Ethnopharmacological survey of traditional medicinal plants in tribal areas of Kodagu district, Karnataka, India

Ethnopharmacological survey of traditional medicinal plants in tribal areas of Kodagu district, Karnataka, India

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevie...

1MB Sizes 0 Downloads 146 Views

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jopr

Original Article

Ethnopharmacological survey of traditional medicinal plants in tribal areas of Kodagu district, Karnataka, India D.P. Lingaraju*, M.S. Sudarshana, N. Rajashekar Department of Studies in Botany, Manasagangotri, University of Mysore, Mysore 570006, Karnataka, India

article info

abstract

Article history:

Background: Kodagu is one of the tiniest districts in the Southern part of Karnataka (India). It

Received 16 December 2012

is a habitat for more than ten different types of ethnic groups commonly called ‘Girijana’.

Accepted 11 February 2013

An ethnomedicinal survey was undertaken in the tribal areas of the district to collect in-

Available online 9 March 2013

formation from the traditional herbal healers on the use of medicinal plants in order to evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants used in curing various ailments.

Keywords:

Methods: The information was collected through conducting interviews, discussion and

Diseases

field observation with herbal healers and knowledgeable elder people of the study area

Ethnic groups

using semi-structured questionnaire.

Ethnopharmacological survey

Results: The survey reveals that the tribal people even today rely on traditional practice-

Folk medicine

knowledge inherited from generation to generation. It is evident that about 126 plant

Kodagu

species belonging to 60 families are being used as ethnic drugs to cure various ailments viz., diabetes (32), skin disorder (22), diarrhoea (6), wound healing (17), intestinal worm (14), antidote for snake bite (13), jaundice (8) etc., respectively. Conclusion: Recent trend shows a decline in the number of traditional herbal healers in the tribal areas since the younger generation is not interested to continue this tradition. Hence, there is an urgent need to record and preserve all information on plants used by different ethnic/tribal communities for various purposes before it is completely lost. In addition, several wild medicinal plants are declining in number due to deforestation and forest fires. There is need for phytochemical analysis and pharmacological investigations of these important disappearing plants to strengthen the documentation of ethnic drugs. It would help in developing novel drug(s) to treat chronic diseases. Copyright ª 2013, JPR Solutions; Published by Reed Elsevier India Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved.

1.

Introduction

Ethnobotany is the study of interaction of human societies, especially primitive human societies like tribals and aboriginal communities with the surrounding flora. The Indian region with a vast heritage of diverse ethnic groups and rich

biodiversity is a great emporium and treasure house of ethnobotanical wealth. Each and every tribal/ethnic community has its own system of traditional medicine and they utilize natural resource around their habitats for various medicinal purposes. In India, a large section of the rural populations living far away from urban area still rely on

* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ91 9448996416 E-mail address: [email protected] (D.P. Lingaraju). 0974-6943/$ e see front matter Copyright ª 2013, JPR Solutions; Published by Reed Elsevier India Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jopr.2013.02.012

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7

traditional herbal medicine for their primary health care needs. This is because, medicinal plants are easily available natural products and cost effective.6 Ethnic drugs have often been the source for new drugs or active compounds for various critical ailments. Hence, the World Health Organization has recognized the role of traditional systems of medicine and considers them a part of strategy to provide health care to the masses. India has about 8% of the world’s biodiversity on 2% of the earth’s surface area, making it one of the 12 mega-diversity centres of the world, due to the species richness and level of endemism recorded in the various agro-climatic zones of the country. It reported that there are more than 17,209 different kinds of flowering plants, out of which more than 7918 plants have medicinal values in India.2 India is inhabited by more than 550 ethnic/tribal communities, consisting about 8% of the total population of the country. It has been estimated that about 15% of the total geographical area of the subcontinent is covered by nearly 5000 forest dominated tribal villages.1 In this respect, India is considered as a great repository of ethnobotanical wealth. But traditional knowledge is under serious threat of being confined to past history, as the younger people caught in the wave of modernization, do not appreciate the importance of conservation of ethnic knowledge and in some cases, they do not have faith in them.16 And also there is a steady decline in human expertise capable of recognizing various medicinal plants. Much of this wealth of knowledge is totally becoming lost as traditional culture gradually disappears.5 Hence, there is an urgent need to record and preserve all information on plants used by different ethnic/tribal communities for various purposes before it is completely lost.18 Reports on ethnobotanical knowledge in Karnataka state are restricted to certain areas like Uttara Kannada, Mysore and Shimoga district.4,13e15 Very few literatures were available on the herbal folk medicine of Kodagu district.8,9,11,12 Hence, a survey was undertaken to document ethnobotanical knowledge of tribal communities of Kodagu district of Karnataka state. Kodagu (also called Coorg) is one of the tiniest districts in the Southern part of Karnataka [Fig. 1] covering an area of 4104 sq km. It belongs to Western Ghats, one of the 8 hottest biodiversity hotspots of the world. It occupies a prominent position in the humid tropical belt of Western Ghats and is situated to the South-west in Karnataka between 11 560 and 12 150 N latitude and 75 220 and 76 110 E longitude with different elevations from 300 m to 2200 m MSL. It is a habitat for more than ten different types of ethnic groups namely the Kadu Kuruba, the Jenu Kuruba, the Betta Kuruba, the Mullu Kuruba, the Gowda Kuruba, the Yerava, the Panjariyerava, the Malekudiya, the Medha and the Soliga.19 They live in small huts with mud walls, bamboo doors and strong roof thatched with grass and straw. The tribal hamlets called ‘hadies’ have been segregated from main villages and their socio-economic condition is comparatively in a bad shape where the facilities like permanent housing, drinking water, electrification, roads, educational facilities, health and sanitation are quite poor. Modern health care facility is still an outlandish in many hadies. Nevertheless, Government has established few Primary Health Centres (Allopathic) they deficient in many

285

elementary amenities including the physicians. Common health problems faced by these ethnic groups are malnutrition, worm infections, skin diseases, diarrhoea, jaundice, diabetes, fever & stomach ache. They have a tremendous inherited knowledge of folk medicine.

2.

Methodology

Information on the use of medicinal plants was gathered during Aug 2010eSep 2012 through field surveys in different ethnic hadies in the three taluks e Somwarpet, Virajpet and Madikeri of Kodagu district. The conventional ethnobotanical methods endorsed by Botanical Survey of India were followed in the survey.10 The information was collected through conducting interviews, discussion and field observation with herbal healers and knowledgeable elder people of the study area using semi-structured questionnaire comprising the information about plants and their local names, to which disease used for, parts used, method of drug preparation, mode of administration, dosage, specific comments if any. The ethnomedicinal information thus obtained was confirmed by cross checking with respondents and also with the former patients residing in the same or neighbouring villages. The data collected was compared with the already existing literature. Plant specimens of medicinal importance were collected with the help of folk practitioners and identified using standard flora.3,7 The identified plants were made into herbarium and were compared with the herbarium sheets kept at Department of Studies in Botany, University of Mysore, Mysore for further taxonomic identification and accuracy of species and the voucher specimens were deposited in the Department afore-said. The important ethnobotanical species of Kodagu district have been enumerated here alphabetically along with botanical names with citation, family name, local names, ethnobotanical uses followed by name of the herbal healers [Table 1].

3.

Results and discussion

The study revealed the ethnobotanical information of 126 plant species belonging to 48 Dicot and 12 Monocot families e Table 1. Of the total 126 species documented, 109 are growing wild and 17 are cultivated. Most plants used in the treatment were herbs (69 species) trees (21 species) and rarely climbers (18 species) and shrubs (18 species). About 32 plants for diabetes, 22 for skin disorders, 18 for diarrhoea, 17 for wound healing, 14 for intestinal worms, 13 plants as antidote for snake bite and scorpion sting, 11 for fever, 8 for jaundice, 7 for asthma, 6 for indigestion, 6 for leucorrhoea, 6 for piles, 6 for epilepsy, 5 for intestinal worms, 5 for birth control, 4 for sexual debility and 2e3 each for anaemia, hypertension, mouth ulcers, lactagogue, migraine, bone fracture, venereal diseases, renal disorders, mad dog bite, labour pain, malaria and sprains. Maximum of 6 plant species each of Acanthaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were used for drug preparation, followed by Asclepiadaceae (5), Liliaceae (5), Fabaceae (5), Verbenaceae (5), Caesalpinaceae (4),

286

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7

Fig. 1 e Location map of Kodagu district, Karnataka.

Cucurbitaceae (4), Euphorbiaceae (4), Solanaceae (3) and Araceae (3). Different parts of plants like leaves, roots, rhizome, flowers, fruits, seeds, are being used for different purposes (Fig. 3). For the herbal formulations, leaves (39%) were the most preferred plant part, followed by fruits and seeds (18%), roots (16%), whole plant (13%), stem bark (11) and latex (3%). Among the drug formulations, paste (39.06%) and decoctions (34.37%) were commonly used over the juice (15.62%) and raw (10.93%). Oral administrations (77%) are generally preferred for most diseases, while external applications (23%) are prescribed for skin diseases, snake bite and wound healing purposes. In most cases, the rural people of the study area prefer to use single plant species (86.95%) for specific ailments rather than combinations of plants (13.04%). Generally fresh leaves, bark and roots were preferred and in the absence of fresh materials, the dried ones were also prescribed. It is noticed that the different ethnic/tribal groups living in a distantly located geographical regions possess different dialects, cultures and subsistence but have common knowledge about certain plant species. For example, usage of Passiflora subpeltata against jaundice is same among Jenu Kuruba, Kadu Kuruba and Mullu Kuruba tribes of study area. This study suggests that they influence each other in the adoption and usage of certain plant species and also specific cultural sensibility towards them. We have reported in our study that similar

medicinal plant was used by the healers of the community as used by the healers in different parts of Karnataka. For example usage of root of Tabernaemontana coronaria and leaf latex of Lobelia nicotianaefolia against snake used by the Jenu Kuruba tribal herbal healers is similar to the studies in the NR Pura taluk of Chikmagalore14; Mullu Kuruba tribe in Wayanad district of Kerala use Rubia cordifolia to treat skin diseases is same as in the present study.20 However, herbal medicinal practices vary among different group of people in different regions of India. Same plant used to treat one disorder in one formulation may vary in the far away places. For example Andrographis paniculata used to treat diabetes and intestinal worms by the Kadu Kuruba tribal people in the study area is also found usage against malaria and diarrhoea by the Gond tribe of Bhandara district of Maharashtra.17 Some of the noteworthy observations of the survey work, not reported anywhere, are the utilization of certain plant species in curing specific diseases and disorders. For example leaves of P. subpeltata, and Cinnamomum iners for the treatment of jaundice; Centratherum anthelmenticum, Clerodendrum inerme, Cyclea peltata, Ervatamia heyneana for diabetes; roots of, Hydrocotyle javanica and Heracelum rigens for diarrhoea; Blepharis asperrima for bone fracture; root of Adenia hondala, Pimpinella heyneana (Fig. 2J) and Eryngium foetidum (Fig. 2D) for wound healing; Jasminum malabaricum for conjunctivitis and

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7

287

Fig. 2 e Different parts of medicinal plants used in the treatments of various ailments by the tribal/local herbal healer of Kodagu district. (Note: Original photographs taken from study area during ethnopharmacological survey). A e Andrographis paniculata e fruits, B e Arisaema leschenaultii e root tubers, C e Caesalpinia bonducella e fruits, D e Eryngium foetidum e roots, E e Exacum bicolor e flowers, F e Gloriosa superba e root, G e Hedychium coronarium e rhizome (chapped), H e Heracleum rigens e root, I e Mucuna prurita e flowers, J e Pimpinella heyneana e roots, K e Platanthera susannae e root tubers, L e Randia dumetorum e root powder.

root of Curculigo orchioides for spinder sting and Randia dumetorum (Fig. 2L) as antidote for snake bite and seeds of Caesalpinia bonducella for rabies (Fig. 2C). The following plants i.e. A. hondala, Andrographis serpyllifolia, Arisaema leschenaultii, Barleria prionitis, Biophytum sensivitum, B. asperrima, Canna indica, Capsicum frutescens, Centratherum anthelminticum, C. iners, Cryptolepis buchanani, Cucumis prophetarum, Dendrophthoe falcate, Desmodium pulchellum, E. foetidum, Gymnema sylvestre, Hedychium coronarium, H. javanica, Justicia wynaadensis, Leonurus

sibiricus, Momordica dioica, P. subpeltata, P. heyneana, Platanthera susannae, Pothos scandens reported in the paper were not recorded for similar use by earlier workers who explored the ethnomedicinal knowledge of Kodagu district.8,9,11,12 Some of the plants identified in the study area have been listed as endangered in the IUCN Red data book. These include A. hondala, A. paniculata (Fig. 2A), C. orchioides, Exacum bicolor (Fig. 2E), Gloriosa superba (Fig. 2F), Garcinia gummigutta, H. coronarium (Fig. 2G), H. rigens (Fig. 2H), Mucuna prurita (Fig. 2I), P. susannae

Sl. no

Botanical name & family

Local name (kannada)

Part used

Abrus precatorius L. Papilionaceae

Gulaganji

Seeds

2

Abutilon indicum Sweet Malvaceae Acacia concinna DC. Mimosaceae Acalypha indica L. Euphorbiaceae Acorus calamus L. Acoraceae Adenia hondala de Wilde Passifloraceae

Brahmamudre

Root

Siegeballi Kuppi gida

Leaves Fruits Leaves

Baje

Rhizome

Kadu gumbala

Root tuber Leaves

3 4 5 6

7

Aerva lanata Juss. Amaranthaceae

Bilihindisoppu

Leaves Flowers

8

Agave americana L. Agavaceae Allium cepa L. Liliaceae

Butale

Leaves

Eerulli

Bulb Leaves

Allium sativum L. Liliaceae Aloe vera Burm. f. Xanthorrhoeaceae

Bellulli

Bulbs

Lolisara

Leaves

9

10 11

12

Alstonia scholaris R. Br. Apocynaceae

Maddale

Stem bark Leaves

13

Amaranthus spinosus L. Amaranthaceae

Mullu harivesoppu

Whole plant

14

Andrographis paniculata Nees. Acanthaceae

Nela bevu

Whole plant

15

Andrographis serpyllifolia W. Acanthaceae Annona reticulata L. Annonaceae

Kaasinasara

Whole plant

Seeta pala

Leaves & seeds

16

Uses and mode of administration Paralysis: Seed paste is applied externally on affected portion, till cure. Antiseptic: Seed paste mixed with salt and charcoal is applied externally on wound to stop bleeding and pus formation. Fever: Root decoction mixed with a pinch of turmeric is given orally twice a day for two days. Chest pain: Paste of young leaves is applied externally on the chest. Fish poison: Fruit powder is used for fish poisoning. Dermatitis: Leaf paste mixed with a pinch of lime is applied externally to cure skin complaints like scabies and ring worms. Stomachic: A pinch of rhizome powder mixed with rice flour is cooked in cow’s milk and given to 6 e10 months aged baby to improve digestion and appetite. Antiseptic: Paste of root tuber is applied externally on wounds to prevent infection. Larvicidal: Root and leaf paste mixed with salt and charcoal is applied externally on wounds to wipe out or kill maggots of insects in cattle. Diabetes: 4e8 leaves are eaten raw in empty stomach in the morning. Herpes: Paste of the whole plant is applied externally on herpes for 9 days. Fever: Decoction of leaves and flowers is given orally, thrice a day, till cure. Dysentery: Infusion of leaf pulp is administered orally, twice a day. Fish poison: Leaves crushed with ash and used for fish poisoning. Cough: A medium sized bulb is kept in hot ash for 10e20 min and eaten with a teaspoonful of honey. Diabetes: Two teaspoonful of leaf juice is taken orally in empty stomach in the morning, for two months. Hyperacidity: Leaf bulb is eaten raw in empty stomach, early in the morning for 15 days. Respiratory disorders: Fumes from epidermal peel of bulbs is inhaled for asthma and cough. Diabetes: Leaf pulp boiled in water is taken orally for a month. Dysentery: Leaf pulp crushed in butter milk is given orally, till recovery. Piles: Leaf pulp mixed with castor oil is applied externally on fistula, twice a day for about 10 days. Skin disorders: Leaf pulp crushed in neem seed oil is applied externally on ring worms, scabies, boils and other skin diseases Cholera: Bark crushed in water and mixed with cow’s urine is given orally, twice a day for 10 days. Asthma: Fumes from the dried leaves is inhaled twice a day for 10 days. Diarrhoea: Seeds crushed in hot water is taken orally, till cure. Diabetes: Decoction of the whole plant mixed with salt and pepper powder is administered internally for about 20 days. Diuretic: Leaf infusion is given orally to promote flow of urine. Fever: Leaf juice mixed with ginger paste is taken orally. Diabetes: Leaf decoction is given orally for a period of one month. Vermifuge: Leaf juice mixed with salt and few drops of lemon is given internally. Fever: Root, stem, leaves &flowers in equal quantity are crushed, mixed with cow’s milk and taken orally thrice a day for 2 days. Diarrhoea: Root paste mixed with tea decoction is orally administered. Cough: Plant paste mixed with 2e3 drops of honey is given orally. Fever: Leaf infusion is administered internally, daily twice for three days. Diabetes: 2e4 tender leaves are eaten raw in empty stomach. Abortifacient: The seed powder mixed with honey is given to induce abortion for birth control.

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7

1

288

Table 1 e Plant species used by the tribal people & local herbal healers to treat different human ailments in Kodagu district.

17 18

19 20

Argyreia cuneata Ker-Gawl. Convolvulaceae Arisaema leschenaultii Bl. Araceae

Acche gida

Root

Havina jola

Root tubers Fruits

Aristolochia indica L. Aristolochiaceae Artemisia vulgaris L. Asteraceae

Eshwariberu

Roots

Davana

Whole plant

Datturi

Seeds

22

Asclepias curassavica L. Asclepiadaceae

Haalu gida

Latex Leaves

23

Asparagus racemosus Willd. Asparagaceae

Talegunjari

Root tubers

24

Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Acanthaceae

Kolike mullu

Tender leaves

25

Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Meliaceae

Bevu

Leaves Flowers Seeds

26

Bacopa monnieri Pennell. Scrophulariaceae

Nirubrahmi

Leaves

27

Bambusa arundinacea Willd. Poaceae Barleria prionitis L. Acanthaceae Bauhinia malabarica Roxb. Caesalpinaceae Bidens biternata Sheriff. Asteraceae Biophytum sensitivum DC. Oxalidaceae Blepharis asperrima Nees. Acanthaceae Boerhaavia diffusa L. Nyctaginaceae Bombax malabaricum DC. Bombacaceae Bryophyllum pinnatum Kurz. Crassulaceae

Hebbidiru

Young shoot

Gorastige

Leaves

Basavana pada

Stem bark

Ubbalu mullu

Leaves

Nayinalage Haridarehattu

Root Leaves Whole plant

Punarnava

Leaves

Booruga

Stem bark

Kadu basale

Leaves

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Epilepsy: Root paste mixed with honey is given orally, daily once for 3 days. Diabetes: Leaf decoction is taken internally, twice a day. Bone fracture: The whole plant is crushed, slightly warmed, mixed with egg albumen and applied externally on wounds for early healing and joining of fractured bones. Diabetes: 2e4 leaves are eaten raw, daily once. Jaundice: Leaf and flower paste mixed in butter milk is given orally, for a week. Diarrhoea: The bark pounded with salt is soaked in water for a while and strained. A teaspoonful of filtrate mixed with butter milk is given orally, thrice a day. Diabetes & Anthelmintic: Leaf decoction is taken orally in empty stomach. Piles: The seed powder mixed with leaf paste is applied externally on fistula, twice a day for a week. (continued on next page)

289

Argemone mexicana L. Papaveraceae

Anthelmintic: Root decoction is taken orally to kill intestinal worms in empty stomach. Respiratory disorders: Fumes from the plant is inhaled to relieve asthma and bronchitis. Fever: Plant infusion is administered orally, twice a day, till cure. Eczema: Seed powder mixed with groundnut oil is applied externally, for a week. Snake bite: Seed paste mixed with salt and 2e4 drops of lemon juice is applied externally as antidote on the spot of snake bite and scorpion sting. Skin diseases: Milky latex is applied externally on ring worms, scabies and other skin diseases. Anthelmintic: Plant infusion in butter milk is given twice to remove out pinworms and round worms. Stomach ache & Diarrhoea: Root tubers crushed in butter milk is taken orally. Lactagogue: Root tubers crushed in cow’s milk is given orally to promote/increase flow of milk in nursing mother. Anaemia: Decoction of its young shoots and leaves of Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae) is given orally to the lactating mother, twice a day. Jaundice: Young leaves crushed in butter milk is given internally, before sunrise. Anthelmintic & Diabetes: 2e4 tender leaves are eaten raw in empty stomach. Chicken pox: The leaves, flowers of this plant and leaves of Coleus amboinicus (Lamiaceae) and 2e4 garlic bulbs is ground to paste and applied externally twice a day, for a week. Bone fracture: A mixture of neem seed oil, egg albumen and charcoal is applied externally on the affected portion in cattle. Epilepsy: A teaspoonful of leaf juice is given orally twice a day, for 2 days to treat epilepsy in children. Jaundice: Leaves crushed with butter milk is taken orally for a week. Anaemia: Tender shoots are used as vegetables. Body strength: Seeds are cooked to rice and used as food to improve body strength. Antiseptic: Leaf paste mixed with lime juice is applied externally on wounds to stop bleeding and promote early healing. Diarrhoea: The stem bark pounded in water, strained, mixed with freshly mulched cow’s milk, honey, a pinch of turmeric powder and salt and is taken orally in empty stomach. Antiseptic: Leaf paste is applied externally on wounds to stop bleeding and for early healing.

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7

21

Anthelmintic: Root paste mixed with lemon juice is taken orally to remove out intestinal worms. Diabetes: Milk extract of leaves mixed with a cup of water is given internally for 2e3 weeks. Antiseptic: Paste of root tubers is applied externally on wounds, till cure. Snake bite: Fruit/leaf and root paste is applied on the spot of snake bite, thrice a day for about eight days. Abortifacient: Root paste is given orally to induce abortion for birth control.

290

Table 1 e (continued ) Sl. no

Botanical name & family

Local name (kannada)

Part used

Butea monosperma Taub. Papilionaceae

Mutthuga

Leaves Stem bark Seeds

37

Caesalpinia bonducella Flem. Caesalpinaceae

Gajjuga

Seeds

38

Calotropis gigantea R. Br. Asclepiadaceae Canna indica L. Cannaceae Capsicum frutescens L. Solanaceae

Yekka

Latex

Sobane hu gid

Rhizome

Gaandhari menasu

Fruits

41

Carica papaya L. Caricaceae

Pappayi

Fruits Leaves

42

Cassia auriculata L. Caesalpiniaceae Cassia fistula L. Caesalpiniaceae Catharanthus roseus G. Don. Apocynaceae

Avarike

Leaves Seeds Bark Fruit Leaves Root

39 40

43 44

Kakke Nithya pushpa

45

Centella asiatica Urb. Apiaceae

Ondelaga

Leaves

46

Centratherum anthelminticum O. Kze. Asteraceae Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Chenopodiaceae

Kadu jirige

Leaves, seeds

Sonkina gida

Whole plant

48

Cinnamomum iners W. Lauraceae

Yalaga chakke

Stem bark

49

Citrus aurantium L. Rutaceae Clematis gouriana Roxb. Ranunculaceae

Hiraligida

Fruit rind

Talejadari

Leaves

47

50

Diabetes: Leaf infusion is administered orally, daily once. Jaundice: Stem bark is soaked in a glass of water overnight, filtered, mixed with freshly mulched cow’s milk and given orally, on alternate 3 days. Vermifuge: The crushed seeds are taken to drive out worms from intestine. Anti-rabies: Seed paste mixed with sandal paste and lemon juice is applied on the mad dog bitten spot, daily twice for seven days. Sexual debility: A pinch of seed powder mixed in cow’s milk is taken orally, daily once to increase sexual appetite. Skin diseases: Leaf paste mixed with sandal wood paste and turmeric is applied externally on affected portion in the treatment of herpes, scabies, eczema & ring worms. Scabies: Latex mixed with mustard oil is applied externally, 2 times for 3 days. Dyspepsia: The cooked rhizome is used as vegetables in the treatment of indigestion or stomach upset. Common cold: The fruits ground with garlic, ginger, black pepper and salt is used as chutney with rice. Vermicide: The fruits ground with salt and charcoal is applied externally to wipe out maggots from the wounds of cattle. Anthelmintic: The unripe fruits eaten raw to eradicate intestinal worms mainly pinworms and round worms. Abortifacient: The young fruits eaten raw to induce abortion for birth control. Diabetes: The leaf decoction is given orally. Anthelmintic & Diabetes: The leaf/seed powder decoction is given orally, daily once. Dysentery: The stem bark crushed in water is taken orally. Piles: Fruit pulp squashed in water is given orally, daily twice for 10e15 days. Diabetes: 2e4 leaves and flowers eaten raw in empty stomach, daily once. Snake bite: Root paste mixed with pepper and lime is applied externally on the snake bitten spot, thrice a day. Hypertension: 4e8 leaves are eaten raw, daily morning in empty stomach. Jaundice: Leaves crushed in butter milk is administered orally in empty stomach, before sunrise, for 5 days. Anthelmintic & Diabetes: The leaf decoction is taken orally. Fever: The seed decoction is administered orally, daily twice for 2 days Anthelmintic: Leaf juice mixed with honey is given orally in empty stomach. Skin allergy: The whole plant crushed with leaves of Coleus amboinicus and Vitex negundo and the juice is applied externally. Jaundice: The pounded bark is soaked in water overnight and filtered through a thin white cloth. Fried rice powder is added to the boiling filtrate and kept out in open air for a night and taken orally as food, daily thrice, till cure. Diabetes: The shade dried, powdered fruit rind along with a bit of ginger is boiled in water and taken orally in empty stomach, daily once. Venereal diseases: Leaf paste mixed with cow’s urine is given orally for the treatment of gonorrhoea and syphilis.

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7

36

Uses and mode of administration

51

Vishaparihari Doddapatre

Leaves Root Leaves

Hulikabbu

Rhizome

Isubu balli

Latex

Kahisowthekai

Fruit

Jeerige

Fruits

Nela tengu

Roots

Kadu arishina

Rhizome

Swarnalatha

Whole plant

Kaduhonagane soppu

Whole plant

61

Cyclea peltata Hk. & Th. Menispermaceae

Kongepatte hambu

Whole plant

62

Datura stramonium L. Solanaceae Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ett. Loranthaceae Desmodium pulchellum Benth. Papilionaceae Dioscorea bulbifera L. Dioscoreaceae Diospyros montana Roxb. Ebenaceae

Ummatti

Leaves &fruits

Banjarike

Leaves

Kadugida

Leaves

Heggenasu

Bulbils

Jagalaganti mara

Stem bark

67

Eclipta prostrata L. Asteraceae

Garagasada soppu

Whole plant

68

Elephantopus scaber L. Asteraceae Ervatamia heyneana Cooke. Apocynaceae

Nayinalage

Whole plant

Kadunandibattalu

Latex Leaves Root

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

63 64 65 66

69

Anthelmintic & Diabetes: The shade dried, coarse powdered leaf decoction is administered orally. Snake bite: Root paste mixed with lime is applied on the snake bitten spot, daily twice for a week. Skin allergy: The leaf crushed in water is applied externally on affected portion. Epilepsy: A teaspoonful of plant juice is given orally, daily once for 3 days. Diarrhoea: The rhizome ground to paste, mixed with butter milk and taken orally. Eczema & scabies: A piece of cloth is dipped in milky latex of this plant, burnt ash, mixed with coconut oil and applied externally on the affected portion, daily once for 5 days. Emetic: The fruit squashed in cow urine is given orally to a poison consumed person to induce vomiting and to remove out poison. Hyperacidity: The seed decoction is taken orally, daily twice for 10e15 days. Antidote: tuberous root ground with lemon juice and salt is applied externally on the bitten spot for Snake bite and Spider bite (‘nelaguruva’ e a poisonous spider), twice a day for 8 days. Antiseptic: The rhizome juice is applied externally on wounds for early healing. Epilepsy: Paste of the whole plant is mixed with a teaspoonful of honey is given orally once a day for 3 days. Diarrhoea: The plant decoction is given orally, till cure. Scabies: The root paste mixed with mustard oil is applied externally on affected portion, till it is cured. Diabetes: The leaf fruit decoction is orally taken. Leucorrhoea: The leaf paste mixed with rice washed water is orally taken, 2e3 times a day for 3 days. Sprains: The whole pant crushed with water and applied on the injured ligament to relieve pain and inflammation. Herpes: The leaf and fruit paste is applied externally on affected portion to cure viral infections such as herpes and measles, daily once for 7 days. Migraine: Leaf paste of is applied externally on forehead to treat partial headache. Menorrhagia: Leaf decoction mixed with paste of hibiscus flower is given orally twice a day for 3 days to control profuse or prolonged menstruation. Piles: Bulbils are used as vegetables for a week to treat bleeding piles. Jaundice: The crushed bark of the stem is soaked in water overnight, filtered and the filtrate mixed with sugar cane juice/cow’s milk is taken orally, daily once for 3e5 days. Fish poisoning: The smashed stem bark is used for fish poisoning. Diabetes: decoction of whole plant is administered orally in empty stomach, daily once for a month. Antiseptic: Leaf paste is applied on wounds to stop bleeding and infection. Antiseptic: Dried powdered plant is applied on the wounds to prevent microbial infections, till it is cured. Eczema: A piece of cloth dipped in the latex is burnt to ash, mixed with coconut oil and applied on affected portion, daily twice for a week. Diabetes: The decoction of dried leaf powder is orally taken. Snake bite: Root paste mixed with lemon juice is applied on snake bitten spot.

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7

Clerodendron inerme Gaertn. Verbenaceae Coleus amboinicus Lour. Lamiaceae Costus speciosus Sm. Costaceae Cryptolepis buchanani R.&S. Asclepiadacea Cucumis prophetarum L. Cucurbitaceae Cuminum cyminum L. Apiaceae Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. Amaryllidaceae Curcuma aromatica Sal. Zingiberaceae Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Convolvulaceae Cyathula prostrata Bl. Amaranthaceae

(continued on next page)

291

292

Table 1 e (continued ) Sl. no

Botanical name & family

Local name (kannada)

Part used

Eryngium foetidum L. Apiaceae

Kaadu sambara

Whole plant

71

Erythrina variegata L. Papilionaceae Euphorbia laeta Roth. Euphorbiaceae Exacum bicolor Roxb. Gentianaceae Garcinia gummigutta Roxb. Cluciaceae

Panuvala

Seeds

Halugida

Whole plant

Bettadaneelihu

Whole plant

Hampuli mara

Fruits

75

Gloriosa superba L. Liliaceae

Gowri huvu

Root tuber

76

Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. Asclepiadaceae Hedychium coronarium Koen. Zingiberaceae Heliotropium indicum L. Boraginaceae Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. Asclepiadaceae

Madhu nashini

Leaves

Kage suli

Rhizome

Chelu kondi

Leaves Flowers Leaves Roots

80

Heracleum rigens Wall. Apiaceae

Gaali beeja

Roots Fruits

81

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Malvaceae Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb. Apiaceae

Dasavala

Flower

Uraganasoppu

Whole plant

Hyptis suaveolens Poit. Lamiaceae Jasminum malabaricum W. Oleaceae

Nayi tulasi

Leaves

Kadu mallige

Stem sap

Jatropha curcas L. Euphorbiaceae

Kacchi

Latex Leaves stem Seeds

72 73 74

77 78 79

82

83 84

85

Sogade

Diarrhoea, stomachic: Leaf paste mixed with black pepper and salt is taken orally, 2e4 times for 7 days. Antiseptic: Paste of whole plant along with lime is applied on wounds. Eczema: Seed powder mixed with castor oil and a pinch of lime is applied externally on affected portion, twice a day for 5 days. Skin diseases: Paste of whole plant mixed with lemon juice is applied on affected portion to cure skin infections such as eczema, scabies, ring worms. Asthma: Decoction of whole plant along with honey is taken orally, 4e5 times a day for 10 days. Eczema: The juice (hampuli) extracted from the fruits is applied externally. Anti-cholesterolemic: Consumption of hampuli along with curry prevents cholesterol deposition and obesity. Snake bite: Root crushed with salt is applied on snake bitten spot. Labour pain: Root paste mixed with coconut oil is massaged on the belly of pregnant women, at the time of delivery to induce easy childbirth. Larvicide: Root paste mixed with charcoal is applied on wounds to wipe out maggots in cattle. Diabetes: 2e3 leaves eaten raw, daily once. Antiseptic: Leaf paste is applied on wounds for early healing. Sexual debility: In combination with honey, the rhizome paste is taken orally. Antiseptic: Rhizome and leaf paste is applied on wounds to prevent microbial infections. Skin disorders: The plant crushed with sandal wood and lemon juice is applied against pimples, ring worms and scabies. Diuretics: Leaf decoction is given orally, twice a day for a week. Stomachic: Root decoction with a pinch of common salt is taken internally. Fever: Leaf decoction is taken orally, daily twice for 2 days. Diuretics: The decoction of root is used to promote flow of urine. Asthma: The fumes from the fruits is inhaled, daily once for a week. Antiseptic: Root paste mixed with lemon juice is applied on wounds. Leucorrhoea: The flower paste mixed with cow’s milk is taken orally. Dysentery: The whole plant crushed in butter milk is taken orally, till cure. Menorrhagia: The leaves of this plant and leaves of Adiantum (a fern) crushed in butter milk is taken orally. Fish poisoning: The whole plant pounded with ash is used for fish poisoning. Fever & Rheumatic pain: The leaf decoction is taken orally, daily twice for 3 days. Cataract: Stem Juice is used for the treatment of cataract Conjunctivitis: Stem sap mixed with breast milk is dropped into the eyes 4e5 times a day for 3e4 days as a remedy against conjunctivitis. Antiseptic: The watery latex is applied on wounds to stop Bleeding. Abortifacient: The seeds crushed in water is taken orally to induce abortion. Hyperacidity: Two drops of watery latex diluted in a cup of water is taken orally in the empty stomach, for three days. Fish poisoning: The whole plant pounded with ash is used for fish poisoning.

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7

70

Uses and mode of administration

Justicia wynaadensis Heyne. Acanthaceae

Madubana soppu

Leaves & stem

87

Lagenaria siceraria Standl. Cucurbitaceae Lantana camara L. Verbenaceae Leonurus sibiricus L. Lamiaceae

Sorekayi

Leaves

Unni gida Kempu tumbe

Leaves Fruits Whole plant

Leucas aspera Spr. Lamiaceae Leucas linifolia Spr. Lamiaceae Lippia nodiflora Mich. Verbenaceae Litsea floribunda Gamb. Lauraceae Lobelia nicotianaefolia Heyne. Companulaceae

Tumbe

Whole plant

Kadu tumbe

Leaves, flowers

Nela hippali

Whole plant

Kaduchakke mara

Bark

Kadu hogesoppu

Latex

88 89

90 91 92 93 94

95

Madhuca indica Gmel. Sapotaceae

Hippe

Leaves, flowers, seeds

96

Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae Mentha arvensis L. Lamiaceae Mimosa pudica L. Mimosaceae Momordica charantia L. Cucurbitaceae Momordica dioica Willd. Cucurbitaceae

Mavu

Stem bark

Pudina

Leaves

Nachike mullu

Root

Kahi hagala kayi

Leaves Fruits Leaves Root tuber

101

Mucuna prurita Hook. Papilionaceae

Nasugunni

Pod hairs & Seeds

102

Murraya paniculata Jack. Rutaceae Musa paradisiacal L. Musaceae

Kadu karibevu

Leaves

Baale

Leaf bases

Bellullibeelu

Leaves

97 98 99 100

103

104

Anticoagulant: Leaf juice is applied on wounds to stop bleeding. Piles: The fruits crushed in cow’s milk are given orally, daily twice, till cure. Leucorrhoea: Leaf paste mixed with cow’s milk is taken orally, daily twice. Labour pain: Paste of whole plant mixed with castor oil is massaged on the belly, at the time of childbirth to promote easy labour. Cough & Fever: Dried leaf powder mixed with honey and licked relieves cough and fever in children. Antidote: Root paste mixed with black pepper is applied on the spot of snake bite/scorpion sting. Arthritis: Equal amount of leaves and flowers of Leucas linifolia and Solanum surattense are ground together, warmed and applied on the swellings of joints for quick remedy. Diabetes: The decoction of whole plant is taken orally. Antiseptic: Plant paste mixed with asafoetida is applied on wounds. Malaria: Stem decoction is taken orally, daily twice for 4e5 days. Snake bite: Latex is applied on snake bitten spot. Skin infections: Leaf paste is applied externally on affected portion to treat skin diseases like eczema, scabies and sores. Insecticide: Leaves are fumigated as mosquito repellent. Anthelmintic & Diabetes: Decoction of dry leaves and flowers is taken orally. Piles: 25 gms. of seed powder boiled with 4 cups of water, reduced to one cup, strained and taken in morning and evening. Dysentery: The stem crushed in water, strained, mixed with freshly mulched cow’s milk is taken orally. Stomachic: Leaf juice mixed with honey is taken orally. Hyperacidity: 2e4 leaves chewed raw in empty stomach, daily once for a week. Diarrhoea: Root paste mixed with a pinch of salt and 2e4 drops of lemon juice is given orally. Diabetes & piles: Fruit and leaf juice is taken orally, daily once for a month. Piles: Leaf juice taken orally, daily once for 15e20 days. Snake bite: Root tuber pounded with lime is applied externally on snake bitten spot, daily thrice for 7 days. Cancer: Root tuber is used to treat cancer. Anthelmintic: The pod hairs are ground to paste in water and given orally to kill intestinal worms. Leucoderma: Seed powder mixed with sandal powder and water. The paste is applied externally on affected portion of skin, twice a day for 20 days. Diabetes: Leaf decoction is taken orally, daily once for 15 days. Mouth ulcers: Leaves are chewed with clove relieves mouth ulcers. Urino-genital diseases: The central tender sheathing leaf bases of pseudo-stem is cut into small pieces, semi-cooked and used as vegetables in the treatment of Leucorrhoea, Dysmenorrhoea and renal stones. Scabies &eczema: The leaf paste mixed with lemon juice and coconut oil is applied externally on affected portion, for a week. (continued on next page)

293

Naravelia zeylanica DC. Ranunculaceae

Madi hagala kayi

Asthma: 500 gms. of whole plant pounded and boiled in 2 L of water, reduced to half litre, to which equal amount of honey is added. Small amount of this is taken 4e5 times a day for a week. Immunity: 1 kg of whole plant is boiled in 5 L of water, reduced to 3 L and the decoction is used to cook rice called madhubanna. In combination with honey and ghee, it is consumed as a special food. Anthelmintic & Anti diabetic: The leaf juice is taken orally in empty stomach.

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7

86

294

Table 1 e (continued ) Sl. no

Botanical name & family

Local name (kannada)

Part used

Oroxylum indicumVent. Bignoniaceae

Patha gani

Root

106

Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae Oxalis corniculata L. Oxalidaceae Passiflora subpeltata Ortega. Passifloraceae Phyllanthus niruri L. Euphorbiaceae Pimpinella heyneana Wall. Apiaceae Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae Platanthera susannae Lindl. Orchidaceae Plumbago zeylanica L. Plumbaginaceae

Kamakasturi

Leaves flowers

Majjige huli soppu

Leaves & fruits

Kamaleballi

Leaves, fruits

Nelanalli

Whole plant

Kadu sabsige soppu

Root

Kari menasu Nela site huvu

Leaves Fruits Root tubers

Chitra mula

Roots

Plumeria rubra L. Apocynaceae Psidium guajava L. Myrtaceae Pothos scandens L. Araceae Randia dumetorum L. Rubiaceae

Deva kanigile

Latex

Seebe

Leaves

Sokina maddu

Stem

Kare

Root & fruits

118

Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. Apocynaceae

Sarpagandha

Root

119

Rotheca serrata Steane & Mabb. Verbenaceae Rubia cordifolia L. Rubiaceae Scoparia dulcis L. Scrophulariaceae

Gantu barangi Kykuyyo hambu

Leaves Fruits Stem & leaves

Mruganmhi gida

Whole plant

122

Solanum nigrum L. Solanaceae

Ganike soppu

Whole plant

123

Spilanthes calva DC. Asteraceae

Vanthi gida

Flowers

107 108 109 110 111 112 113

114 115 116 117

120 121

Epilepsy: Decoction of the root bark is given orally, daily once for a week. Chicken pox: The stem bark of Oroxylum indicum, Santalum album and Vitex negundo is pounded with water and applied externally, twice a day for 5 days. Fever: The decoction of leaves and flowers is taken orally. Skin allergy: Leaf paste diluted in calf’s/cow’s urine is applied externally. Stomachic: The leaves and fruits are eaten raw for easy digestion. Dysentery: Plant paste mixed with cow’ milk is taken internally, till cure. Jaundice: Leaf/fruit paste mixed with butter milk/sugar cane juice is taken orally, twice a day for 5 days. Jaundice: The paste of whole plant mixed with freshly mulched cow’s milk is administered orally, thrice a day for 10 days. Diarrhoea: The root paste mixed with jaggery and salt is taken orally, till cure. Antiseptic: The root paste mixed with lime is applied on the wounds for early healing. Common cold & cough: The pounded seeds mixed with ginger and honey taken orally, 3e5 days. Diabetes: Decoction of leaves and seeds is administered orally. Snake bite: In combination with lime and salt, the paste of root tubers is applied on the snake bitten area. Abortifacient: Leaf paste mixed with sesame oil is given orally to induce abortion. Sexual debility: Root and leaf paste mixed with butter and honey is given to male persons to make them sexually potent. Eczema: A piece of white cloth is soaked in the latex and burnt to ash. The ash mixed with cow’s butter is applied externally on the affected parts, for a week. Dysentery: Tender leaves chewed with a small piece of black jaggery and salt to control blood mixed dysentery. Skin allergy: The stem juice diluted in water is applied externally. Herpes: The stem juice is applied externally on herpes, once a day, till cure. Snake bite: The root of this plant and leaves of Acacia suma (Mimosaceae) are pounded with salt and applied externally for snake bite and scorpion sting. Fish poisoning: The fruits are used for fish poisoning. Hypertension: Pasted root is given orally to reduce blood pressure. Easy labour: Root paste mixed with cow’s milk is given orally to the pregnant woman, before childbirth to promote easy labour. Diabetes: The dried leaf powder boiled in water and administered orally. Epilepsy: The decoction of fruits is given internally, twice a day for 7 days. Skin diseases: The aerial shoot is pounded with lime and lemon juice and applied on scabies, ring worm and pimples, thrice a day for 3 days. Diabetes: The decoction of the leaves is taken orally. Jaundice: Leaf paste mixed with freshly mulched cow’s milk given orally. Antiseptic: The root pounded with a pinch of lime is applied externally on wounds to stop bleeding and early healing. Diabetes: Decoction of leaves and unripe fruits is taken orally in the empty stomach, daily in the morning for 15 days. Lactagogue: Decoction of leaves and unripe fruits mixed with salt and pepper powder is given orally to promote/increase flow of milk in nursing mother. Mouth ulcers: The flowers (heads) are crushed and made into diluted paste and made gargling twice daily to cure mouth infections.

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7

105

Uses and mode of administration

124

Syzygium cumini Skeels. Myrtaceae

Nerale

Seeds Stem bark

125

Tabernaemontana coronaria R. Br. Apocynaceae Vitex negundo L. Verbenaceae

Nandibattalu huvu

Root

Lakkigida

Leaves Root

126

Diabetes: Seed powder in hot water is taken orally, once in a day for a month. Amoebic dysentery: Decoction of bark of Syzygium cumini and Mangifera indica is given orally, 2 times, till cure. Fish poisoning: Crushed bark is used for fish poisoning. Snake bite: The crushed root mixed with salt and turmeric is applied on the snake bitten spot.

Asthma: Fumes from the leaves is inhaled, twice a day. Antidote: Root paste mixed with leaf paste of Ruta graveolens is applied over spot of snake bite and scorpion sting, for a week. Insecticide: Leaves fumigated as mosquito repellent.

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7

Note: These informations were collected from the following tribal/local herbal healers of study area. Somawarpet: Bojamma, Harapalli, Tholurshettihalli. Medappa, Thaltareshettihalli. Sanna, Sajjalli, Yadavanadu. Ganesha, Girijanahadi, Yadavanadu. Honna, Girijanahadi, Sajjalli, Yadavanadu. Raju, Sajjalli, Yadavanadu. Thamma, Soolebavi, Yadavanadu. Honni (Sannakka), Girijanahadi, Yadavanadu. Shanthanna, Beedalli, Shanthalli. Era, Girijanahadi, Guddehosuru, Kushalanagara. Dobi, Girijanahadi, Dubare Forest, Kushalanagara. Gowramma, Girijanahadi, Basavanahalli, Kushalanagara. Ravi, Girijanahadi, Basavanahalli, Kushalanagara. Vasu, Murarji School, Basavanahalli, Kushalanagara. Virajpet: Somappa, Kutta. Madikeri: Bhaskara, Girijanahadi, Kabbinagadde. Sidda, Girijana Haadi, Balegundi.

295

296

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7

Latex 3%

Stem bark 11% leaves 39%

Whole plant 13%

Root 16%

flower&frui ts 18%

Fig. 3 e Frequency of plant parts employed in ethnomedicinal uses by the tribal herbal healers of Kodagu district.

(Fig. 2K) and Rauwolfia serpentina. Some of plants presented are considered as poisonous if consumed. These include Abrus precatorius (seed), A. hondala (root tuber), Agave americana (leaf), A. leschenaultii (root tuber), Argemone mexicana (seed), C. prophetarum (fruit), Datura stramonium (fruit), G. superba (root tuber), Jatropha curcas (seed), L. nicotianaefolia (leaf), R. dumetorum (fruit) and Vitex negundo (leaf). During the survey it was found that the herbal healers collect medicinal plants from nearby forests. Elder people (above 60 years age old) mentioned and utilized more variety of medicinal plants compared to younger generation. The names of the informants have been given in Table 1. Women have very little knowledge of medicinal plants. Similarly, literate person of the tribal hadies were found to have less knowledge of medicinal plants as compared to illiterate ones due to lack of their interest. While sharing the knowledge, the tribal people showed very high interest to gain the advance knowledge of these plants but tried to skip and did not fully cooperate to render the ethnomedicinal information. It was also noted that most of the herbal healers were hesitant in disclosing their knowledge. They fear that their recognition in the society which they have earned due to their knowledge will be lost and hence they want to keep it secret. They were ready to transfer of this knowledge to the outside world only on the basis of substantial payment.

4.

Conclusion

Recent trend shows a decline in the number of traditional herbal healers in the tribal areas since the younger generation is not interested to continue this tradition. Hence, there is an urgent need to record and preserve all information on plants used by different tribal communities for various purposes before it is completely lost. Tribal herbal healers should also be encouraged by some means so that their knowledge is sustained for future generations.

In Kodagu district, the tribal populations living far away from urban area still rely on traditional herbal medicine for their primary health care needs. The unfortunate part is that due to forest fire and forest cutting for coffee and cardamom plantations, ginger cultivation, etc. many species are facing threat of extinction. There is immediate need for their conservation. And also there is need for phytochemical analysis and pharmacological investigations of these important disappearing plants to strengthen the documentation of ethnic drugs. It would help in developing novel drug(s) to treat chronic diseases.

Conflicts of interest All authors have none to declare.

Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to Dr. Halesh for help in the identification of some plants. Thanks are also due to the tribal people of Kodagu district, especially Raju, Dobi, Thamma and Era who have provided the valuable information and cooperated during field work.

references

1. D’Rozario Ashalatha, Bera Subir, Mukherji Dipak. A Hand Book of Ethnobotany. New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers; 2004: 127. 2. Basu SK. In: Mahanti N, ed. Health Problems and Health Care of the Tribal Population of India, Tribal Economy, Health and Wasteland Development. New Delhi: Inter-India Publication; 1994:137. 3. Gamble JS. Flora of Presidency of Madras, vol. IeIII. Dehra Dun, India: Bishan Singh Mahendra Pal Singh Publications; 1995. Reprint. 4. Ghatapanadi SR, Johnson Nicky, Rajasab AH. Documentation of folk knowledge on medicinal plants of Gulbarga district. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2011;10(2):349e353. 5. Hamilton A. The people and plants. In: Martin GJ, ed. Ethnobotany: A Methods Manual, WWF International. London: Chapman and Hall; 1995. 6. Kamboj VP. Herbal medicine. Curr Sci. 2000;78(1):35e39. 7. Keshava Murthy KR, Yoganarasimhan SN. Flora of Coorg with Data on Medicinal Plants and Chemical Constituents. Bangalore: Vimsat Publishers; 1990: 713. 8. Kshirsagar RD, Singh NP. Ethnobotany of Mysore and Coorg, Karnataka State. Dehra Dun, India: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh Publications; 2007: 300. 9. Kshirsagar RD, Singh NP. Some less known ethnomedicinal uses from Mysore and Coorg, Karnataka state. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;75(2e3):231e238. 10. Martin GJ. Ethnobotany e A Conservation Manual. London: Chapman and Hall; 1995: 155e203. 11. Nanjunda DC, Venu Gopal PN. Native’s ethnoveterinary practices in Coorg district e Karnataka: some preliminary observations. Afr J Anim Biomed Sci. 2009;4(2):47e52. 12. Nanjunda DC. Ethno-medicobotanical investigation of Jenu Kuruba group of Karnataka. Bangladesh J Med Sci. 2010;09:161e169.

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 2 8 4 e2 9 7

13. Parinitha M, Harish GU, Vivek NC, Mahesh T, Shivanna MB. Ethnobotanical wealth of Bhadra wildlife sanctuary in Karnataka. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2004;3(1):37e50. 14. Prakash HM, Krishnappa M, Krishnamurthy YL, Poornima SV. Folk medicine of N R PuraTaluk in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2010;9(1):55e60. 15. Rajasab AH, Isaq Mohamad. Documentation of knowledge on edible wild plants of North Karnataka. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2004;3(4):419e429. 16. Deokota Rajeev, Chhetri TB. Ethnobotanical study in Sunsari district of eastern Nepal. Ethnobotany. 2007;10(1 & 2):67e72.

297

17. Gupta Rakhi, Vairale MG, Deshmukh RR, Chaudhary PR, Wate SR. Ethnomedicinal uses of some plants used by Gond. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2010;9(4):713e717. 18. Rao RR. Traditional knowledge and sustainable development, key role of Ethnobotanist. Ethnobotany. 1996;8:14e24. 19. Kumar Satish. Genetic profile of Jenu Kuruba Betta Kuruba and Soliga tribes of southern Karnataka and their phylogenetic relationships. Anthropologist. 2008;10(1):11e20. 20. Silija VP, Varma Samitha, Mohanan KV. Ethnomedicinal plant knowledge of the Mullu Kuruma tribe of Wayanad district, Kerala. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2008;7(4):604e612.