people of the regions. The medicinal plant families most commonly encountered in the study area were Asteraceae (>16% of use-reports), Urticaceae (>15%), Rosaceae and Lamiaceae (>13%), Fabaceae (>7%), Poaceae (>6%); the most common preparations were decoction and infusion. Local people were recorded to make medicinal preparations by using wild plants for curative purposes via simple methods. The preparation methods included decoction, infusion, removal of latex, roasting of the fruit and brewing of the plant like coffee and crushing of the seeds. Local people used medical plants most frequently for the treatment of diabetes disease (13% of use-reports), colds and flu (10%), diuretic (7%), urinary inflammations (6%), hemorrhoids and constipation (5%), antispasmodic (4%), (Table 1). Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata, Rosa canina L. and Urtica dioica L. was the plants most used by the local people. Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata was used antispasmodic and colds and flu; Rosa canina L. was used antiseptic, colds and flu, and diabetes disease; Urtica dioica L. was used colds and flu, joint pain, diabetes disease, and rheumatism. Bellis perennis L., Fragaria vesca L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rheum ribes L., Thymus haussknechtii Velen. plants were other commonly used plants for curative purposes. Anthemis wiedemanniana Fisch. and Mey., Bunium paucifolium DC. var. brevipes (Freyn & Sint.) Hedge & Lam., Tchihatchewia isatidea Boiss.,

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Table 1 List of wild medicinal plants investigated with their related information. No.

Family

Plant species (voucher specimen)

Vernacular name of Maden

Plant part(s) useda

Preparationsb

Utilization methodc

Use

UV

Recorded literature usesd

1

Amaryllidaceae

Baharc¸ic¸e˘gi

Flo

In

Dpe

Astringent

0.27

Not reported

2

Anacardiaceae

Ixiolirion tataricum (Pallas) Herbert subsp. montanum (Labill.) Takht. UC-12 Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler. UC-138

C¸edene

Mat

Tc

Dot

For urinary inflammations

0.32

Rhus coriaria L. UC-29

Sumak

Mat

In

Doc

Antiseptic, diarrhea

0.20

Bunium paucifolium DC. var. brevipes (Freyn & Sint.) Hedge & Lam. Endemic, lower risk (least concern). UC-61 Carum carvi L. UC-40

Boyvas

Rhi



Raw

For urinary inflammations

0.02

Antiseptic, diuretic, heart disease, heat stroke, stomach ulcers, urinary inflammations (8, 13, 16, 59) Antiseptic, digestive, hemorrhoids, rheumatism (9, 13, 17) Not reported

Keraviye

See

Ts

Raw

Appetizer, digestive

0.12

3

4

Apiaceae

5

6

Araliaceae

Hedera helix L. UC-127

Sarmas¸ık

Lea

De

Doc

Analgesic, antitussive

0.08

7

Asteraceae

Achillea aleppica DC. subsp. aleppica UC-58

Yılan c¸ic¸e˘gi

Flo, Lea

De, In

Dam, Ext

Diuretic, for urinary inflammations

0.17

Achillea millefolium L. UC-8

Herezan

Lea

De

Dot

Antispasmodic

0.44

8

Antidote in food poising, contraceptive skin diseases, digestive, purgative (42, 48) Abortifacient, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antitussive, asthma, astringent, bronchitis, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, dysmenorrhea, emmenagogue, rheumatism, spasmolytic, wounds (26, 28, 50) Antiseptic, appetizer, diuretic, urinary inflammations (13, 37) Antianemic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antispasmodic, appetizer, digestive, diuretic, dysentery, emollient, hemorrhoids, kidney, toothache (13, 38, 42, 48, 50, 56)

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Table 1 (Continued) Plant species (voucher specimen)

Vernacular name of Maden

Plant part(s) useda

Preparationsb

Utilization methodc

Use

UV

Recorded literature usesd

9

Achillea wilhemsii C. Koch. UC-103

Civanperc¸emi

Lea

In

Dam

For hemorrhoids

0.46

10

Anthemis tinctoria L. var. tinctoria UC-17

Sarıpapatya

Flo

De

Doc

Antispasmodic, diabetes disease

0.04

11

Anthemis wiedemanniana Fisch. and Mey. Endemic, lower risk (least concern). UC-21 Artemisia vulgaris L. UC-115

Papatya

Flo

De, In

Dat

Antispasmodic, sedative, for urinary inflammations

0.37

Digestive, for hemorrhoids, high cholesterol (13, 37) Cancer, diabetes disease, hepatic diseases, icterus, indigestion, throat diseases (13, 28, 41) Antiseptic, antispasmodic (14)

Pelinotu

Aer

De

Dam, Ext

Antiseptic, diabetes, roborant

0.18

No.

12

Family

Antiinflammatory, appetizer, emmenagogue, intestinal worms, skin diseases (22, 42, 50) Carminative, diarrhea, diuretic, purgative (13, 35) Vasodilators (13)

13

Bellis perennis L. UC-11

Papatya

Flo

De

Dot

Antispasmodic, sedative

0.21

14

Crepis foetida L. subsp. rhoeadifolia (Bieb.) Celak. UC-124 Gundelia tournefortii L. var. tournefortii UC-81 Onopordum tauricum Willd. UC-101 Taraxacum officinale Web. UC-48

Koyun otu

Aer

In

Dte

Vasodilators

0.09

Kenger

Lat

lr

Ape

Diarrhea

0.16

Diarrhea, mumps, vitiligo (13, 35, 46)

Es¸ek dikeni

Fru

De

Doc

Demulcent

0.36

Cholagogue (13)

Hindiba

Flo, Lea

De

Dam, Ext

Arthralgia, diuretic

0.31

Yemlik

Aer



Raw

Intestinal colic

0.24

Analgesic, anorexia, appetizer, astringent, bitter, depurative, digestive and urinary disorders, diuretic (48, 50) Treat worms (15)

Öksürük otu

Flo

De, In

Dam

Antitussive

0.10

15

16

17

18

19

Tragopogon pterocarpus DC. UC-140 Tussilago farfara L. UC-24

Antiinflammatory, antitussive, coughs, emollient, expectorant, pulmonary disorders (13, 33, 50, 56)

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Table 1 (Continued) No.

Family

Plant species (voucher specimen)

Vernacular name of Maden

Plant part(s) useda

Preparationsb

Utilization methodc

Use

UV

Recorded literature usesd

20

Berberidaceae

Berberis vulgaris L. UC-51

Sarı c¸alı

Fru



Raw

Digestive

0.14

21

Boraginaceae

Anchusa azurea Mill. var. azurea UC-33

Guruz

Flo, Lea

In

Dte

In stomach-ache

0.11

Echium italicum L. UC-47

Engerek

Aer

De

Dam

Diuretic

0.18

Brassica oleracea L. UC-37 Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. UC-71 Raphanus raphanistrum L. UC-97

Karalahana

Lea

De

Dgo

For urinary inflammations

0.23

C¸obanc¸antası

Aer

In

Dte

Astringent

0.07

Yabani turp

Lea, Roo



Raw

Appetizer

0.04

Antiinflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, diarrhea, digestive, disorders, diuretic, dysentery, expectorant, hemorrhoids, heart disease, internal wounds, intestinal colic, jaundice, stomachic (8, 22, 50) Diaphoretic, diuretic, stomach-ache, rheumatism, wound healing (13, 34, 38) Demulcent, diaphoretic (13) Diuretic, rheumatism (26, 43) Astringent, diabetes, emmenagogue (5, 13, 52) Appetizer, liver protecting, muscular pains (13, 33) Cough, eczema, rheumatism, stomach-ache (20, 31, 57) Wound (52)

22

23

Brassicaceae

24

25

26

Sinapis arvensis L. UC-59

Hardal

Who

De

Ext

Rheumatism

0.21

27

Tchihatchewia isatidea Boiss. Endemic, vulnerable. UC-92 Sambucus nigra L. UC-62

Gelin c¸ic¸e˘gi

Flo, Roo

De

Dpe

Antitussive

0.07

Mürver

Flo

De, In

Dtt

Throat diseases

0.21

Agrostemma githago L. UC-82

Katır c¸ic¸e˘gi

Roo, See

De, In

Doc

Expectorant

0.12

Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke var. vulgaris UC-94 Vaccaria pyramidata Medik. var. grandiflora (Fisch. ex DC.) Cullen UC-54 Convolvulus arvensis L. UC-26

Cıvrıncık

Aer

De, In

Doc

For urinary inflammations

0.08

Sabunotu

Aer

De, In

Ext

Rheumatism

0.32

Diaphoretic (13)

Tarla sarmas¸ı˘gı

Roo



Raw

0.13

Ardıc¸

See

De

Dam

In stomach-ache, for constipation Kidney stones

Cathartic, for constipation, laxative (13, 39) Antitussive, diuretic, pulmonary, rheumatism (28, 38)

28

Caprifoliaceae

29

Caryophyllaceae

30

31

32

Convolvulaceae

33

Cupressaceae

Juniperus excelsa Bieb. UC-86

0.09

Asthma, bronchitis, expectorant (7, 14, 52) Expectorant, for constipation (13) Urinary inflammations (13)

476

U. Cakilcioglu et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137 (2011) 469–486

Table 1 (Continued) No.

Family

Plant species (voucher specimen)

Vernacular name of Maden

Plant part(s) useda

Preparationsb

Utilization methodc

Use

UV

Recorded literature usesd

34

Dipsacaceae

Uyuz otu

Who

De

Ext

Used in scabies

0.23

35

Elaeagnaceae

Pis¸ot

Fru



Raw

Antitussive, aphrodisiac

0.39

Diuretic, wound healing (57) Not reported

36

Equisetaceae

Scabiosa argentea L. UC-137 Hippophae rhamnoides L. subsp. caucasica Roussi UC-96 Equisetum arvense L. UC-65

At kuyru˘gu

Who

De

Dam

Kidney stones

0.06

37

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia macroclada Boiss. UC-114

Sütle˘gen

Lat

lr

Lex

Curing warts, for constipation

0.30

38

Fabaceae

Astragalus gummifer Lab. UC-91 Melilotus officinalis (L.) Desr. UC-52

Geven

Lat

lr

Lae

Throat diseases

0.16

Yonca

Aer

De

Dam

Kidney stones

0.27

40

Trifolium pratense L. var. pratense UC-87

Yonca

Flo, Lea

De, In

Dte

Astma

0.12

41

Trifolium repens L. UC-99

Yonca

Aer, Flo

De

Dte

Demulcent

0.28

Quercus cerris L. var. cerris UC-83 Fumaria asepala Boiss. UC-41 Fumaria officinalis L. UC-130

Mes¸e

Bra

De

Dte

Diarrhea

0.20

S¸ahtere

Flo, Lea

De

Com

0.08

S¸ahtere

Flo

In

Dtt

For hemorrhoids In stomach-ache

39

42

Fagaceae

43

Fumariaceae

44

0.02

Antiseptic, depurative, diuretic, renal disorders (43, 50) Constipation, curing warts, eczema, for arthritis, fungal infection, wound (13, 37, 38, 52, 58) Throat diseases (39) Antiinflammatory, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, arthritis, astringent, depurative, diuretic, gut, hepatitis, hepatoprotective, joint pain, leucorrhoea, renal lithiasis, uterine disorders, wound healing (13, 38, 50, 56) Abdominal colics, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antitussive, asthma, cough, diarrhea, emollient, expectorant, rheumatism (13, 50) Antiseptic, antispastic, colics, febrifuge, flu, leucorrhoea (50) Hemorrhoids (53) Allergy, eczema (57) Antiarrhythmic, antiinflammatory, cardiac, depurative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, purgative (50)

U. Cakilcioglu et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137 (2011) 469–486

477

Table 1 (Continued) No.

Family

Plant species (voucher specimen)

Vernacular name of Maden

Plant part(s) useda

Preparationsb

Utilization methodc

Use

UV

Recorded literature usesd

45

Geraniaceae

Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Hérit. subsp. cicutarium UC-64

C¸obani˘gnesi

Flo, Lea

In

Dat

For constipation

0.17

46

Hypericaceae

Hypericum perforatum L. UC-27

Kantaron

Flo

In

Dpe

Sedative

0.32

Hypericum scabrum L. UC-122 Gladiolus atroviolaceus Boiss. UC-36 Iris sari Schott ex Baker UC-132 Juglans regia L. UC-56

Mayasıl otu

Who

In

Com

For hemorrhoids

0.37

Bahar C¸ic¸e˘gi

Flo

In

Dpe

Colds and flu

0.18

Antiinflammatory, diuretic, for constipation, haemostatic, urinary and genital disorders (13, 50) Abrasion, anthelmintic, antiinflammatory, astringent, bronchitis, burn, demulcent, depurative, depression, diarrhea, diuretic, dyskinesia, enterocolitis, gastric ulcer, genitourinary disorders, hemorrhoids, hepatitis, neurosis, rheumatism, sedative, wound healing (10, 13, 42, 50) Hemorrhoids, purgative (13, 37) Not reported

Nergıze

Aer

In

Ext

Antipyretic

0.23

Cold (52)

C¸eviz, goz

Fru



Raw

High cholesterol

0.19

O˘gulotu

Flo

De

Dpe

Sedative

0.20

Antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, demulcent, depurative, diarrhea, eczema, fungal infection, headache, rheumatism, uterine disorders, skin disorders (26, 28, 38, 48, 50, 52) Allergy, anxiety, asthma, disinfectant, epilepsy, gastrit, muscular pains, rheumatism, sedative, tranquillizer (10, 13, 17, 29, 33, 38, 52)

47

48

Iridaceae

49

50

Juglandaceae

51

Lamiaceae

Melissa officinalis L. UC-30

478

U. Cakilcioglu et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137 (2011) 469–486

Table 1 (Continued) Plant species (voucher specimen)

Vernacular name of Maden

Plant part(s) useda

Preparationsb

Utilization methodc

Use

UV

Recorded literature usesd

52

Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley var. typhoides UC-70

Yarpuz

Lea

De

Dat

Antispasmodic

0.30

53

Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata UC-3

Nane, pune

Aer, Lea

De

Dam

Antispasmodic, colds and flu

0.56

54

Origanum vulgare L. UC-135

Kekik

Lea

De

Dte

Colds and flu, for urinary inflammations

0.38

55

Salvia officinalis L. UC-113

Adac¸ayı

Flo, Lea

De, In

Doc

Colds and flu

0.12

56

Satureja hortensis L. UC-32

Kekik

Lea

In

Dgo

0.27

57

Teucrium polium L. UC-85

Ürper

Flo, Lea

De

Doc

Antispasmodic, colds and flu, for urinary inflammations Diabetes disease, in stomach-ache

Abdominal pain, asthma, cough, digestive, hemorrhoids, rheumatism, sedative, wounds (26, 29, 38, 52, 56) Colds and flu, diuretic, digestive, gastralgia, hemorrhoids, roborant, stomach-ache (13, 26, 32, 42) Epilepsy, cold and flu, digestive, diuretic, for colic, uterine disorders (38, 45, 48, 52) Alzheimer, cough, digestive, flu, tonsillitis (4, 45) Stomach-ache (54)

58

Thymus haussknechtii Velen. Endemic, lower risk (near threatened). UC-142 Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen. var. kotschyanus. UC-73 Eremurus spectabilis Bieb. UC-57 Viscum album L. UC-133

Da˘g keki˘gi, kekik

Lea

De

Dam

Colds and flu, high cholesterol

0.41

Kekik

Lea

De

Dpe

Colds and flu, high cholesterol

0.23

Abdominal ailments, colds, diabetes (58)

Gullik

Roo

De

Doc

Rheumatism

0.09

C¸ekem

Lea

De

Dam

Cardiac disorder

0.14

Gastrointestinal, rheumatism (38) Antihypertensive, atherosclerosis, cardiotonic, convulsive cough, coronary vasodilator, cytostatic, excitation, hypertension, sedative (50)

No.

Family

59

60

Liliaceae

61

Loranthaceae

0.21

Antipyretic, cold, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, liver disorders, inflammation, stomachic, wounds (5, 13, 21 38, 49, 52) High cholesterol, respiratory tract problem (11, 13)

U. Cakilcioglu et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137 (2011) 469–486

479

Table 1 (Continued) No.

Family

Plant species (voucher specimen)

Vernacular name of Maden

Plant part(s) useda

Preparationsb

Utilization methodc

Use

UV

Recorded literature usesd

62

Malvaceae

Malva neglecta Wallr. UC-121

Ebegümeci

Aer

De

Dat

For urinary inflammations, hemorrhoids

0.52

63

Moraceae

Morus alba L. UC-34

Dut

Fru

De

Doc

Hypoglycaemic, for constipation

0.10

64

Papaveraceae

Papaver rhoeas L. UC-23

Gelincik

Aer, Flo

In

Doc

Antitussive, sedative

0.37

65

Pinaceae

C¸am

Bra, Lea, Res

In

Ext, Inh

Plantaginaceae

Ba˘g yapra˘gı

Lea

De

Ext

Colds and flu, psoriasis For constipation, hemorrhoids

0.12

66

Pinus nigra Arn. UC-2 Plantago major L. subsp. major UC-19

67

Poaceae

Agropyron repens (L.) P. Beauv. UC-110

Ayrıkotu

Aer, Rhi

De

Doc

Diuretic, kidney stones

0.04

Avena sativa L. UC-45

Yulaf

See

De

Doc

Diuretic

0.26

Abscesses, antiinflammatory, antitussive, colds and flu, diuretic, for urinary inflammations, hemorrhoids, tranquillizer (13, 19, 23, 28, 35, 38, 42) Antidiabetic, antiseptic, astringent, cicatrising, constipation, diabetes, diarrhea, digestive ulcer, gastritis, hypoglycaemiant, insect repellent, intestinal worms, oil for burn, purgative, respiratory infections, vermifuge (26, 28, 48, 50) Antidysenteric, antiinflammatory, antispasmodic, antitussive, cough, diabetes, emollient, expectorant, insomnia, sedative, soporific (5, 10, 13, 28, 38, 50, 56) Corn, goiter, warts (19, 28) Abscess, antitussive, bronchitis, common cold, constipation, diarrhea, diuretic, dysentery, hypertension, kidney stones, toothache, wound (1, 19, 27, 36, 38, 47, 50, 51, 52) Antimicrobial, antilithiasis, depurative, diabetes, digestive, diuretic, emollient, respiratory disorders (13, 50) Abscesses, diuretic, sedative (2, 13)

68

0.31

480

U. Cakilcioglu et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137 (2011) 469–486

Table 1 (Continued) Plant species (voucher specimen)

Vernacular name of Maden

Plant part(s) useda

Preparationsb

Utilization methodc

Use

UV

Recorded literature usesd

69

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. UC-111

Ayrık

Rhi

De

Doc

Kidney stones

0.08

70

Hordeum vulgare L. UC-14

Arpa, cev

See

De

Dgo

Kidney stones

0.12

Polygonum aviculare L. UC-120

Kus¸ekme˘gi

Lea

De

Dam

In stomach-ache

0.28

72

Rheum ribes L. UC-49

Is¸kın

Aer

De

Dat, Raw

Digestive, diuretic, for constipation, high cholesterol, kidney stones

0.20

73

Rumex acetosella L. UC-35

Kuzukula˘gı

Lea

De

Doc, Raw

Diabetes disease, diuretic

0.38

Ranunculus constantinopolitanus (DC.) d’Urv. UC-38 Reseda lutea L. var. lutea UC-63

Dü˘gün c¸ic¸e˘gi

Flo

In

Com

Rheumatism

0.18

Asthma, depurative, diarrhea, diuretic, foot edema, kidney (6, 27, 28, 38, 39, 42) Cathartic, for urinary inflammations, fungal infections, purgative, rheumatism (13, 18, 48) Antiinflammatory, astringent, cardiovascular disorders, cicatrising, depurative, diarrhea, diuretic, gastric ulcer, gut, rheumatism (50) Antidiabetic, antiemetic, diabetes, digestive, for urinary inflammations, hemorrhoids, purgative, stomach-ache, ulcer (13, 25, 38, 52) Analgesic, astringent, depurative, diarrhea, diuretic, hemorrhoids paralysis, vitaminizing (13, 23, 50) Rheumatism (19)

Es¸ek turpu

Roo



Raw

Diuretic

0.07

No.

71

Family

Polygonaceae

74

Ranunculaceae

75

Resedaceae

76

Rhamnaceae

Paliurus spina-christi Miller UC-106

Dalıke

Fru

De

Doc

Diuretic, kidney stones

0.04

77

Rosaceae

Amygdalus communis L. UC-1

Badem

See

Ts

Raw

High cholesterol

0.27

Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Miller var. mahaleb UC-72

Mahlep

Fru

In

Doc

Diabetes disease

0.15

78

Allergy, digestive, diuretic, eczema, tranquillizer (13, 17) Abdominal pain, diabetes, diuretic, for constipation, kidney stones (13, 54) For urinary inflammations, high cholesterol (12, 13) Antidiabetic, for urinary inflammations, throat diseases (13, 37)

U. Cakilcioglu et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137 (2011) 469–486

481

Table 1 (Continued) Plant species (voucher specimen)

Vernacular name of Maden

Plant part(s) useda

Preparationsb

Utilization methodc

Use

UV

Recorded literature usesd

79

Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna UC-95

Alıc¸

Flo, Mat

In

Dat

Cardiac disorder, vasodilators

0.20

80

Cotoneaster nummularia Fisch. & Mey. UC-84 Fragaria vesca L. UC-117

Mus¸mula

Mat

In

Dam

Expectorant

0.24

Analgesic, cardiac nervous disorders, cicatrising, respiratory, sedative, sole wounds (28, 50) Expectorant (13, 14)

C¸ilek

Fru



Raw

Diuretic, for constipation

0.43

No.

Family

81

82

Rubus sanctus Schreber UC-134

Bö˘gürtlen

Fru, Lea

In

Dat, Ext

Diuretic, for constipation

0.32

83

Rosa canina L. UC-42

Kus¸burnu

Mat

De, In

Doc, Ext

Antiseptic, colds and flu, diabetes disease

0.55

84

Pyrus communis L. subsp. caucasica (Fed.) Browicz UC-50 Populus tremula L. UC-5 Verbascum diversifolium Hochst. Endemic, vulnerable. UC-105

Ahlat, miroy

Mat



Raw

Diabetes disease, for constipation

0.27

Kavak

Bra

De

Doc

Diarrhea

0.16

Sı˘gırkuyru˘gu

Flo, Lea

In

Inh

Antitussive

0.28

85

Salicaceae

86

Scrophulariaceae

Analgesic, antiseptic, astringent, depurative, diarrhea, diuretic, enteritis, gastric and menstrual pains, gut, urinary disorders (50) Acne, astringent, diabetes mellitus, diuretic, hemorrhoids, stomach-ache, wounds (13, 18, 26, 28) Anaemia, anorexia, aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antiseptic, cardiac disorders, colds and flu, colitis, convulsive, depurative, diabetes, diarrhea, diuretic, emollient, gastritis, ulcers, vitaminizing (2, 3, 13, 16, 19, 38, 42, 50) Depurative, diabetes, mild laxative (13, 44) Analgesic, diabetes (20) Antiinflammatory, antitussive, bronchitis, cicatrising, emollient, expectorant, laryngitis, scars, wounds (50)

482

U. Cakilcioglu et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137 (2011) 469–486

Table 1 (Continued) No.

Family

Plant species (voucher specimen)

Vernacular name of Maden

Plant part(s) useda

Preparationsb

Utilization methodc

Use

UV

Recorded literature usesd

87

Urticaceae

Urtica dioica L. UC-25

Isırgan

Lea, See

De, In

Dot, Dam

Colds and flu, diabetes disease, for losing weight, rheumatism

0.59

88

Zygophyllaceae

Tribulus terrestris L. UC-16

Pıtırak

Fru

De

Doc

Diarrhea

0.05

Anthrax, antianaemia, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antirheumatic, antiseptic, cancers, colds and flu, diuretic, digestive, hypertension, liver diseases (3, 19, 24, 26, 28, 30, 38, 42, 50, 52, 60) Astringent, burns, cardiotonic, cicatrising, diarrhea, diuretic, gout, hemorrhoids, kidney stones, scars, stomatitis, wounds (27, 39, 40, 50, 55)

a Plant part(s) used: Aer, aerial parts; Bra, branches; Flo, flowers; Fru, fruits; Lat, latex; Lea, leaves; Mat, matured fruits; Res, resin; Rhi, rhizomes; Roo, roots; See, seeds; Who, whole plant. b Preparations: De, decoction; In, infusion; lr, latex is removed; Tc, the fruit is roasted and brewed like coffee; Ts, the seeds are crushed. c Utilization method: Ape, a piece of latex is eaten; Com, compress; Dam, drink a tot after meals; Dat, drink one tea glass of the plant after the meal; Dgo, drink one tea glass of the plant before the meal; Doc, drink one cup of the plant on an empty stomach in the morning; Dot, drink one teacup after meals; Dpe, drink one cup of the plant in the evening; Dte, drink one tea glass of the plant two times a day; Dtt, drink one tea glass of the plant three times a day; Ext, externally; Inh, inhalation; Lae, latex is sucked; Lex, latex is used externally; Raw, the plant is eaten raw. d Recorded literature uses: (1) Afzal et al. (2009); (2) Akc¸ic¸ek and Vural (2003); (3) Akgül (2008); (4) Akhondzadeh et al. (2003); (5) Al-Qura’n (2009); (6) Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu (2011); (7) Bulut (2011); (8) Cansaran and Kaya (2010); (9) Cansaran et al. (2007); (10) Cornara et al. (2009); (11) C¸akılcıo˘glu and Türko˘glu (2007); (12) C¸akılcıo˘glu and Türko˘glu (2009); (13) C¸akılcıo˘glu and Türko˘glu (2008); (14) C¸akılcıo˘glu et al. (2007); (15) C¸akılcıo˘glu et al. (2010); (16) Duran et al. (2001); (17) Everest and Öztürk (2005); (18) Ezer and Arısan (2006); (19) Ezer and Avcı (2004); (20) Genc¸ and Özhatay (2006); (21) Ghorbani (2005); (22) Hamayun et al. (2006); (23) Kahraman and Tatlı (2004); (24) Keskin (2008); (25) Kırba˘g and Zengin (2006); (26) Koca and Yıldırımlı (2010); (27) Koc¸yi˘git and Özhatay (2006); (28) Koyuncu et al. (2009); (29) Koyuncu et al. (2010); (30) Kültür (2007); (31) Lardos (2006); (32) Leporatti and Ghedira (2009); (33) Leporatti and Impieri (2007); (34) Mart and Türkmen (2008); (35) Özgökc¸e and Özc¸elik (2004); (36) Özkan and Koyuncu (2005); (37) Öztürk and Dinc¸ (2005); (38) Öztürk and Ölc¸ücü (2011); (39) Panhwar and Abro (2007); (40) Parveen et al. (2007); (41) Petkeviciute et al. (2010); (42) Pieroni and Giusti (2009); (43) Pieroni and Gray (2008); (44) Pieroni and Quave (2005); (45) Pieroni et al. (2005); (46) Sarper et al. (2009); (47) Sezik et al. (1997); (48) Shah and Khan (2006); (49) Shakhanbeh and Atrouse (2001); (50) Tita et al. (2009); (51) Toksoy et al. (2010); (52) Tuzlacı and Do˘gan (2010); (53) Tuzlacı and Erol (1999); (54) Tuzlacı et al. (2010); (55) Uysal et al. (2010); (56) Vitalini et al. (2009); (57) Yapıcı et al. (2009); (58) Yes¸il and Akalın (2009); (59) Yes¸ilada et al. (1995); (60) Ziyyat et al. (1997).

Thymus haussknechtii Velen. were found to be the endemic plants used for medical purposes in Maden, Turkey. It was found that local people living in Maden and in its villages used 30% of these wild plants after drying. Drying enabled local people to use medicinal plants during all seasons of the year. Local people were recorded to use the aerial parts, branches, flowers, fruits, latex, leaves, matured fruits, resin, rhizomes, roots, seeds, stems, and branches of the plants. 84 plants were found to be used for medical purposes before in the literature analysis of the plants used in our study, while 4 plants were found to have no literature records. The medicinal uses of Bunium paucifolium DC. var. brevipes (Freyn & Sint.) Hedge & Lam., Hippophae rhamnoides L. subsp. caucasica Roussi, Gladiolus atroviolaceus Boiss., Ixiolirion tataricum (Pallas) Herbert subsp. montanum (Labill.) Takht. that we found they were used in our study area were recorded for the first time. 3.4. Data analysis Literate people in the study area were found to be less knowledgeable on the use of medicinal plants as compared to illiterate ones due to the higher level exposure of the former to

modernization. Similar results were reported in the studies conducted in Ethiopia (Gedif and Hahn, 2003; Giday et al., 2009), Thailand (Wester and Yongvanit, 1995), and Turkey (Cakilcioglu and Turkoglu, 2010). According to the calculation made on the basis of the use-value UV (Trotter and Logan, 1986); Urtica dioica L. (0, 59), Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata (0.56), Rosa canina L. (0.55), Malva neglecta Wallr. (0.52), Achillea wilhemsii C. Koch. (0.46), Achillea millefolium L. (0.44), Fragaria vesca L. (0.43), Thymus haussknechtii Velen (0.41), and Hippophae rhamnoides L. subsp. caucasica Roussi (0.39) were reported to be of the highest use value (Table 1). As calculated by the use-value UV (Trotter and Logan, 1986), Vitex agnus-castus L. (0.62), Viscum cruciatum Sieb et Boiss. (0.56), Urginea maritima Barker (0.55), Thuja occidentalis L. (0.52), Styrax officinale L. (0.49) and Laurus nobilis L. (0.46) were reported to be of the highest use value. As calculated by the usevalue UV (Cakilcioglu and Turkoglu, 2010), Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata (0.62), Malva neglecta Wallr. (0.55), Urtica dioica L. (0.51), Astragalus gummifer Lab. (0.48), Gundelia tournefortii L. var. tournefortii (0.44), Hypericum perforatum L. (0.43) and Thymus haussknechtii Velen (0.43) were reported to be of the highest use value.

U. Cakilcioglu et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137 (2011) 469–486 Table 2 FIC values of category of ailments. No. Ailments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Rheumatism Cardiovascular disorders Hemorrhoids Diabetes Respiratory and throat diseases Gastrointestinal diseases Kidney stones and urinary diseases Nervous and sleep diseases Constipation Skin diseases

Use citations 7 12 6 11 31 19 33 6 10 9

All use citations (%)

FIC

4.9 8.3 4.2 7.6 21.5 13.2 22.9 4.2 6.9 6.3

0.58 0.51 0.48 0.40 0.36 0.31 0.29 0.28 0.26 0.25

The reported ailments were grouped into 10 categories based on the information gathered from the interviewees. Table 2 indicates FIC values of category of ailment. Rheumatism had the highest FIC score (0.58). Eremurus spectabilis Bieb., Ranunculus constantinopolitanus (DC.) d’Urv., Sinapis arvensis L., Urtica dioica L., Vaccaria pyramidata Medik. var. grandiflora (Fisch. ex DC.) Cullen were reported to be among the plant remedies indicated for this use. Cardiovascular disorders was recorded to have the second highest FIC value (0.51), hemorrhoids recorded by its all images like the third group (FIC was 0.48), while the fourth level of FIC values (0.40) was recorded diabetes category. Respiratory and throat diseases, were ranked as the fifth ailment with FIC value of 0.36. An FIC value of 0.31 was recorded gastrointestinal diseases. The last citations of this ranking were reported for plants used to treat kidney stones and urinary diseases, nervous and sleep diseases, constipation and skin diseases with FIC value of 0.29, 0.28, 0.26 and 0.25, respectively (Table 2). There is no study conducted by people from our region, in which the FIC value is calculated. When the articles in which the informant consensus factor (ICF or FIC) is calculated are examined, it is seen that, for example in the study by Mesfin et al., the category: malaria, fever and headache have the highest 0.82 FIC followed by ascariasis and diarrhea, and intestinal parasite and stomach-ache each with 0.78 FIC (Mesfin et al., 2009). In the study by Akerreta et al., the FIC value was found to be 0.65 (Akerreta et al., 2007). It was stated that this value was high; however, it is lower than the values obtained in the studies conducted in various areas of the Iberian Peninsula: 0.85 and 0.91 for a Portuguese and a Catalan region respectively (Bonet and Valles, 2003; Camejo-Rodrigues et al., 2003). When looked at these studies, it is seen that the FIC values are high. In other words, the FIC value is close to 1. The medicinal plants that are presumed to be effective in treating a certain disease have higher FIC values (Teklehaymanot and Giday, 2007). Al-Qura’n examined the diseases in 10 categories. In these categories, the highest ICF value was reported to be 0.55 while the lowest ICF value was reported to be 0.25 (Al-Qura’n, 2009). In the present study, it was found that the FIC values range between 0.56 and 0.26. ICF values obtained for the reported categories indicate the degree of knowledge shared regarding the use of medicinal herbs in the treatment of the ailment. These categories recorded a lower ICF, which could be attributed to the civilization trend of the society (Al-Qura’n, 2009).

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plant names were adopted from Persian (alıc¸, badem, civan, c¸oban, dut, kenger, mayasıl, mes¸e, mürver, s¸ahtere, and turp), from Arabic (hardal, hindiba, kimyon, lahana, mahlep, nane, sabun, and sumak) and from Greek (ahlat, kantaron, mus¸mula, papatya, pelin, and yulaf). The most of the plant names were found to be derived from Turkish. The plants used in Maden are known by the same or different local names in various parts of Anatolia. For example, the local names of Melissa officinalis, Tussilago farfara, Rosa canina in Yalova, Adana and Mersin, Rhus coriaria, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Sinapis arvensis, Equisetum arvense, Cynodon dactylon, Crataegus monogyna in Adana and Mersin, Gundelia tournefortii, Malva neglecta, Urtica dioica in Haymana, Rhus coriaria, Rumex acetosella in Bodrum, and Malva neglecta in Gediz (Yücel and Tülüko˘glu, 2000; Ertu˘g, 2004; Everest and Öztürk, 2005; Koc¸yi˘git and Özhatay, 2006; Sarper et al., 2009) are the same with the local names used in Maden. The local names used for Achillea millefolium (ayvadana) in Gediz, Anchusa azurea (dindingana) in Bahc¸e and Hasanbeyli, Anchusa azurea (yılan dili) in Gölbas¸ı, Anchusa azurea (gıriz), Euphorbia macroclada (sütlü) Plantago major (damarotu) and Silene vulgaris (gıvıs¸gan) in S¸emdinli, Capsella bursa-pastoris (dö˘gmec¸) and Euphorbia macroclada (sütlüce) in C¸ıldır, Hyperricum perforatum (kantaron) in Tekirda˘g, Mentha longifolia (es¸eknanesi) in Yalova, Paliurus spina-christi (karac¸alı), Plantago major (tu˘grak) and Teucrium polium (paryavs¸anı, hameri) in Gaziantep, Paliurus spina-christi (draga dikeni, karac¸alı) in Silivri, Teucrium polium (harmanotu, mayasılotu) and Mentha longifolia (it nanesi, dere nanesi) in Osmaneli, Pistacia terebinthus (menengic¸, c¸ıtlık) in Yanıktepe, Rumex acetosella (es¸ek kula˘gı) in Madra Mountain, Silene vulgaris (kıyıs¸ak) and Capsella bursa-pastoris (da˘g marulu) in Bodrum, Achillea wilhemsii (kedi tırna˘gı), Euphorbia macroclada (sütotu) in Haymana (Yücel and Tülüko˘glu, 2000; Abay and Kılıc¸, 2001; S¸ims¸ek et al., 2001; Ertu˘g, 2004; Malyer et al., 2004; Koc¸yi˘git and Özhatay, 2006; Akgül, 2008; Mart and Türkmen, 2008; Satıl et al., 2008; Sarper et al., 2009; S¸ı˘gva and Sec¸men, 2009; Koyuncu et al., 2010; Bulut, 2011; Öztürk and Ölc¸ücü, 2011) are different from the local names used in Maden. Arat Mountain and Erzurum are close to our field of study. However, names of some local plants used in these areas are different. These are Cotoneaster nummularia (koyungözü, tavs¸anelması), Sinapis arvensis (mamanik) in Erzurum (Özgen et al., 2004), Anchusa azurea (guriz, da˘g darısı), Capsella bursa-pastoris (c¸ic¸ege gevr), Crepis foetida (s¸irok), Euphorbia macroclada (has¸ule deva) in Arat Mountain (Akan et al., 2008). It was seen that the local names of some plants used in Maden were the same as the local names of different plants used in other regions were the same. Here it can be thought that the local names of the plants are the same as they are similar to one another. While Malva sylvestris L. plants is known as “ebegümeci” in Bodrum, Adana and Mersin (Ertu˘g, 2004; Everest and Öztürk, 2005), Malva neglecta Wallr. plant is known as “ebegümeci” in Maden. While Scorzonera semicana DC. is known as “yemlik” in Sivrice (Cakilcioglu and Turkoglu, 2010), Tragopogon pterocarpus DC. is known as “yemlik” in Maden. Crataegus szovitsii Pojark. is known as “alıc¸” in Haymana (Sarper et al., 2009) and Crataegus orientalis Pallas ex Bieb. var. orientalis is known as “alıc¸” in Sivrice (Cakilcioglu and Turkoglu, 2010). Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna is known as “alıc¸” in Maden. While Gundelia tournefortii L. var. armata Freyn et Sint. is known as “kenger” in Arat Mountain (Akan et al., 2008), Gundelia tournefortii L. var. tournefortii is known as “kenger” in Maden.

3.5. Review of local plant names As a result of the analysis in the Turkish Language Association (TLA) web page (http://tdkterim.gov.tr/bts/), the plant names used in Maden were found to be Turkish. As a result of the examination of the plant names in TLA’s web page, it was seen that some

4. Conclusions In the research area, local people were found to use 88 plants from 41 families for curative purposes. These plants, which are used

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in the treatment of many diseases. By drying infusions or decoctions of these plants, local people use them during the whole seasons of the year. Elderly population is in majority in our field of study. Elder people have more information about herbs compared to the younger ones. Herbal treatment has become a tradition for the residents of the study region. People residing in the region through long years are more knowledgeable about herbs than the ones residing for few years. Also, women know more about herbs than men. Most commonly used plants are Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata, Rosa canina L., Urtica dioica L., Bellis perennis L., Fragaria vesca L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rheum ribes L. and Thymus haussknechtii Velen. Most commonly used parts of the plants were the leaves (30%), flowers (27%) and aerial parts (17%). Many plants are used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, colds and flu, constipation, diabetes, gastrointestinal diseases, kidney stones and urinary diseases, respiratory and throat diseases etc. There was some consistency in the use of local names between Maden and other regions of Turkey. However, it was also found that several different species were referred to by the same local names in different regions. Relative importance value of plant species and informant consensus factor (FIC) for plants were calculated. The FIC values were found to be too low in our calculations. Therefore, it can be thought that the data obtained are not reliable. Comparison of the data obtained in this study from the plants growing in Maden with the experimental data obtained in the previous laboratory studies proved most of the ethnobotanical usages. Literature review showed that curative plants of Maden are used in different parts of the world in the treatment of the same or similar diseases. If a plant is used to treat the same disease in different places across the world then its pharmacologic effect could be accepted. It would be beneficial to conduct pharmacologic studies on such plants. Therefore, it is suggested that such studies may make significant contributions to indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge as well as the studies of the sourcing of raw materials for the development of commercial pharmaceuticals. The endemic plant flora of Maden is threatened by such factors as grazing, expansion of new agricultural lands, and unsustainable picking of plants to generate income. Steps should be taken immediately to ensure the inclusion of relevant flora within conservation designations.

Acknowledgements The authors thank, the head of 23rd Region of the Chamber of Pharmacists; to Mustafa C¸ic¸ek grade teacher, and Pharmacy Technician Menan Artan, for providing us valuable information and accompanying us during the interview process.

Appendix A. 1 Name and surname of the participant 2 Age and sex of the participant 3 Telephone and address of the participant 4 Educational level of the participant 5 Date of interview 6 Place of residence of the participant 7 Duration of residence of the participant 8 What is the local name of the plant used? 9 For which diseases do you use the plant? 10 Which parts of the plant do you use? (root, stem, flower, leaves, fruit, etc.) 11 How do you prepare the plant for use? 12 How and when do you use the plant? 13 Approximately what dose do you use? 14 How long does the convalescence period take? 15 Did any complication occur from the plants you used?

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