Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by indigenous and tribal people in Rangamati, Bangladesh

Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by indigenous and tribal people in Rangamati, Bangladesh

Journal of Ethnopharmacology 144 (2012) 627–637 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Journal of Ethnopharmacology journal homepage: ww...

721KB Sizes 0 Downloads 43 Views

Journal of Ethnopharmacology 144 (2012) 627–637

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Journal of Ethnopharmacology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jep

Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by indigenous and tribal people in Rangamati, Bangladesh Mohammad Fahim Kadir a,n, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed b, M.M.K. Mia c a

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh c Medicinal Plant Project, Ministry of Hilltracts Affairs, Bangladesh National Herbarium, Bangladesh b

a r t i c l e i n f o

abstract

Article history: Received 23 June 2012 Received in revised form 14 September 2012 Accepted 3 October 2012 Available online 11 October 2012

Ethnopharmacological relevance: There is very limited information regarding plants used by traditional healers in Rangamati, Bangladesh, for treating general ailments. Current study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medical plants in Rangamati. Aim of the study: This study aimed to collect, analyze and evaluate the rich ethnopharmacologic knowledge on medicinal plants in Rangamati and attempted to identify the important species used in traditional medicine. Further analysis was done by comparison of the traditional medicinal use with the available scientific literature data. Materials and methods: The field survey was carried out in a period of about one year in Rangamati, Bangladesh. A total of 152 people were interviewed, including Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) and indigenous people through open-ended and semistructured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. This ethnomedicinal knowledge was compared against the literature for reports of related uses and studies of phytochemical compounds responsible for respective ailments. Results: A total of 144 species of plants, mostly trees, belonging to 52 families were identified for the treatment of more than 90 types of ailments. These ailments were categorized into 25 categories. Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts and decoction is the mode of preparation of major portions of the plant species. The most common mode of administration was oral ingestion and topical application. Informant consensus factor (Fic) values of the present study reflected the high agreement in the use of plants in the treatment of gastro-intestinal complaints and respiratory problems among the informants. Gastrointestinal complaint had highest use-reports and 3 species of plants, namely Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., and Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz., had the highest fidelity level (FL) of 100%. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Azadirachta indica A. Juss. showed the highest relative importance (RI) value of 1.86. According to use value (UV) the most important species were Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (2.48) and Ocimum sanctum L. (2.45). Conclusion: As a result of the present study, we recommend giving priority for further phytochemical investigation to plants that scored highest FL, Fic, UV or RI values, as such values could be considered as good indicator of prospective plants for discovering new drugs. Also counseling of THPs should be taken into consideration in order to smooth continuation and extension of traditional medical knowledge and practice for ensuring safe and effective therapy. & 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Ethnopharmacological survey Literature survey Chemical constituents Indigenous and tribal people Rangamati Bangladesh

1. Introduction Ethnopharmacological surveys of medicinal plants are very useful for the conservation and discovery of novel biological resources (Cox and Balick, 1994; Heinrich and Gibbons, 2001; Muthu et al., 2006). During the past few decades a plenty of pharmacological surveys have been carried out as the traditional uses of plants in the world

n Corresponding author. Tel.: þ880 2 9664953, Mob.: þ 008801816572691; fax: þ 880 29664950. E-mail address: [email protected] (M.F. Kadir).

0378-8741/$ - see front matter & 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.003

have been progressively gaining considerable attention (Rivera et al., 2005; De Natale and Pollio, 2007). The number of medicinal plant species known to be used in traditional and modern medicinal systems throughout the world is between 50,000 and 70,000 (Schippmann et al., 2006). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 4 billion people in developing countries not only believe in the healing properties of plant species but also use them habitually (Rai et al., 2000). Increasing popularity of medicinal plants use among people could be attributed to the increasing price of prescription drugs and among researchers due to newer prospect of new plant-derived drugs (Hoareau and DaSilva, 1999). Historical and cultural reasons are the other two factors responsible for popularity

628

M.F. Kadir et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 144 (2012) 627–637

of herbal medicines (Aburjai et al., 2007; Yan et al., 2008; Mukherjee et al., 2010). Bangladesh has been gifted with a rich plant diversity base because of its heterogeneous ecologic condition such as fertile alluvial land, warm and humid climate. There are about 6000 species of indigenous and naturalized plants growing in the country (Banglapedia, 2003). According to Mia (1990) more than 1000 of these plant species contain medicinally active chemical substances. Rangamati is one of the richest areas in terms of flora in Bangladesh (Banglapedia, 2003). Tribal communities living here largely rely on traditional medicinal healers for treatment of their ailments: one reason is reliability to the treatment and another reason is lack of access modern medicinal facilities (Calixto, 2005; Hossan et al., 2010). However, medicinal plants and the associated knowledge are being seriously depleted due to deforestation, environmental degradation and migrations of traditional medicinal healers to other jobs that have been taking place in the country for quite a long time, which could ultimately result in the rapid erosion of this rich knowledge. Moreover, the knowledge on traditional practice of medicinal plants has been passed from one generation to the next only verbally (Nadembega et al., 2011) and most of the cases the written documents of this rich knowledge are not available (Sofowora, 1993; Asase et al., 2008, 2010).

Inspite of the existence of a rich ethnic tradition in Rangamati, Bangladesh, only a few dedicated ethnopharmacological studies have been published so far (Yusuf et al., 2006; Sharif and Banik, 2006; Rahmatullah et al., 2011). These surveys have been carried out independently among the tribal people and indigenous communities in a few localities of Rangamati. Moreover, all of these studies only confined to qualitative analysis in small extent and did not include phytochemical results. Therefore, an ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by the tribal as well as non-tribal population in most of the areas of Rangamati was conducted in order to conserve the information regarding traditional uses of medicinal plants in Rangamati and analyze the data with different qualitative and quantitative tools to identify the important species used in traditional medicine.

2. Materials and methods 2.1. Study area Rangamati (Fig. 1), with an area of 6116.13 km2, is bounded by the Tripura State of India to the north, Bandarban district of Bangladesh to the south, Mizoram State of India and Chin State of Myanmar to the east, Khagrachhari and Chittagong districts to the

Bangladesh

Rangamati

Fig. 1. Location of study area (Rangamati) of Bangladesh in World Map.

M.F. Kadir et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 144 (2012) 627–637

west. Annual average temperature: maximum 34.6 1C, minimum 13.4 1C; annual rainfall 3031 mm. The rivers are Karnafuli, Thega, Horina, Kassalong, Shublang, Chingri, Rainkhiang and Kaptai. The soils of the hills are mainly yellowish brown to reddish brown. The general texture class of the soil is loamy sand to loamy clay and is relatively acidic in nature. The main features of the vegetation here are semi-evergreen type but actual natural vegetation of these areas has been mostly cleared and destroyed by human interference, by Jhum cultivation and rehabilitation due to Kaptai dam built in 1960. Total population of Rangamati is 508182 with 52% tribal and 48% non-tribal population. The non-tribal population are called ‘‘Bangalee’’ and tribal population are called ‘‘Adibashi’’ which consists of twelve tribes—Chakma, Marma, Tanchangya, Tripura, Pankua, Lushi, Khiang, Murang, Rakhain, Chak, Bowm, Khumi (Banglapedia, 2003). 2.2. Sampling of informants Permission to perform this study was obtained from the authority of Rangamati. The ethnopharmacological survey was conducted during January 2011 to December 2011. Ten field visits consisting of 6 days per survey were conducted. Interviewees were local traditional health practitioners (THPs) as well as local people with practical or empirical knowledge on medicinal plants. A total of 152 people were interviewed for this purpose. Among the interviewees most were Chakma tribal as they were the most abundant one. Other tribes interviewed include Marma, Tanchanga, Tripura, Pankua, Murang and Lushi. During the selection of informants, gender, age, educational background and experience on use of traditional medicinal plants were taken into consideration. 2.3. Ethnomedicinal data collection The objectives of the study were clearly explained and a written consent was obtained by interviewers from each informant. The participating THPs were identified with the help of local people familiar with traditional healers and who could communicate with local communities. Each THP was interviewed alone to ensure confidentiality among them. However two group meetings were also organized participated by 12 THPs who had given consent to discuss about their practice. Open-ended and semistructured questionnaire (Cotton, 1996; Bruni et al., 1997) were used for the purpose. The record questionnaires used included two sections. Section 1 dealt with personal information including age, sex, educational background and experiences of the THPs related to medicinal plants. Section 2 was about their practice including the following information: (a) the local name of the plants, (b) plants part/s used, (c) the method of preparation, (d) nature of plant material, (e) relative abundance at the area, (f) habitat of the plant species, (g) mode of application and (h) medicinal uses of particular plant. Interviews were conducted using the Bengali language. Informants were asked to collect the plants they used for the treatment of various ailments. These specimens were pressed, preserved and later identified by the Botanist Mr. Manzur-ulKadir Mia, Principal Scientific Officer and Consultant of Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka. The voucher specimens of each plant were deposited in the Bangladesh National Herbarium. Research articles, books and relevant web pages were also studied with the aim to accumulate data of phytochemical compounds present in the plants. Then we listed compounds that were frequently found in the reported plant species.

629

of preparation, mode of application, habit, habitat, relative abundance, conservation status, nature, solvent used and frequency of citation (FC). The FC of the species of plants being utilized was evaluated using the formula: FC¼(Number of times a particular species was mentioned/ total number of times that all species were mentioned)  100 Frequency distribution was calculated by using the IBM SPSS Statistics 19. Use Value (UV) was calculated according to Phillips et al. P (1994). UV¼ U/n, where UV is the use value of a species, ‘U’ is the number of use reports cited by each informant for a given plant species and ‘n’ is the total number of informants interviewed for a given plant. The UV is applied in determining the plants with the highest use (most frequently indicated) in the treatment of an ailment. The informant consensus factor (Fic) was calculated with the following formula used by Heinrich et al. (1998). Fic ¼(Nur  Nt)/ (Nur 1), where ‘Nur’ refers to the number of use-reports for a particular ailment category and ‘Nt’ refers to the number of taxa used for a particular ailment category by all informants. In order to apply this factor, we classified the illnesses into broad ailments categories (several diseases based on the similarity in one category) (Table 2). Fic was applied to highlight the homogeneity of the information about a specific plant use to treat a particular type of ailments. In other words the Fic is an indicative value of consistency of the informants that how homogenously they agree about the use of certain plant species for the treatment of a particular ailments category. The product of this factor ranges from 0 to 1. An ailment category having a high Fic value (close to 1) indicates that relatively few taxa are used by a large proportion of the informants. A low value indicates that informants disagree on the taxa to be used in treatment within a category of illness. Relative Importance Value (RI) was calculated according to Bennett and Prance (2000). RI¼PP þAC, where PP is obtained by dividing the number of pharmacological properties (reported specific ailments) attributed to a species divided by the maximum number of properties attributed to the most resourceful species (species with the highest number of properties). AC is the number of ailment categories treated by a given species divided by the maximum number of ailment categories treated by the most resourceful species. The highest possible value of RI is 2.0, which indicates the highest diversity of medicinal uses of a plant. Fidelity Level (FL) was calculated using the following formula: FL¼Ip/Iu  100 (Friedman et al., 1986), where Ip is the number of informants who independently indicated the use of a species for the same major ailment and Iu is the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any major ailment. High FL value indicates high frequency of use of the plant species for treating a particular ailment category by the informants of the study area. We conducted preference ranking exercise following the approach of Martin (1995) by a total of 12 THPs drawn from the 7 tribal groups who had already participated in the interviews. Each THP was asked to rank among the 10 plants having the top most UV according to their perceived degree of popularity in respect of overall medicinal uses. The most popular species was assigned with the highest number ‘10’ and the least popular with the least number ‘1’. Finally the assigned numbers were summed for all respondents to give an overall ranking; plants with the highest score were considered as the most popular ones and vice versa. Plants with highest ranking denoted with ‘1’ and the lowest one with‘10’. 2.5. Conservation status of the listed medicinal plants

2.4. Data analysis The species were listed in alphabetical order by scientific name, family, local name, general name, plants part/s used, mode

Conservation status of the listed medicinal plants at local level was measured following the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, version 3.1 (IUCN, 2001).

630

M.F. Kadir et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 144 (2012) 627–637

Table 1 Demographic data of the informants. Variable

Categories

No. of person

Percent

Informants category

Traditional health practitioners Indigenous people

34 118

22.37 77.63

Gender

Female Male

67 85

44.08 55.92

Age

Less than 20 years 20–30 years 30–40 years 40–50 years 50–60 yeaars More than 60 years

3 14 20 35 64 16

1.97 9.21 13.16 23.03 42.11 10.53

Educational background

Illiterate Completed five years education Completed eight years education Completed 10 years education Completed 12 years education Some undergrade degree (16 years education) Graduate (higher education)

58 35 22 15 12 8 2

38.16 23.03 14.47 9.87 7.89 5.26 1.32

Experience of the traditional health practitioners

Less than 2 years 2–5 years 5–10 years 10–20 years More than 20 years

3 5 12 6 8

8.82 14.71 35.29 17.65 23.53

3. Results 3.1. Informants Among the 152 interviewees, 32 people are THPs and the rest are indigenous—both ‘‘Bangalee’’ and ‘‘Adibashi’’. Major informants were male (55.92%). There were a high percentage of interviewees who were around 50–60 years (42.11%) old. They are followed by informants who were 40–50 years (23.03%) old. The majority of interviewees were illiterate. Another important information about THPs is that rate of literacy among THPs is lower (12.16%) than the other population in Rangamati (38.16%) (Banglapedia, 2003). In case of practical experience or empirical knowledge, the majority of the THPs had 5–10 years of experience (35.29%) (Table 1). 3.2. Medicinal plants recorded In the present study a total of 144 plant species belonging to 54 plant families are identified as having medicinal values used by THPs in Rangamati. The family Fabaceae (16 species) represents the highest number of species, followed by Verbenaceae (10 species), Euphorbiaceae (7 species) and Apocynaceae (7 species) (Fig. 2). 3.3. Information regarding the preparation Sometimes whole plant and in many cases different parts of the same plant including leaf, root, bark, fruit, flower, rhizome, seed, stem, tuber and bulb are used for the management of various ailments. Most of the times different parts are blend together for making preparation which is served as medicine. Leaf is the most frequently used plant parts (39.58%), followed by root (27.1%), bark (22.2%), seed (19.4%) and fruit (18.1%). Different preparation methods are used for administering herbal medicinal plants including decoction, infusion, juice, powder, maceration and raw. The major mode of preparation is decoction (58.3%) followed by juice (41%) and infusion (29.9%). Infusion is done by suspending plant material in either cold or pre-warmed water and decoction is done by boiling or heating of

plant material in water (Packer et al., 2012). Powder is obtained by finely grinding the plant parts to be used, after drying them. Juices are usually extracted from succulent plants. Most preparations are made with water as solvent. Other preparations are made by local wine or beer, honey, rice soaked water and milk. Sometimes tribal people use banana pulp, orange peel, lemon, black peeper, sugar, salt, camphor, tobacco leaf etc. as adjuvant with different solvents. For the preparation of paste or ointment they often use castor oil, coconut oil, ginger, mustard oil and neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.). The most common mode of administration is oral ingestion for internal use (98.6%). Topical applications are also frequently employed, accounting for 31.3%. For topical use, the most important methods used were direct application of paste. 3.4. Habit, habitat, nature and relative abundance of the plants In the current survey, 36.11% of the reported species are trees. Other highly reported species are herb (24.31%), shrub (22.92%) and climber (13.19%). Among the plants documented, 36.81% and 20.83% of the species grow in homestead and hill forest respectively. But most of the portions (42.36%) grew in both homestead and hill forest. According to the present study, the plants are wild (51.39%) or cultivated (39.58%). Some of them are both cultivated and wild (9.03%). The documented species are categorized into three classes namely common, less common and rare. In most of the cases we found the reported plants in common (69.44%) category. Only some of the species fall in rare category (2.78%) and these are Anogeissus acuminata (Roxb.) DC., Dalbergia stipulacea Roxb., Desmodium motorium (Houtt.) Merr., and Withania somnifera Dunal. 3.5. Conservation status of the plants According to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (version 3.1) three types of species are found—vulnerable (VU) (2.8%), near threatened (NT) (16.7%) and least concerned (LC) (80.6%). We infer four species as vulnerable at local level: Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd., Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers, Oroxylum indicum L., and Zizyphus oenoplia Mill. On the other hand, Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz. is reported as the only species listed on the list of endangered commercial plant species (CITES).

M.F. Kadir et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 144 (2012) 627–637

631

Fig. 2. Families of the plants with their frequencies.

3.6. Frequency of citation of the plants The most cited plants are Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f., Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Justicia adhatoda L., Moringa oleifera Lamk., Ocimum sanctum L., Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. 3.7. Other relevant information of the recorded medicinal plants As shown in Appendix A the majority of plants are reported to be used for more than one type of disease. The highest proportions of medicinal plants are used to treat gastro-intestinal

complaints (64 species), skin-related diseases (39 species) and hematological diseases (32 species) (Table 2). The plant with highest UV is Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (2.48). Other important plants with high UV are Ocimum sanctum L. (2.45), Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (2.28), Blumea lacera (Burm.f.) DC. (2.2), Curcuma longa L. (2.12), Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (2.11). On the other hand the plant with lowest UV is Solanum melongena L. (0.06). Table 3 summarizes the Fic values obtained for the categorized ailment. The Fic values in our study were ranged from 0 to 0.27. The ailments categories with more than 35 use-reports are gastrointestinal complaints (86 use-reports, 63 species), dermatological

632

M.F. Kadir et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 144 (2012) 627–637

Table 2 Ailments grouped by different ailment categories (several diseases based on the similarity in one category). Illness categories

Medical terms

No of species used

Gastro-intestinal complaints Respiratory problems Diabetes Inflammation and pain Urinary and rectal disorders Dermatology problems

Stomachic, leprous ulcer, obstinate ulcer, anthelmintic, diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, carminative, melaena, indigestion, dyspepsia, vermifuge, hiccup, flatulence Cough, chronic bronchitis, asthma, hemoptysis, expectorant, tuberculosis, phthisis Diuretic, antihyperglycemic Rheumatism, narcotic, anodyne, abdominal pain, sedative, pectoral pain, cephalalgia Hematuria, piles, fistula, dysuria

64

Oral and dental disorder Infectious and parasitic diseases Cardiovascular diseases Tumorous diseases Hematological diseases Tonics Fever/Malaria Venomous bites Venereal and genital diseases Veterinary uses Hair growth stimulant/ antidandruff Musculoskeletal disorders Delivery and infertility disorders Female problems Constipation Sexual stimulant Antidote Ear, nose, throat disorder (ENT) Abortion inducing Liver diseases Nervous system

11 24 22 12

Leprosy, rubefacient, antiscorbutic, demulcent, cooling, eczema, leukodermatic, emollient, diaphoretic, impetiginous eruptions, psoriasis scabies, erysipelas, sores, refrigerant Mouth wash, bleeding gums, toothache, mouth sore Antiseptic

39

Hypertension

2 1 32 31 24 7 6

Styptic, astringent, blood purifier, anemia, hemorrhage, dropsy Stimulant, alterative Febrifuge, antipyretic Alexiteric, scorpion-sting, snake-bite Syphilis, hydrocele, gonorrhea, spermatorrhoea Antiseptic Alopecia

5 8

3 1

Elephantiasis, sprain, bruise, lumbago, convulsion, ataxy, wounds, fracture Menstrual promoters, uterine contractors, emmenagogues, implantation preventers

13 2

Emmenagogue, galactagogue, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, dysmenorrhea, uterine hemorrhage Purgative, laxative, cathartic, hydragogue, aperient, deobstruent Aphrodisiac Emetic Gout, otalgia, catarrhal

19 29 12 3 3

Abortifacient Jaundice Epilepsy, insanity, hemiplegia, facial paralysis, tetanus, sciatica, hypnotic

problems (48 use-reports, 39 species), and hematological disorders (35 use-reports, 32 species). In our study the highest Fic value (0.27) was cited for gastro-intestinal complaints, followed by respiratory problems (0.23). The maximum number of pharmacological properties is possessed by Asparagus racemosus Willd (8 properties); so, it had a normalized PP value of 1.00 (8/8). Azadirachta indica A. Juss. is employed to treat seven ailments categories and has a normalized AC value of 1.00 (7/7). Asparagus racemosus Willd and Azadirachta indica A. Juss. possess the highest RI value of 1.86 followed by RI 1.72 possessed by Erythrina variegata L., Mangifera indica L., and Mussaenda glabrata Hutch (Table 4). Twenty one plants are found cited by 10 or more informants for being used against a given ailment category. Fidelity Level (FL) was calculated for these plants (Table 5). Of these 21 species 8 species were from gastro-intestinal complaints category. Three plants show highest FL of 100% and these are Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (constipation), Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. (gastro-intestinal complaints), Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (hematological diseases). Result of popularity ranking exercises using the procedure of preference ranking reveals Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Ocimum sanctum L. as the most popular plants (Table 6). Literature survey reveals the major phytochemical constituents that are common to the reported plants and they are beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, different types of triterpenes, flavonoids, saponins, ascorbic acid etc. 4. Discussion During our survey we found illiterate people having more knowledge concerning uses of medicinal plants than literate people which could be attributed to negligence of literate people

2 8 8

towards traditional treatment and more inclination towards modern therapy. The process of acculturation might be one of the prime causes of finding more authentic information regarding healing properties of medicinal plants through older people. A kind of negligence among younger generations was also observed which is also a cause of rapid loss of valuable information regarding the use of medicinal plants in this area. The most reported medicinal plants of Rangamati belonged to the Fabaceae family in this study. This predominance could be explained by world-wide high number of species (19,400 species) of this family (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995) and also the vast number of species of this family that inhabit in this area. The major plant parts used here against ailments were leaves solely or mixed with other plant parts. Similar type of results were also obtained by other researchers (Mahishi et al., 2005; Abo et al., 2008; Gonzalez et al., 2010; Telefo et al., 2011). The leaves are the main photosynthetic organs containing photosynthates which might be responsible for medicinal values (Balick and Cox, 1996; Ghorbani, 2005). Collection of leaves and then using them as medicine is very easy as compared to roots, flowers and fruits (Giday et al., 2009; Telefo et al., 2011). Another reason of using leaves could be concerning conservation of the plants as digging out roots might be the cause of death of the plant and putting the species in a vulnerable condition (Poffenberger et al., 1992; Abebe and Ayehu, 1993; Martinez et al., 2000; Zheng and Xing, 2009; Rehecho et al., 2011). Trees and herbs were the most common plants used as medicine. This was because of the vast number of trees or herbaceous plants naturally abundant in this geographical area (Tag et al., 2012) and available in the communities of traditional healers (Tabuti et al., 2003; Uniyal et al., 2006; Sanz-Biset et al., 2009).

M.F. Kadir et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 144 (2012) 627–637

Table 3 Informant consensus factor (Fic) for categorized ailments. Ailment category

Number of usereports (Nur)

Number of taxa (Nt)

Gastro-intestinal complaints Respiratory problems Diabetes Inflammation and pain Urinary and rectal disorders Dermatology problems Oral and dental disorder Infectious and parasitic diseases Cardiovascular diseases Tumorous diseases Hematological diseases Tonics Fever/malaria Venomous bites venereal and genital diseases Veterinary uses Hair growth stimulant/ Antidandruff Musculoskeletal disorders Delivery and infertility disorders Female problems Constipation Sexual stimulant Antidote Ear, nose, throat disorder (ENT) Abortion inducing Liver diseases Nervous system

86

63

0.27

14 22 28

11 22 22

0.23 0.00 0.22

14

12

0.15

48

39

0.19

5

5

0.00

8

8

0.00

1

1

1 35

1 32

N/A 0.09

31 28 7 6

31 24 7 6

0.00 0.15 0.00 0.00

3 1

3 1

0.00 N/A

15

13

0.14

2

2

0.00

23 31 12 3 3

19 29 12 3 3

0.18 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00

2 8 8

2 8 8

0.00 0.00 0.00

Informant consensus factor (Fic)

N/A

Table 4 Relative Importance (RI) values for Rangamati medicinal plants used against eight or more specific use categories and seven or more ailments categories treated. Species

PPa

ACb

RIc

Asparagus racemosus Willd. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Erythrina variegata L. Mangifera indica L. Mussaenda glabrata Hutch. Michelia champaca L. Bixa orellana L. Blumea lacera (Burn.f.) DC. Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Mentha arvensis L. Ocimum sanctum L.

1.00 0.86 0.86 0.86 0.86 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.86 0.75 0.75

0.86 1.00 0.86 0.86 0.86 0.86 0.86 0.86 0.71 0.71 0.71

1.86 1.86 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.57 1.46 1.46

a PP ¼The number of pharmacological properties (reported specific ailments) attributed to a species divided by the maximum number of properties attributed to the most resourceful species (species with the highest number of properties). b AC¼The number of ailment categories treated by a given species divided by the maximum number of ailment categories treated by the most resourceful species. c RI¼ PPþ AC.

Most common methods of preparation are decoction and infusion which reflects similar findings by Rehecho et al. (2011), Nadembega et al. (2011) and Alzweiri et al. (2011). Infusions and

633

decoctions are usually taken as teas or soups (Sanz-Biset et al., 2009; Nadembega et al., 2011). Most surprisingly, THPs can discriminate properly between those plants which must be infused or decocted, even though they have no idea about the chemical constituents of these plants. The predominance of oral route for administration is due to the ease of administration without using complex accessories and this result is in agreement with some other studies conducted elsewhere (Ssegawa and Kasenene, 2007; Perumal Samy et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2008; Poonam and Singh, 2009; Andrade-Cetto, 2009; Nadembega et al., 2011; Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2011). Adjuvants are used to improve the acceptability and medicinal property of certain remedies. It was noticed that THPs used more than one plant part for the preparation of medicine in the treatment of single ailments. However, most of them did not share much of the preparation procedure. Similar findings were also reported by several researchers (Teklehaymanot et al., 2007; Ignacimuthu et al., 2008; Tabuti et al., 2010; Upadhyay et al., 2010). The frequent use of multiple plant remedies might be explained by the fact of synergetic actions where two or more plants produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects (Giday et al., 2010). Since each medicinal plant contains ample of pharmacologically active compounds so that poly-herbal treatment might obtain greater healing power than single medicinal plant treatment (Teklehaymanot et al., 2007). Tribal people in Rangamati use medicinal plants mostly to cure gastro-intestinal complaints and dermatological ailments which could be attributed to the high prevalence of these disorders in the area. This is substantiated by the information provided by the Rangamati Health Office that dermatological ailments and gastrointestinal complaints are the major health problems in Rangamati district. It is observed from the field study and direct interviews of various classes of tribal people that the access to safe drinking water in the Rangamati has been difficult due to the topography of the area and lower attention from the government to improve life there. Moreover, special technical supports are required for the safe water options which are costly in respect to socioeconomy of the local people. Lack of awareness regarding sanitation or open defecation increases the predominance of fecal borne and other contagious diseases (Khisha et al., 2012). During our survey, some THPs interviewed emphasized the concept of supernatural power. They believe that there is spiritual power that is involved in the medicinal plants and this spirit is responsible for the therapeutic effects. However, the findings of Herrick (1995) and Nadembega et al. (2011) also support this common trait of THPs. These THPs strictly maintain certain rules—collecting the plant at specific time, the order of mixing of different plants or adjuvant during the concoction, the time of day at which preparations are made or the time of taking the dose. Most of the time, they did not reveal all of this information. Besides, some traits we found were very unusual, such as some tribal people of Rangamati believe that, the red part of the seed (macerated) of Abrus precatorius L., taken once at bedtime by inserting in Banana pulp, can cause sterility in women for a year. On the other hand, the use of rice soaked water in various preparations was very common here. The majority of THPs whom we interviewed agreed that they guard their knowledge of plants carefully from the public and from each other for professional reasons. They shared part of their knowledge with us. We found that here knowledge is passed on from one generation to the next only verbally. Transfer of knowledge to outside the family could be only possible on substantial payment. Such confidentiality ensures one’s index of power and importance in the local society. Also strict secrecy forbids general people to use medicinal plants indiscriminately. Similar findings were also mentioned by Nadembega et al. (2011).

634

M.F. Kadir et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 144 (2012) 627–637

Table 5 Fidelity Level (FL) values of medicinal plants cited by 10 or more informants for being used against a given ailment category. Medicinal plants

Ailment category

Specific ailment

Ipa

Iub

FL valuec (%)

Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Ananas comosus (L.) merr. Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Justicia adhatoda L. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Moringa oleifera Lamk. Curcuma longa L. Ocimum sanctum L. Tamarindus indica L. Phyllanthus emblica L. Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz. Withania somnifera Dunal. Asparagus racemosus Willd. Mentha arvensis L. Bixa orellana L. Anacardium occidentale L. Mucuna pruriens Baker Scoparia dulcis L. Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

Constipation Gastro-intestinal complaints Hematological diseases Gastro-intestinal complaints Respiratory problem Respiratory problem Gastro-intestinal complaints Gastro-intestinal complaints Respiratory problem Gastro-intestinal complaints Liver diseases Cardiovascular diseases Sexual stimulant Gastro-intestinal complaints Gastro-intestinal complaints Fever Dermatology problem Tonic Gastro-intestinal complaints Tonic

Laxative Anthelmintic Astringent Stomachic Asthma Expectorant Anthelmintic Carminative Asthma Digestive Jaundice Blood pressure Aphrodisiac Diarrhea, dysentery Stomachic Antipyretic Rubefacient Stimulant Diarrhea, dysentery Stimulant

32 27 13 24 23 19 15 17 13 15 12 13 10 13 10 11 13 11 11 10

32 27 13 26 25 22 20 26 20 24 20 22 17 23 18 20 24 22 23 22

100.00 100.00 100.00 92.31 92.00 86.36 75.00 65.38 65.00 62.50 60.00 59.09 58.82 56.52 55.56 55.00 54.17 50.00 47.83 45.45

a b c

Ip¼ The number of informants who independently indicated the use of a species for the same major ailment. Iu ¼Total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any major ailment. FL¼ Ip/Iu  100.

Table 6 Ranking of 10 Rangamati medicinal plants using the procedure of preference ranking based on the degree of local popularity (plant with the highest score is the most popular one). Medicinal plant name

Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. Asparagus racemosus Willd. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Erythrina variegata L. Justicia adhatoda L. Moringa oleifera Lamk. Ocimum sanctum L. Phyllanthus emblica L. Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz.

Use value (UV)

Informants (coded A to L)

Total score

Ranking

Chakma Chakma Chakma Chakma Marma Marma Tanchanga Tanchanga Tripura Pankua Murang Lushi A B C D E F G H I J K L

1.58

8

7

7

6

8

8

6

7

9

4

8

10

88

4

1.78

7

9

10

8

5

7

9

5

8

7

9

6

90

3

1.83

3

3

2

3

1

2

2

3

1

2

4

4

30

8

2.48

9

10

9

10

7

9

7

8

10

8

7

8

102

1

1.98

1

1

3

2

2

3

1

2

2

1

1

2

21

10

1.76 1.63

6 2

6 2

6 1

9 1

10 4

5 1

4 3

4 1

7 4

10 3

6 2

9 1

82 25

5 9

2.45 1.69

10 4

8 4

8 5

7 5

9 6

10 4

8 5

10 9

6 3

9 5

10 5

7 5

102 60

1 6

2.28

5

5

4

4

3

6

10

6

5

6

3

3

60

6

Deforestation and selective cutting are the main factors for the species being vulnerable. In the study area, deforestation is proceeding at alarming rate due to agricultural expansion. For example, Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd. and Oroxylum indicum L. are frequently felled for wood. The species with high FC values reflects the popular plants with versatile healing power and further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical analysis of these plants should be carried out for the discovery of potential novel drugs. The high UV of certain plants ensures versatile uses of these plant species (Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2011) and also the high abundance of these species in the study area. The highest UV of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. could be rationalized by their huge popularity regarding versatile healing power in this geographic region (Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2011).

On the contrary, scarcity of the certain plants in the study area leads to low UV (Rokaya et al., 2010). The high Fic value of gastro-intestinal complaints category indicates the agreement among the informants concerning the plants appropriate for the treatment of various ailments and complaints under these categories (Alzweiri et al., 2011). Therefore, it might be an indication of the effectiveness of the plants against a certain type of ailment (Teklehaymanot and Giday, 2007). A high Fic also indicates the possibility of containing key phytochemical ingredient(s) in these plants. Like Neves et al. (2009) we also propose for further phytopharmacological analyses of these plants. We found four possible reasons for finding low values of Fic. (1) Civilization trend of the rural society makes medicine available and the inclination of the people to follow conventional medicine to treat recognized diseases

M.F. Kadir et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 144 (2012) 627–637

(Al-Qura’n, 2009). (2) Lack of these ailments categories in the study area (Ragupathy et al., 2008). (3) Lack of communication among the informants in the study area (Rokaya et al., 2010). (4) There is abundance of medicinal plants to treat a certain type of ailment that creates lack of inconsistency in the information provided by the informants. The high RI values of Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Azadirachta indica A. Juss. might be an indication of its abundance in the area (Giday et al., 2010). Also plants with high RI values represent their versatility as they are employed against more ailments (Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2011). Plants which are used in some repetitive manner are more likely to be biologically active (Trotter and Logan, 1986). Hence, the plants having the highest FL values might be an indication of their good healing potential for a specific ailment (Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2011). According to our findings we suggest that it indicates the prevalence of specific diseases in the area that are treated with the medicinal plants with high FL values. According to Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu (2011), 100% FL was reported in Moringa oleifera Lamk. and Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. in Tirunelveli hills of Western Ghats, India (almost same geographical area), which is slightly higher than our study (75% and 92.31% respectively). Also they have found FL of 66.7% in Tamarindus indica L. which is similar to our study (62.5%). We found four possible causes of getting the highest score of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Ocimum sanctum L. in the interview and ranking exercise results of our survey. They are easy to cultivate around the village thicket and hence their high abundance is noticed. The second reason is their ease of preparation as medicine. The availability of their market preparations by renowned pharmaceuticals boost up their potentiality among the THPs. They have excellent, rapid and versatile healing properties. Although the specific modes of action in the treatment of ailments by herbal medicines is still under consideration but most of the plants cited in our study contain compounds like glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc. and these are frequently concerned as having medicinal values. According to Senthil-Nathan et al. (2005) and Schmutterer (1995) Azadirachta indica A. Juss. contains azadirachtin, salanin, nimbin which are responsible for its fungicidal and nematicidal activities. Similarly anti-inflammatory and analgesic inflammation induced by PGE2, leukotriene or arachidonic acid is inhibited by the fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum L. and this activity is proportional to the linolenic acid content (Godhwani, et al., 1987; Singh, 1998). Cheng et al. (1990) and Narender et al. (2007) found two compounds aegelin and skimmianine possessed by Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. that results in cardiovascular and antihyperglycemic activities. Chebulic acid of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. and shatavarin of Asparagus racemosus Willd. cause antihyperglycemic and galactagogue activity respectively (Patel and Kanitkar, 1969; Sharma et al., 1996; Lee et al., 2010). In our literature study we found four plants having toxic potentiality. Abrus precatorius L. contains abrin, a serious toxic compound which works by penetrating the cells of the body and inhibiting cell protein synthesis. Estimated human fatal dose of abrin is 0.1–1 mg/kg. But toxins are released only if the seed is chewed and swallowed (Dickers et al., 2003). Bark, seed and latex of Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. cause serious depression, paralysis and death (Banglapedia, 2003). It is anticipated that pods and beans of pyrrolizidine alkaloid of Cassia occidentalis L. is responsible for its hepatotoxic activity (Huxtable, 1989; Vanderperren et al., 2005; Vashishtha et al., 2007). Colocassia esculenta (L.) Schott. contains calcium oxalate which causes kidney stone, liver and kidney failure but the plant is edible after cooking (Tagwireyi and Ball, 2001; Kuhlken, 2002). However, a lot of phytochemical investigations are required for these plants.

635

5. Conclusion Our study reveals that plants are still a major source of medicine for the local people living in Rangamati, Bangladesh, as modern health care facilities in this area are still not sufficient. Though we found a great variety of plants that were used by THPs for the treatment of numerous diseases but accurate knowledge of the plants and their medicinal properties were held by only a few individuals in this community. Hence, this report represents a useful and longlasting documentation, which can contribute to preserve knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in this region and also stimulate the interest of future generations on traditional healing practices. However, measures should be taken to train up the THPs regarding the harmful effects of irrational uses of plants in order to ensure safe therapy. The gradual increase of the commercial demand of medicinal plants has been increasing which results in careless plant collection activities. None of the plants, except the Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz. from our report, is listed on the list of endangered commercial plant species (CITES). Besides, Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd., Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers, Oroxylum indicum L., and Zizyphus oenoplia Mill. were inferred as vulnerable species in Rangamati, Bangladesh, which we found to be used in medicine. So we should carry out necessary steps for not only further investigation of important plant species of the study area but also to protect the vulnerable plant species from becoming endangered.

Acknowledgments The authors express a lot of thanks to all the Traditional Health Practitioners and people involved in the interviews for providing information about the medicinal applications of the plants. A lot of appreciations are acknowledged for the help and the administrative facilities provided by the local governmental authorities during the survey.

Appendix A. Supporting information Supplementary data associated with this article can be found in the online version at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.003.

References Abebe, D., Ayehu, A., 1993. Medicinal Plants and Enigmatic Health Practices of Northern Ethiopia. B.S.P.E., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Abo, K.A., Fred-Jaiyesimi, A.A., Jaiyesimi, A.E.A., 2008. Ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants used in the management of diabetes mellitus in South Western Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 115, 67–71. Aburjai, T., Hudaib, M., Tayyem, R., Yousef, M., Qishawi, M., 2007. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal herbs in Jordan, the Ajloun Heights region. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 110, 294–304. Al-Qura’n, S., 2009. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 123, 45–50. Alzweiri, M., Sarhan, A.A., Mansi, K., Hudaib, M., Aburjai, T., 2011. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal herbs in Jordan, the Northern Badia region. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137, 27–35. Andrade-Cetto, A., 2009. Ethnobotanical study of the medicinal plants from Tlanchinol, Hidalgo, Mexico. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 122, 163–171. Asase, A., Akweteya, G.A., Achel, D.G., 2010. Ethnopharmacological use of herbal remedies for the treatment of malaria in the Dangme West District of Ghana. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 129, 367–376. Ayyanar, S., Ignacimuthu, S., 2011. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commonly used by Kani tribals in Tirunelveli hills of Western Ghats, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 134, 851–864. Balick, M., Cox, P., 1996. Plants Culture and People. Scientific American Network, New York. Banglapedia, 2003. National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bennett, B.C., Prance, G.T., 2000. Introduced plants in the indigenous pharmacopoeia of northern South America. Economic Botany 54, 90–102.

636

M.F. Kadir et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 144 (2012) 627–637

Bruni, A., Ballero, M., Poli, F., 1997. Quantitative ethnopharmacological study of the Campidano valley and Urzulei district, Sardinia, Italy. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 57, 97–124. Calixto, J.B., 2005. Twenty five years of research on medicinal plants in Latin America: a personal review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 100, 131–134. Cheng, J.T., Chang, S.S., Chen, I.S., 1990. Cardiovascular effect of skimmianine in rats. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie 306, 65–74. Cotton, C.M., 1996. Ethnobotany: Principle and Application. John Wiley and Sons, New York. Cox, P.A., Balick, M.J., 1994. The ethnobotanical approach to drug discovery. Scientific American 270, 82–87. De Natale, A., Pollio, A., 2007. Plants species in the folk medicine of Montecorvino Rovella (inland Campania, Italy). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 109, 295–303. Dickers, K.J., Bradberry, S.M., Rice, P., Griffiths, G.D., Vale, J.A., 2003. Abrin poisoning. Toxicological Reviews 22, 137–142. Friedman, J., Yaniv, Z., Dafni, A., Palewitch, D., 1986. A preliminary classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants, based on the rational analysis of an ethnopharmacological field survey among Bedouins in Negev Desert, Israel. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 16, 275–287. Ghorbani, A., 2005. Studies in pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the region of Turkmen Sahra, North of Iran (part 1): general results. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 102, 58–68. Giday, M., Asfaw, Z., Woldu, Z., 2009. Medicinal plants of the Meinit ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 124, 513–521. Giday, M., Asfaw, Z., Woldu, Z., 2010. Ethnomedicinal study of plants used by Sheko ethnic group of Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 132, 75–85. Godhwani, S., Godhwani, J.L., Vyas, D.S., 1987. Ocimum sanctum: an experimental study evaluating its antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity in animals. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 28, 153–163. Gonzalez, J.A., Garcia-Barrriuso, M., Amich, F., 2010. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants traditionally used in the Arribes del Duero, Western Spain. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 131, 343–355. Heinrich, M., Ankli, A., Frei, B., Weimann, C., Sticher, O., 1998. Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers’ consensus and cultural importance. Social Science and Medicine 47, 91–112. Heinrich, M., Gibbons, S., 2001. Ethnopharmacology in drug discovery: an analysis of its role and potential contribution. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 53, 425–432. Herrick, J.W., 1995. Iroquois Medical Botany. Syracuse University Press, New York. Hoareau, L., DaSilva, E.J., 1999. Medicinal plants: a re-emerging health aid. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 2, 56–70. Hossan, M.S., Hanif, A., Agarwala, B., Sarwar, M.S., Karim, M., Taufiq-Ur-Rahman, M., Jahan, R., Rahmatullah, M., 2010. Traditional use of medicinal plants in Bangladesh to treat urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 8, 61–74. Huxtable, R.J., 1989. Human health implications of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and herbs containing them. In: Cheeke, P.R. (Ed.), Toxicants of Plant Origin, 1. CRC Press Inc., Florida, pp. 42–86. Ignacimuthu, S., Ayyanar, M., Sankarasivaraman, K., 2008. Ethno-botanical study of medicinal plants used by Paliyar tribals in Theni district of Tamil Nadu, India. Fitoterapia 79, 562–568. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1., 2001. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. ii þ30 pp. Khisha, T., Karim, R., Chowdhury, S.R., Banoo, R., 2012. Ethnomedical studies of Chakma communities of Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal 15, 59–67. Kuhlken, R., 2002. Intensive Agricultural Landscapes of Oceania. Journal of Cultural Geography 19, 161–195. Lee, H.S., Koo, Y.C., Suh, H.J., Kim, K.Y., Lee, K.W., 2010. Preventive effects of chebulic acid isolated from Terminalia chebula on advanced glycation endproduct-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 131, 567–574. Lee, S., Xiao, C., Pei, S., 2008. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants at periodic markets of Honghe Prefecture in Yunnan Province, SW China. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 117, 362–377. Mahishi, P., Srinivasa, B.H., Shivanna, M.B., 2005. Medicinal plant wealth of local communities in some villages in Shimoga District of Karnataka, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 98, 307. Marles, R., Farnsworth, N., 1995. Antidiabetic plants and their active constituents. Phytomedicine 2, 137–165. Martin, G.J., 1995. Ethnobotany: A Conservation Manual. Chapman & Hall, London. Martinez, A., Bernal, Y., Caceres, A., 2000. Fundamentos de agrotecnologia de cultivo de plantas medicinales Iberoamericanas. Santafe de Bogota Convenio Andres Bello/Ciencia y Tecnolog a para el Desarrollo, Colombia, 536 pp. Mia, M.M.K., 1990. Traditional medicines of Bangladesh. In: Ghani, A. (Ed.), Traditional Medicines. Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka. Mukherjee, P.K., Pitchairajan, V., Murugan, V., Sivasankaran, P., Khan, Y., 2010. Strategies for revitalization of traditional medicine. Chinese Herbal Medicines 2, 1–15. Muthu, C., Ayyanar, M., Raja, N., Ignacimuthu, S., 2006. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2, 43.

Nadembega, P., Boussim, J.I., Nikiema, J.P., Poli, F., Antognoni, F., 2011. Medicinal plants in Baskoure, Kourittenga Province, Burkina Faso: an ethnobotanical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133, 378–395. Narender, T., Shweta, S., Tiwari, P., Papi, R.K., Khaliq, T., Prathipati, P., Puri, A., Srivastava, A.K., Chander, R., Agarwal, S.C., Raj, K., 2007. Antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic agent from Aegle marmelos. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 17, 1808–1811. Neves, J.M., Matos, C., Moutinho, C., Queiroz, G., Gomes, L.R., 2009. Ethnopharmacological notes about ancient uses of medicinal plants in Tras-os-Montes (northern of Portugal). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 124, 270–283. Packer, J., Brouwer, N., Harrington, D., Gaikwad, J., Heron, R., Yaegl, Community Elders, Ranganathan, S., Vemulpad, S., Jamie, J., 2012. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Yaegl Aboriginal community in northern New South Wales, Australia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 139, 244–255. Patel, A.B., Kanitkar, U.K., 1969. Asparagus racemosus Willd. Form Bardi as a galactagogue in buffaloes. Indian Veterinary Journal 46, 718–721. Perumal Samy, R., Thwin, M.M., Gopalakrishnakone, P., Ignacimuthu, S., 2008. Ethnobotanical survey of folk plants for the treatment of snakebites in Southern part of Tamilnadu, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 115, 302–312. Phillips, O., Gentry, A.H., Reynel, C., Wilkin, P., Galvez-Durand, B.C., 1994. Quantitative ethnobotany and Amazonian conservation. Conservation Biology 8, 225–248. Poffenberger, M., McGean, B., Khare, A., Campbell, J., 1992. Field Method Manual, vol. II. Community Forest Economy and Use Pattern: Participatory and Rural Appraisal (PRA) Methods in South Gujarat India. Society for Promotion of Wastelands Development, New Delhi. Poonam, K., Singh, G.S., 2009. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Taungya community in Terai Arc Landscape, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 123, 167–176. Ragupathy, S., Steven, N.G., Maruthakkutti, M., Velusamy, B., Ul-Huda, M.M., 2008. Consensus of the ‘Malasars’ traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 4, 8. Rahmatullah, M., Chakma, P., Paul, A.K., Nasrin, D., Ahmed, R., Jamal, F., Ferdausi, D., Akber, M., Nahar, N., Ahsan, S., Jahan, R., 2011. A survey of preventive medicinal plants used by the Chakma residents of Hatimara (south) village of Rangamati district, Bangladesh. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 5, 92–96. Rai, L.K., Prasad, P., Sharma, E., 2000. Conservation threats to some important medicinal plants of the Sikkim Himalaya. Biological Conservation 93, 27–33. Rehecho, S., Uriarte-Pueyo, I., Calvo, J., Vivas, L.A., Calvo, M.I., 2011. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Nor-Yauyos, a part of the Landscape Reserve Nor-Yauyos-Cochas, Peru. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133, 75–85. Rivera, D., Obon, C., Inocencio, C., Heinrich, M., Verde, A., Fajardo, J., llorach, R., 2005. The ethnobotanical study of local Mediterranean food plants as medicinal resources in Southern Spain. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 56, 97–114. Rokaya, M.B., Munzbergova, Z., Timsina, B., 2010. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants from the Humla district of western Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 130, 485–504. Sanz-Biset, J., Campos-de-la-Cruz, J., Epiquin-Rivera, M.A., Ca~nigueral, S., 2009. A first survey on the medicinal plants of the Chazuta valley (Peruvian Amazon). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 122, 333–362. Schippmann, U., Leaman, D., Cunnigham, A.B., 2006. Cultivation and wild collection of medicinal and aromatic plants under sustainability aspects. In: Bogers, R.J., Craker, L.E., Lange, D. (Eds.), Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 17, Wageningen UR Frontis. Schmutterer, H., 1995. The Neem Tree Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) and Other Meliaceous Plants: Sources of Unique Natural Products for Integrated Pest Management, Medicine, Industry and Other Purposes. VCH, Weinheim, Germany, p. 696. Senthil-Nathan, S., Kalaivani, K., Murugan, K., Chung, P.G., 2005. Effects of neem limonoids on malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Acta Tropica 96, 47. Sharif, M.M., Banik, G.R., 2006. Status and utilization of medicinal plants in Rangamati of Bangladesh. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 2, 268–273. Sharma, S., Ramji, S., Kumari, S., Bapna, J.S., 1996. Randomized controlled trial of Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) as a lactogogue in lactational inadequacy. Indian Pediatrics 33, 675–677. Singh, S., 1998. Comparative evaluation of antiinflammatory potential of fixed oil of different species of Ocimum and its possible mechanism of action. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 36, 1028–1031. Sofowora, A., 1993. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa, 2nd edition Spectrum Book Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria 289 pp. Ssegawa, P., Kasenene, J.M., 2007. Medicinal plant diversity and uses in the Sango bay area, Southern Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 113, 521–540. Tabuti, J.R.S., Kukunda, C.B., Waako, P.J., 2010. Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners in the treatment of tuberculosis and related ailments in Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 127, 130–136. Tabuti, J.R.S., Lye, K.A., Dhillion, S.S., 2003. Traditional herbal drugs of Bulamogi, Uganda: plants, use and administration. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 88, 19–44. Tag, H., Kalita, P., Dwivedi, P., Das, A.K., Namsa, N.D., 2012. Herbal medicines used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Arunachal Himalaya, northeast, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141, 786–795.

M.F. Kadir et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 144 (2012) 627–637

Tagwireyi, D., Ball, D.E., 2001. The management of Elephant’s Ear poisoning. Human & Experimental Toxicology 20, 189–192. Teklehaymanot, T., Giday, M., Medhin, G., Mekonnen, Y., 2007. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by people around Debre Libanos monastery in Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111, 271–283. Teklehaymanot, T., Giday, M., 2007. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 3, 12. Telefo, P.B., Lienou, L.L., Yemele, M.D., Lemfack, M.C., Mouokeu, C., Goka, C.S., Tagne, S.R., Moundipa, F.P., 2011. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used for the treatment of female infertility in Baham, Cameroon. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 136, 178–187. Trotter, R.T., Logan, M.H., 1986. Informant consensus: a new approach for identifying potentially effective medicinal plants. In: Etkin, N.L. (Ed.), Plants in Indigenous Medicine and Diet, Behavioural Approaches. Redgrave Publishing Company, Bredford Hills, New York, pp. 91–112. Uniyal, S.K., Singh, K.N., Jamwal, P., Lal, B., 2006. Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities Chhota, Western Himalaya. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2, 1–14.

637

Upadhyay, B., Parveen Dhaker, A.K., Kumar, A., 2010. Ethnomedicinal and ethnopharmaco-statistical studies of Eastern Rajasthan, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 129, 64–86. Vanderperren, B., Rizzo, M., Angenot, L., Haufroid, V., Jadoul, M., Hantson, P., 2005. Acute liver failure with renal impairment related to the abuse of senna anthraquinone glycosides. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 39, 1353–1357. Vashishtha, V.M., Kumar, A., John, T.J., Nayak, N.C., 2007. Cassia occidentalis poisoning as the probable cause of hepatomyoencephalopathy in children in western Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal of Medical Research 125, 756–762. Yan, X., Rana, J., Chandra, A., Vredeveld, D., Ware, H., Rebhun, J., Mulder, T., Persons, K., Zemaitis, D., Li, Y., 2008. Medicinal herb extraction strategy—a solvent selection and extraction method study. In: AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings. Philadelphia, PA, United States, November 16–21, 2008, 359/351–359/355. Yusuf, M., Wahab, M.A., Chowdhury, J.U., Begum, J., 2006. Ethno-medico-botanical knowledge from Kaukhali proper and Betbunia of Rangamati District Bangladesh. Journal of Plant Taxonomy 13, 55–61. Zheng, X., Xing, F., 2009. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants around Mt. Yinggeling, Hainan Island, China. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 124, 197–210.