Evaluation of a programme of integrated coastal zone management: The Ecoplata Programme (Uruguay)

Evaluation of a programme of integrated coastal zone management: The Ecoplata Programme (Uruguay)

Marine Policy 51 (2015) 527–535 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Marine Policy journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/marpol Evaluation...

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Marine Policy 51 (2015) 527–535

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Marine Policy journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/marpol

Evaluation of a programme of integrated coastal zone management: The Ecoplata Programme (Uruguay) María Luisa Pérez-Cayeiro n, Juan Adolfo Chica-Ruiz Faculty of Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, Polígono Río San Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history: Received 25 April 2014 Received in revised form 5 September 2014 Accepted 5 September 2014

There are two aims in this work: one is to contribute to the promotion of one of the most interesting experiments of integrated coastal zone management which has taken place in Latin America: the Ecoplata Programme in Uruguay. The other is to make an evaluation of the planning and implementation of the programme, i.e. that of a long-term Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) process which is full of both challenges and opportunities. Indeed, although there have been numerous ICZM experiments, on varying scales, which have been put into practice throughout the world in the last two decades, very few of them have involved an evaluation to check their levels of achievement. & 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Coastal management Evaluation Uruguay

1. Introduction and previous reports Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is an administration process that aims at human development but at the same time its objectives is to preserve natural and cultural resources [1]. In this definition as well as others [2–11] it is assumed, either implicitly or explicitly, that ICZM is a tool which serves a certain public policy. Policy is understood as a tool that a governmental authority decides to implement or not, seeing as the latter is also a form of action. A few hypotheses can be construed from the above [12]: - Coastal management is included in the framework of public policies which operate in the service of the sustainable development of these geographical environments. - ICZM is a specific interpretation of a certain management model which is largely identified with the concept of government. If government is understood as a way of governing, whose objective is lasting economic, social and institutional development which promotes a healthy balance between the State, civil society and the economic market, decision-making is not exclusively based on the principle of hierarchy but rather on that of participation, negotiation, consensus and cooperation, etc. [13]. On the other hand, the process which characterises the formulation of a public policy, according to [14], involves the attainment of five phases: the identification of the problem and its establishment in a political agenda; formulation; acceptance; implementation and evaluation. In turn, GESAMP and Olsen et al. n

Corresponding author.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2014.09.008 0308-597X/& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

[15,16] point out that the development of governmental ICZM programmes follows a similar cycle to that corresponding to the development of important State policies. According to the arguments of these authors, it can be affirmed that the ICZM method and the described cycle are clearly related. Some of the underlying ideas which support these hypotheses are ICZM is based on the ecosystem, thus concerning ecological, social and economic aspects in all sectors and organisations as well as in the various levels of government; ICZM is an adaptive management process which is capable of learning from experience; ICZM has a strategic aspect and a capacity for anticipation, focused on the long-term. Lastly, ICZM requires the active participation of the social and institutional stakeholders with interests in coastal areas and the resources therein. In this respect, the point of interest of the objectives in this article is centred on two essential elements of coastal management: - Evaluating the Ecoplata Programme as a long-term management plan. According to Gee et al. [17], the monitoring and evaluation of a programme ensures that the ICZM is adaptive. Therefore, the strategic vision in the next ICZM cycle will be formulated based on the fulfilment of the planned objectives and results. - Critically analysing an integrated coastal zone management experiment in Latin America. The purpose is to make a contribution to the knowledge of coastal zone management. Furthermore, the intention is to disseminate the results of the management process to those involved and other interested parties. This action may even constitute a reference or serve as inspiration for the managers and those responsible for the administration of resources in similar environments.

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Due to all the above it is worth reiterating that any initiative which may contribute to the more rational use of coastal resources must be well-received and supported. As indicated by Barragán [18] with regards to South America, Uruguay is, via environmental management, increasingly interested in the specific management of coastal zones, with the Ecoplata Programme being expressly highlighted. The best report that can be cited is the Evaluation of the Coastal Resources Management Programme in Ecuador, Stage II (PMRC II from the Spanish). In 2012, under the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), a detailed evaluation process was started in order to learn about the details of its methods and the content of interest [19].

2. Formal aspects: concepts, methodology and sources of information It should be noted that, in the evaluation of any ICZM Programme [20,21], these being seen as an exercise of public policy, distinctions must be made between the different stages into which they are divided. In this case, borne in mind were those that other authors [22,23] proposed as generic stages: Planning (ex ante), Implementation (in itinere) and End (Results, Impacts and Effects). On the other hand and more specifically, the method used in this study was also inspired by evaluations of IberoAmerican ICZM Programmes. Table 1 lists the aspects of the Ecoplata Programme which were evaluated in this research (first column) and their pertinence to the aforementioned stages (first row). As can be seen in Table 1, a good number of the evaluated aspects are involved in the Planning (ex ante) and Implementation (in itinere) stages. This is logical when bearing in mind that the origins of Ecoplata lie in international cooperation and that, therefore, it is not unusual to see slower progress than that which would be observed in a process which was started solely by Uruguayan institutions. Other conceptual clarifications which assist in a greater comprehension of Table 1 are those which distinguish between ex post evaluations which were carried out on (a) the Results (outputs), identified based on the contrast between the defined Agreement for Institutional Action (the Ecoplata Programme in this case) and the acts of implementation and the administrative products obtained during the running of the Table 1 Relationship between the aspects considered in the Ecoplata evaluation and the Programme's stages. Evaluated aspects

Planning (ex ante)

Implementation (in itinere)

Specialist team Members and participants Synergies Planning approach Governmental involvement Implementation Objective groups and/or beneficiaries Institutional changes Use of resources Environmental changes

X

X

X

X

X

X

Results (ex post)

Impacts Effects (ex post) (ex post)

X X

X

X

X X X

X

X X X

programme; (b) the Impacts, attributable to the Programme and related to changes in the conduct of the target groups (the public institutions are also included here because ICZM is of special interest to them, due to the need for change in public management models); and (c) the Real Effects (outcomes) of the Agreement for Institutional Action on the final beneficiaries, which, in the case of Ecoplata, are reflected in environmental changes that favour the users or the interested social groups of the Uruguayan coast and its eco-systemic services. The evaluation of the selected aspects is expressed in qualitative terms: Favourable (F), Average (A) and Unfavourable (U). In terms of general conclusions, there is a summary of the evaluation which uses a SWOT analysis matrix (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats). The basic information to which access was available in the realisation of the analysis comes from sources of a highly varied nature:

 Bibliographic, typified by a series of studies and reports which

 

have been published about the Ecoplata Programme and by the publications of various international organisations and authors who work in the subject. Fieldwork in various coastal towns and interviews with specialists and politicians who are responsible for the administration of coastal resources. Participation in meetings and activities run as part of the Ecoplata Programme (meetings with the Executive Committee, the Local Government of the Parque del Plata and the Administration of Maldonado, a Workshop of indicators, a Course of Integrated Coastal Zone Management).

3. The coastline and the integrated management of coastal zones According to Barragán [24,25], it can be affirmed, generally speaking, that coastal zones have a highly relevant role in Latin America. In Uruguay, there are various reasons which justify this affirmation: from an environmental point of view, they support rich and productive ecosystems which maintain economic development to a great extent [26]; they are the concentration point of 69% of the population as well as of the main economic activities, generating more than 70% of the national GDP; the large metropolis, Montevideo, is located on the coast; the majority of the ports are of national importance; a large proportion of the industrial production and the commerce of higher value products is concentrated in the aforementioned metropolis and ports; the coastal areas constitute the main tourist destination of Uruguay and the surrounding countries, namely Argentina and Brazil [27,28], receiving almost 80% of the tourists who visit the country. In parallel to this process, the coastal zone of Uruguay has undergone changes at an accelerated rate and these have produced a series of problems and conflicts. The variety of activities and conflicts which occur in these areas become a complex and dynamic subject. The main problems identified are associated with the forms and methods of the use and occupation of the coast but they have found support in multiple social, environmental, economic and institutional relationships [29,30]. The above leads to the idea that the pressure on coastal resources, which is already high, will tend to increase in the future and this is why the coast of Uruguay requires initiatives which contribute to the more rational use of its resources. As a consequence, since the 1990s, the country has developed a series of experiments, with distinctly varying levels of scope, scale and success, aimed at the promotion of the integrated management

M.L. Pérez-Cayeiro, J.A. Chica-Ruiz / Marine Policy 51 (2015) 527–535

of coastal zones. In addition to Ecoplata other programmes include Freplata and Probides [31]. The bi-national (Uruguay–Argentina) programme, Freplata, began in the year 2000 with the objective of finding combined formulae to improve the management of the coastal resources of the Río de la Plata. The project was financed by the Global Environment Fund (GEF) of the United Nations. The objectives were to prevent and mitigate the deterioration of the cross-border resources of the Río de la Plata and its Maritime Front and to contribute to its sustainable use by the inhabitants of both countries living on its banks. Furthermore, they carried out a cross-border diagnostic analysis which filled in a series of informational gaps and supplied key data and instruments for the definition of a strategic action programme. The plan included proposals for policies; the legal and institutional framework; priority investments for the Río de la Plata and its maritime front; specific strategies and plans; implementation objectives and mechanisms for the prevention, reduction and control of contamination and for the protection and preservation of the biodiversity. Probides is an inter-institutional programme involving the Ministry of Housing, Land Use Planning and the Environment (MVOTMA from the Spanish), various municipal administrations and the Universidad de la República. It also has support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Its purpose is the preservation of biodiversity and sustainable development in the eastern region of Uruguay and its objectives are as follows: to contribute to the preservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; to encourage economic and social development; to collaborate in land use planning and to support the development of institutions and local administrations in the region. Since the beginning of its activities in 1993, various projects have been implemented with resources from the Global Environment Fund (GEF), the European Union, the Spanish Agency of Ibero-American Cooperation (AECI from the Spanish), the MVOTMA and private contributions.

4. The Ecoplata Programme At present, Ecoplata is a programme with the objective of strengthening public administrations, the scientific community, the managers and Uruguayan society in general, with regards to aspects related to integrated coastal zone management. The Programme is based on an inter-institutional agreement between the Ministry of Housing, Land Use Planning and the Environment, the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishing, the National Defence Ministry and the Universidad de la República. The National Directorate of Sanitation and Waters, the Directorate of Renewable Resources, the National Naval Prefecture and the coastal

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Municipal Administrations (Colonia, San José, Montevideo, Canelones, Maldonado and Rocha) are also participating (Table 2). 4.1. Origin and evolution Since its constitution in 1991, after the signing of an agreement between the Uruguayan Government and Dalhousie University of Halifax (Nova Scotia, Canada), the Ecoplata Programme has passed through five stages which make up a cycle. These stages are summarised below: 4.1.1. The prior stage (1991–1996) During the period between 1991 and 1993, links were established between the scientific communities of Uruguay and Canada. This led to the Programme being oriented towards the strengthening of research capacities in marine sciences [35]. Thus, a path was opened so that the participating institutions could join forces in matters of common work objectives. The Ecoplata Project was then created (1994–1996). During this time, with finance from the International Development Research Centre – Canada (IDRC) and the Uruguayan institutions, thoughts turned towards the establishment of a long-term initiative. In addition, decisions were made to strengthen and develop the capacity of the scientific and fishing communities, in order to prevent the deterioration of coastal spaces and resources. With the objective of making the representatives of the various stakeholders involved in coastal management aware of the results obtained thus far and to expand the initiative with the integration of new institutions, 1996 saw the organisation of the “Ecoplata International Conference '96: for sustainable development of the Uruguayan coastal zone of the Río de la Plata”. The fruit of this conference was the approval of the Montevideo Declaration on sustainable development in the coastal zone, a declaration compiled from the main agreements made in the meeting. 4.1.2. The planning stage (1997–2005) In 1997, the next stage of the Programme (1997–2001) was approved with the purpose of contributing to the integrated management of the resources of the Uruguayan coastal zone of the Río de la Plata. Using an interactive and inter-disciplinary process, the Programme aimed to contribute to the formulation of integrated management policies and strategies. These were being developed by the governmental institutions within their fields, with the participation of the social stakeholders involved. This phase saw the incorporation of lines of research related to the social sciences and the terrestrial areas of the Río de la Plata coast were addressed. Also, ICZM projects were carried out on a local scale with the objective of accumulating learning about this new management focus. The works began in 1999 in two pilot areas

Table 2 General data about the Ecoplata Programme (2006–2009). Source: Compiled by author based on Geo Uruguay data, [32]; the Ecoplata Programme [33,34]. 1. Name 2. Geographic location 3. Surface area subject to management efforts (km2) 4. km of coast 5. Estimated population in the area of the Programme 6. Duration 7. Total finance cost (US $) 8. Sources of finance The International Development Research Centre – Canada (IDRC) The Ministry of Housing, Land Use Planning and the Environment (MVOTMA)

Connecting knowledge and action for the integrated coastal zone management of the Río de la Plata (Ecoplata) The coastal zone of Uruguay Area of land 5891 Area of sea 140,297 714 1,832,015 4 years 2006–2009 780,060 73% 27%

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(Arroyo Carrasco – Arroyo Pando and Playa Pascual – Punta Espinillo1) via research and the realisation of demonstrative actions [36,37]. In 2002, with the support of the Canadian IDRC and with backing from the participating institutions, a document was signed to extend the project up to 2005. In this phase, the works were directed towards the realisation of various evaluations, studies and diagnostics of the coastal area of Uruguay [38]. 4.1.3. The implementation stage (2006–2009) This stage (2006–2009) is the subject of this article, its motto is “to connect knowledge with action” and its purpose is the implementation of the project [39–43]. The emphasis is on three key aspects of the prime directives of integrated coastal zone management [44–46]: participation; public information and scientific knowledge; and coordination and cooperation. 4.1.4. The consolidation stage (2010–2015) The Ecoplata Programme is currently in the institutionalisation phase, according to the model [47]. The formal acceptance of the management programme is the end of the legitimisation process which began in the first stage. Proof of this is that in 2011 the Programme was assigned to the Ministry of Housing, Land Use Planning and the Environment (MVOTMA), in order to contribute to the development of a national policy for integrated management of the coastal and marine zone. It should be emphasised that from this stage forwards, Ecoplata funding was assumed by the Uruguayan government. Thanks to this process, the management should be considered, by the specialists and politicians involved, to be part of a social agreement. It is an agreement which, without a shadow of a doubt, should be inserted into the national strategy for the sustainable development of Uruguay's coastal zones. In this respect, it is worth highlighting that one of the objectives of the 2013–2014 Work Plan [48] is to define the marine coast agenda institutionally and to establish the lines of action and management of a policy. 4.2. Characteristics of the Ecoplata Programme (2006–2009) With the general objective of fortifying ICZM using a model of government for the sustainable development of the Río de la Plata coastline, the specific objectives are those detailed below [49–51]: - To favour the participation and coordination of the institutions and stakeholders linked to the coastal zone, supporting the development of a model of government for ICZM which incorporates the knowledge gained. - To generate and systemise knowledge via the applied and participative compilation of researchers' information and advances, to support the coastal management models. - To coordinate the project's inherent technical/specialist activities. The programme is run by the MVOTMA and is supervised by a Board of Directors and an Executive Committee. It is also includes the Coordination Unit, which is responsible for bringing together and coordinating the various stakeholders involved and for carrying out specialist works alongside certain Specialist Thematic Groups and Consultants. The Board of Directors does the duties of approving the policies which orient its operations, the sources of finance and the regulations for staff selection. It promotes and makes agreements with other organisations and it also establishes new objectives. Presided by the MVOTMA, it is also formed of other Ministries 1

Carrasco River–Pando River and Pascual Beach to Espinillo Point.

which have connections to coastal zones and resources (Livestock, Agriculture and Fishing; National Defence; Transport and Public Works; Tourism and Sport), the Universidad de la República (the Sciences, Social Sciences, Architecture and Engineering Faculties), international organisations (the IDRC, the UNDP, and UNESCO) and the six municipal administrations with coastal zones (Canelones, Colonia, Maldonado, Montevideo, Rocha y San José). The Executive Committee is responsible for orienting and supervising the start-up and development of the Project's activities. Also presided by the MVOTMA, it is composed of the National Directorate of Land Use Planning and the Environment, the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishing, the National Directorate of Aquatic Resources, the National Defence Ministry, the Hydrographic, Oceanographic and Meteorological Service of the Navy, the Universidad de la República (the Sciences and the Social Sciences Faculties), the IDRC, the UNDP, UNESCO, the Ecological Sciences Programme and two representatives from the Municipal Administrations of Canelones and Montevideo.

5. Discussion Our consultation of the indicated bibliography, our interviews and our visits to certain coastal areas and institutional organisations of Uruguay allow us to express some opinions about the matter. The ultimate aim, as previously stated, is to make a modest contribution to one of the most important tasks, or needs, that must feature in every coastal management programme: an evaluation which permits a subsequent feedback for the ensuing phases of the programme. The intrinsic characteristics of these coastal management instruments require constant remodelling and adaptations [52]. Firstly, this work was realised from a political perspective, with the objective of defining the institutional framework of coastal zone management. Thus it analyses the signing of contracts and agreements between the institutional and social agents involved in integrated coastal zone management. It also studies the part related to the planning tasks, i.e. the expert team, the members, the partners and the governmental support. Lastly, it studies the logical formulation which corresponds to a strategic plan: the declaration of intentions or principles, the writing of the vision, mission, objectives, tasks and resources, etc. 5.1. Assessment of the Ecoplata Programme 5.1.1. Assessment of the specialist team Ideally, the training of a group of coastal managers or experts must be multi-disciplinary. There is no doubt that training is fundamental in the successful address of a change in the coastal management model. Depending on the training, there are two very different concepts of ICZM: one which is closely linked to the physical and natural sciences – “the ecological approach” (with evident bias towards biology, ecology, oceanography, geomorphology and chemistry); and another which is more oriented at social sciences – “the anthropological approach” (rather more related to public management and administration, the resolution of conflicts, negotiation techniques, decisionmaking techniques, communication and resource economics). With the passing of time, one or the other has ceded some of its content, producing an interesting fusion. In the case of Ecoplata, there is clear Table 3 Assessment of the specialist team. Assessment Is it multi-disciplinary? Does it allow a holistic view? Is it competent and committed?

F

A X X

X

U

M.L. Pérez-Cayeiro, J.A. Chica-Ruiz / Marine Policy 51 (2015) 527–535

imbalance between the two approaches, with a training profile which is oriented at the social sciences being dominant (Table 3).

Table 4 Assessment of the members. Assessment

5.1.2. Assessment of members and partners As mentioned in the introduction, the model of government as a new form of governing consists of involving the three fundamental actors in the decision-making: society, the market and the government. Therefore, the first two are missing from the members and partners of the Ecoplata Programme.2 With regards to public participation, there is a marked absence of mechanisms for the involvement of social agents in the programme's decisionmaking process. In other words, the two regulatory bodies which supervise, orient and make decisions about the development of Ecoplata, the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee, are almost exclusively institutional. Civil society is not represented [53]. In turn, with regards to the territorial levels of administration in the country – state and local – both are well represented. In this respect, it is clear that the six coastal municipalities are just as present in the Ecoplata Programme, via their local governments, as the Ministries which are most closely linked to the management of the coastal zones and resources (Table 4). 5.1.3. Assessment of the synergies created between Ecoplata and other initiatives During the evaluation stage there were diverse and numerous collaborations between Ecoplata and other initiatives related to the country's coastline. Among others, the highlights are: the National System of Protected Areas, the Master's in Integrated Coastal Management of the Southern Cone, the National Environmental Education Network for Sustainable Human Development, the “Implementing Pilot Climate Change Adaptation Measures in Coastal Areas of Uruguay” Project, etc. On an international scale, in addition to Freplata, another aspect that must be highlighted is that Uruguay is a member of the Ibero-American Network of Integrated Coastal Management (IBERMAR). This initiative, supported by the Ibero-American Programme of Science and Technology for Development (CYTED) and made up of researchers and managers from 13 countries, has two specific objectives [54,55]. One of them is to establish a coordination platform for the exchange of knowledge and experience based on integrated coastal management. The other is to formulate and reach an agreement, on a regional scale, about an Ibero-American Programme of Scientific and Technological Cooperation and Transfer in Integrated Coastal Management [56] (Table 5). 5.1.4. Assessment of the strategic planning approach of the initiative As a result of the revision of the technical information of the programme, it is clear that its approach corresponds to the logic of a strategic plan. Thus, the vision outlines in detail the intended institutional, social and environmental improvements. These improvements are designed with a long-term goal to take advantage of and exchange learning and to improve the uses and the quality of life of the local population. This will be done in an inter-disciplinary and interinstitutional way with a great deal of participation. In turn, the mission 2 Institutions and members of the Ecoplata Programme: the Universidad de la República of Uruguay; the National Directorate of Aquatic Resources; the Oceanographic, Hydrographic and Meteorological Service of the Navy, the National Naval Prefecture; the Ministry of Housing, Land Use Planning and the Environment; the Ministry of Education and Culture; the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishing; the Ministry of Tourism and Sport and the local governments of the municipal administrations of Colonia, San José, Montevideo, Maldonado and Rocha. Partners of Ecoplata: the United Nations Development Programme; the United Nations Organisation for Education, Science and Culture; the International Research Centre for Development; the Ministry of Housing, Land Use Planning and the Environment.

531

Are all the institutional and social actors with responsibilities and interests in the coastal zone represented? Are all the territorial levels of the administration represented? (State and local levels)

F

A

U

X X

describes how the programme performs its functions in the support of the vision: supporting its direct partners; identifying the main stakeholders and specifying the instruments which will be developed in its implementation. Also, the specific objectives correspond in full to the programme's general objective. These cover the matters addressed in the mission and they are realistic, bearing in mind the resources, the experience of the institutions and the political, economic and social context in which Ecoplata takes place. Furthermore, the tasks involve different social and institutional stakeholders and require coordinated efforts between the various groups. Lastly, the intended products are tangible short-term and mid-term results (Table 6). 5.1.5. Assessment of governmental involvement There is significant governmental involvement in both the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee of the Ecoplata Programme. It can be proved from the revision of the Programme's monitoring actions that there is adequate assistance and participation from the members who constitute both bodies. Furthermore, the regularity of meetings is optimal. The Executive Committee holds a meeting once a month and the Board of Directors has a meeting every six months. With regards to representativeness and representation, it is worth highlighting that, on the one hand, the participation of the members is representative. In other words, the institutional members who are part of both bodies have the authority to make decisions for the groups they represent. On the other hand, in the composition of the two bodies there is a lack of representatives from other governmental ministries which are linked to coastal resources. In this respect, it would be interesting to include other institutions of public administration which are directly or indirectly linked with coastal resources and zones (Table 7). 5.1.6. Assessment of the implementation The following results are obtained from the analysis and revision on the specific documents listed in the bibliography and provided by Ecoplata: the planned timetable was followed; the intended results were obtained and there was monitoring of the various activities which took place, via indicators and verification methods (Table 8). 5.1.7. Assessment of the beneficiaries of the results of Ecoplata3 A large number of the activities carried out by the Ecoplata Programme, during this stage, were closely linked to environmental education and the tourist use of the beaches (regeneration of dunes and access routes). Therefore, there is a lack of social groups linked to other economic interests (fishermen and farmers). It would therefore be useful to assess, in the design of the 3 The beneficiaries of the initiatives developed by Ecoplata are social stakeholders of the Administrations of Colonia, Canelones, San José, Montevideo, Maldonado and Rocha, Universities, NGOs (El Abrojo, CLAES, the Marine Mammal Preservation Organisation and Karumbé) and the Spanish Cultural Centre in Uruguay.

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Table 5 Assessment of the synergies created in the Ecoplata Programme. Assessment

F

Were efforts made in collaboration and in the exchange of knowledge with other projects/programmes on a national scale? Were efforts made in collaboration and in the exchange of knowledge with other projects/programmes on an international scale?

X

Assessment

F

Is there an explicit declaration of the mission and vision? Are the goals and objectives of the Programme defined? Is there an organisational timeline of tasks and results?

X X X

A

U

Table 7 Assessment of governmental involvement. Assessment there there there there

U

X

of the Specific Thematic Groups (GTTs from the Spanish) facilitate the search for consensus in decision-making (Table 10).

Table 6 Assessment of the strategic planning approach.

Is Is Is Is

A

F

A U

representativeness in the Board of Directors of Ecoplata? X representation in the Board of Directors of Ecoplata? representativeness in the Executive Committee of Ecoplata? X representation in the Executive Committee of Ecoplata?

X X

Table 8 Assessment of implementation. Assessment

5.1.9. Assessment of the changes in uses Based on the initiatives carried out in this stage4 and in general terms, the changes in uses can be considered positive, especially from a perspective of environmental education. However, in some production sectors of society, these changes seem to be more modest (Table 11). 5.1.10. Assessment of environmental changes The objectives of the improvements which were introduced into the coastal area, via the pilot projects in the various administrations, were to stabilise dunes and to create beach access routes to the Canelones, Maldonado and Rocha beaches. However, these initiatives seem to be more related to a touristic policy than an environmental policy. Therefore, the Ecoplata Programme should have been more ambitious in terms of environmental protection and should have introduced changes from a town planning and land use planning point of view in certain zones (Table 12).

F A U

5.2. Integrated diagnostics of ICZM in Uruguay Did the implementation follow the logic of the management plan? Was the development of the tasks sufficiently explicit to permit an analysis of their validity? Were the suggested goals and objectives achieved? Were the obtained results disseminated? Was the implementation of the tasks adequately evaluated? Was a monitoring programme formulated?

X X X X X X

coastal management programme, once it has been carried out, which groups would obtain benefits and which groups would feel that their interests are threatened. In some cases, those who benefit financially and/or politically from the prevailing patterns of use of the resources would be opposed to a management initiative because it would affect their interests (Table 9).

5.1.8. Assessment of institutional changes After the completion of the fifth stage and the initialisation of the institutionalisation of the Programme, changes in the institutions were envisaged. Thus, there is, in the Board of Directors and created by Ecoplata, a space for discussion and decision-making for the integrated management of coastal areas. In turn, the Strategic Plan for Coastal Management was validated and subjected to approval, having been formulated whilst following the principles of government through participation and consensus between various social and institutional stakeholders. Worthy of note is the Programme's collaboration in the elaboration of the National Directives of the Coastal Zone, which will be the future national policy specifically for the coastal zone. The Model of Management Units of the Administrations bears in mind the principle of subsidiarity, putting decision-making at a local level of government and thus closer to the people. Also, the numerous Institutional Agreements that were signed guarantee the support and commitment of the various interest groups in the change of a model for integrated coastal zone management. Lastly, the meeting

Given below is the summary of the most relevant aspects of this evaluation of the Ecoplata Programme during the 2006–2011 time period. Using the analysis of each aspect, the aim is to give a breakdown of the items which could be called underlying reasons. These are understood to be the ultimate or profound causes which help in the better detection or comprehension of the operation of the initiative. A SWOT analysis matrix was used for this. This tool allows work to be carried out with information and ideas referring to the context: one internal (Strengths and Weaknesses) and one external (Opportunities and Threats). Some authors, such as Medianero [57] propose its use as a strategic analysis tool which allows to obtain a general perspective of the institutional management (Table 13).

6. Conclusions Firstly, it must be highlighted that international cooperation, in this case coming from the International Development Research Centre – Canada (IDRC) via the sponsorship of the Ecoplata Programme, has managed to generate a remarkable amount of awareness and governmental commitment to the coast. As an expression of understanding and international collaboration between the parties, integrated coastal zone management is now interpreted as a strategic management area in Uruguay. In other words, in this exercise of cooperation, this meeting of wills has become a 4 Participative coastal management of the Arroyo Pando, a participative management model in the town of Colonia Wilson; the 1st Forum for Sustainable Development in the Coastal Zone; the ‘Youths for the Coast’ Conference; specialist reports for decision-making; the Ecoplata website (www.ecoplata.org); Training Courses for various sectors and the System of Coastal Environmental Information (SIAC).

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533

Table 9 Assessment of the beneficiaries of the Ecoplata results. Assessment

F

Did the social and institutional agents throughout the national coastal zone benefit in a balanced manner? Were benefits obtained by the agents of the majority of the interest groups?

A

U

X X

Table 10 Assessment of institutional changes. Assessment

F

Are the results producing a more integrated change in the decision-making process? Do the results guarantee the creation of an institutional figure which centres on the management of coastal matters? Do the results provide economic and human resources which make it feasible to implement the strategic plan and its subsequent evaluation? Did the results favour the establishment of coordination and participation procedures on a national scale and on a local scale?

A

U

X X X X

Table 11 Assessment of changes in uses. Assessment Did Are Are Are

the the the the

results results results results

F cause an increase in the awareness and participation of the various social sectors? favouring an improvement in the use of resources? contributing to the improvement in equipment and infrastructures? helping to increase the knowledge of the users of the resources and natural processes?

A

U

X X X X

Table 12 Assessment of environmental changes. Assessment Have the results improved coastal environmental units? Have the results improved the state of coastal resources?

F

A

U X X

Table 13 SWOT analysis of the Ecoplata Programme. Strengths Weaknesses - An absence of specific legal backing which supports the change to a more integrated - Awareness of the public policies for assuming a new ICZM model. management model. - The incipient sense of governing which spreads into the government action. - Insufficient and dispersed resources for more integrated management of - The Programme's capacity to institutionalise and strengthen the ICZM process. coastal zones. Ecoplata has a history of more than 15 years. - An absence of corporate bodies for participation and cooperation in coastal matters. - Established links between the Programme and various institutional and social - Scant resources dedicated to specific education and awareness programmes. agents. - The compilation of information of great interest and in new formats which permit the use of new technology. - Experience in public participation and administrative cooperation. - Experience in educational and awareness programmes about coastal matters.

Opportunities Threats - The slowness of the institutional changes, contrasting with the rapidness of the - The future approval of the National Directives of the Coastal Zones. deterioration processes of the zones and resources. - The revitalisation of the Uruguayan Oceanographic Commission. - The reactive model of public management. - Growing social demand for more sustainable management. - The external origin of finance (international organisations). - A favourable national and international setting for initiatives applied to ICZM. - The excessively formal and representative nature of the participation and - An increased awareness of the need for institutional coordination and coordination. cooperation. - Possibilities for cooperation with the various levels of administration. - Links with other national and international ICZM initiatives. - The opening of specific channels for public participation and institutional cooperation.

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powerful instrument to consolidate and address ICZM in the country over the years [57]. Also worthy of mention are the important efforts made by the Ecoplata Programme to favour understanding between the two levels of administration – state and municipal – on the coast of Uruguay. This may have contributed in some way to the social and economic stability which the country has enjoyed in recent years, not forgetting that, in terms of dimensions, it is a country with around 700 km of coastline and more than 3 million inhabitants. Another reflection is related to the conclusions obtained after visiting the institutions connected with the Programme, conducting the interviews and carrying out the activities. These have all shown the acceptance which the Programme has received at this stage. Unlike other similar initiatives, the Ecoplata Programme has managed to reach governmental levels. And this means that the initiative will still continue when the external support and financing has ended. However, political aspirations play a fundamental role in the continuation of the established procedures, which in this case have been in place for over a decade. In any case, the challenge of this new stage, without a doubt, will be to prove that ICZM can be carried out with its own resources. The initiative is currently funded by national finances. In some ways, this can be considered to be a big step towards the institutionalisation of the initiative. This is essential for the consolidation of a specific policy for coastal zones. Ecoplata represents an unmissable opportunity to institutionalise a model of sustainable development in the coastal zones of Uruguay. Therefore the initiative should be rated positively in the sense that the MVOTMA has been able to provide a modern tool for the management of its coastal zones. This has permitted the consolidation of a good base for integrated management. The general idea which underlies all of that written above is that the Ecoplata Programme is very favourable. This initiative, as a political decision and project directed at action, at “connecting knowledge with action”, is of enormous importance for the Uruguayan coastline. It should be highlighted that it constitutes a relevant contribution to the design of the institutional instrument which will very probably manage the country's coastal zones in the future.

Acknowledgements This work is a contribution to the Project GERICO (CGL201125438) (Spanish National R&D Programme), Project RNM-6547 (Andalusian Excellence Research Program) and to the research groups HUM 117 and RNM-328 of the Andalusian Research Plan (PAI).

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