Flake-like carbon coated Mn2SnO4 nanoparticles as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

Flake-like carbon coated Mn2SnO4 nanoparticles as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

Chemical Engineering Journal 372 (2019) 269–276 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Chemical Engineering Journal journal homepage: www.elsevie...

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Chemical Engineering Journal 372 (2019) 269–276

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Chemical Engineering Journal journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cej

Flake-like carbon coated Mn2SnO4 nanoparticles as anode material for lithium-ion batteries Xiao Shi, Xieji Lin, Sitong Liu, Ang Li, Xiaohong Chen, Jisheng Zhou, Zhaokun Ma, Huaihe Song

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State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Process and Technology for Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing, China

HIGHLIGHTS

carbon coated Mn SnO (Mn SnO @C) were fabricated using MOFs template. • Flake-like composite shows a 2-D micro-/nano-scale combined configuration. • This composite exhibits a superior performance when used as anode for LIBs. • This • The difference between Mn SnO @C and MnO/SnO @C was compared and discussed. 2

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ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

Keywords: [email protected] nanocomposites 2D configuration Lithium-ion batteries Synergistic effect

A flake-like carbon coated Mn2SnO4 nanomaterial was synthesized via a two-step carbonization method using Mn-based metal-organic frameworks (Mn-MOFs) as precursor. The composite demonstrates a two-dimensional (2D) micro/nano-scale combined configuration with Mn2SnO4 nanoparticles dispersed uniformly in flake-like porous carbon matrix. The unique 2D and porous morphology is favorable for lithium ions (Li-ions) storage due to higher surface for electrode/electrolyte interaction and reducing diffusion length of Li-ions. This material gives a high specific capacity of 986 mA h g−1 with 90.1% capacity retention after 100 cycles at 100 mA g−1 and a capacity of 428 mA h g−1 even at a high current density of 2 A g−1. Moreover, the performance of the carbon coated Mn2SnO4 was compared with carbon coated MnO/SnO2 which has the same element composition with Mn2SnO4. It is believed that the “synergistic effect” in Mn2SnO4 helps to improve the reversibility of the lithium storage reactions, resulting in both higher capacity and better stability of carbon coated Mn2SnO4.

1. Introduction Tin-based materials have been regarded as promising alternative of graphite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) because of their high theoretical capacities, low discharge plateau and its abundance on earth [1–4]. In past works, it has been shown that SnO2 exhibits a reversible capacity of 790 mA h g−1 in the Sn + 2Li2 O , Sn + two-step discharge process: SnO2 + 4Li+ + 4e xLi+ + xe Li x Sn (0 < x < 4.4) [5]. Generally, it is considered that the first irreversible step would lead to capacity loss. Moreover, the huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycles results in pulverization of the electrode and the fade of the capacity [6,7]. Researches show that incorporation of other metal element can improve lithium storage capability of tin-based materials to some extent [8–12]. In this case, ternary tin oxide (expressed as MxSnOy) as a complex oxide phase has been studied [13–15]. During the lithiation process, the ⁎

formation of metal M or metal oxide MOy has a “matrix” buffering effect. Irvine’s group [16,17] compared the Li+ storage behavior of several ternary tin oxides and found that the compound exhibited good reversibility when M = Mn and Zn, and the lowest capacity when M = Mg. The authors also pointed that the behavior was related to the enthalpy of formation of the metal oxide, MOx. Li et al. [18] proposed that the formation of Sn, NiO and Li2O during the cycling of NiSnO3 can cause the “self-matrix” which was favorable to the improvement of battery electrochemical performance. Although ternary tin oxides are promising anodes for LIBs, as with other tin-based materials, the volume expansion during lithiation is also the biggest drawback that hinders their application. To overcome this problem, carbon coating has been demonstrated as an effect method [5,19]. Benefiting from the intrinsic toughness of carbon, the volume change can be buffered, meanwhile, carbon can help to increase the electrical conductivity of the materials [20,21]. In addition, the

Corresponding author. E-mail address: [email protected] (H. Song).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.04.150 Received 25 January 2019; Received in revised form 5 April 2019; Accepted 21 April 2019 Available online 22 April 2019 1385-8947/ © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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morphology of the carbon coated structure also affects the properties in a great extent. For example, appropriately increasing the surface area of the carbon matrix or introducing some mesopores can improve the contact between electrolyte and electrodes [22–25]. And the particles in carbon matrix is expected to be in nano-scale and well dispersed which can accommodate the strain caused by volume change and facilitate the Li+ transport as well [26,27]. In a previous report, Huang et al. [28] prepared hollow Zn2SnO4 [email protected]/graphene ternary composites via a multi-step hydrothermal and carbonization, in which work the material showed a capacity of 726.9 mA h g−1 at a current density of 300 mA g−1 after 50 cycles. Although many attempts have been carried out, how to find a simple and effective way to synthesize carbon coated tin-based materials with ideal morphology is still a big challenge. These years, the pyrolysis of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) has arisen and provides a new way for carbon coated materials fabrication. In electrochemical fields, materials derived from pyrolysis of MOFs have been widely investigated [29–33]. Intriguingly, MOFs compose both metal and carbon sources at the same time and the morphology can be controlled effectively [34–37]. The obtained carbon scaffold can enhance conductivity as well as buffer the volume change of metal oxides [38–40]. Here in this paper, we report a new route to synthesize carbon coated Mn2SnO4 ([email protected]) using Mn-contained MOFs (Mn-BDC) as precursor and SnCl2 as tin source. The unique flake-like morphology and mesoporous structure result in the superior performance as anode materials for LIBs. Particularly, we compared the lithium storage capacity of [email protected] with carbon coated MnO/SnO2 (MnO/[email protected]) which has the same elemental composition but different phase structure with [email protected] The results show the “synergistic effect” in Mn2SnO4 increase reversibility of lithium storage reaction, which leads to higher capacity and superior stability of [email protected]

Fig. 1. Schematic view of the synthesis route of [email protected]

electrode was composed of active material, acetylene black and binder (carboxymethylcellulose sodium, CMC) with a mass ratio of 8:1:1, and the loading of the active materials in each electrode is 1.2 mg–1.5 mg. 1 M LiPF6 in a mixture of diethyl carbonate and ethylene carbonate (1:1, V/V) was used as electrolyte. The cells were cycled under different current densities in the voltage ranging from 0.01 to 3.0 V using Land CT2001A system. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on a ZAHNER ENNIUM electrochemical workstation. 3. Results and discussion The synthesis process of flake-like carbon-coated [email protected] is shown in Fig. 1. By carbonizing the Mn-BDC prepared through solvothermal method, [email protected] was obtained. After fully absorbing tin source SnCl2 and further heat treatment, Mn2SnO4 nanoparticles were formed and uniformly dispersed in carbon matrix, and the global flakelike morphology of the material derived from Mn-BDC was well reserved. The XRD analysis was employed to confirm the structure of the prepared materials (Fig. 2a). The pattern of precursor Mn-BDC is in accordance with the reported MOFs structure [41]. After pyrolysis in Ar atmosphere, the product shows the pattern of MnO (JCPDS 78-0424). Then SnCl2-absorbed [email protected] was heat-treated under different conditions. The product obtained under Ar at 550 °C shows the spinel structure of Mn2SnO4 (JCPDS 75-1516). While, in the pattern of sample MnO/[email protected], the diffraction peaks of MnO (JCPDS 78-0424) and SnO2 (JCPDS 71-0652) can be recognized. The peaks of amorphous carbon can be hardly detected in XRD, but the Raman spectrum (Fig. 2b) shows the presence of carbon. The D- and G-bands at about 1330 and 1580 cm−1 can be distinguished clearly. Usually, the ID/IG value is used to evaluate the graphitization degree of carbon materials and the value of [email protected] and MnO/[email protected] are calculated to be about 0.93 and 0.87, respectively. Additionally, at the low wave number band of Raman spectrum, the peaks at 630 cm−1 and 494 cm−1 belonging to Mn2SnO4 [42] can be recognized in [email protected] and the peaks at 630 cm−1 belonging to SnO2 [43] show in MnO/[email protected] In the high resolution XPS spectrum of [email protected] (Fig. 2c and d), shoulder peaks at 495.0 and 487.0 eV can be attributed to Sn 3d3/2 and Sn 3d5/2 of Sn4+, and Mn 2p1/2 peak at 653.2 eV and Mn 2p3/2 peak at 641.0 eV show the Mn2+ element status in [email protected], which is in accordance with the results reported [44]. To further identify the composition of each sample, TGA analysis under air condition was carried out (Fig. S1). All the prepared carboncoated products begin to give obvious weight loss at about 350 °C, which can be ascribed to the burning of carbon layer. For [email protected], the

2. Experimental The Mn-contained MOFs (Mn-BDC) crystals were synthesized through solvothermal method. Detailedly, 2.5 g of terephthalic acid and 3.5 g of Mn(CH3COO)2·3H2O were added into 40 mL of dry N,NDimethylformamide (DMF). After stirring for 20 min, the solution became transparent and was transferred into a Teflon-sealed autoclave. The autoclave was kept at 120 °C for 24 h and the product was centrifuged and washed using ethanol for three times followed by drying at 80 °C under vacuum for 2 h to obtain Mn-BDC crystals. Mn-BDC were carbonized at 600 °C under Ar for 2 h to get [email protected] 160 mg of SnCl2·2H2O was dissolved in 200 μL of ethanol and dropped into 200 mg of [email protected] The mixture was heat treated at 180 °C for 2 h under air and then 550 °C for 4 h under Ar atmosphere to yield [email protected] As a comparison the mixture of SnCl2·2H2O and [email protected] was annealed at 300 °C under air for 4 h to get MnO/[email protected] 2.1. Characterization The morphologies and structures of the obtained samples were characterized by XRD (Rigaku D/max-2500B2+/PCX, Cu Kα), fieldemission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, SUPRA55, ZEISS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Tecnai G2 F20, FEI). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, STA449C Jupiter, NETZSCH) was carried out under air condition with a heating rate of 10 °C /min. The specific surface area and pore features were determined by nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement at 77 K using micromeritics ASAP 2020. Raman spectroscopy was carried out on a Renishaw Raman spectrometer (λ = 633 nm, 2 mW). 2.2. Electrochemical measurements Electrochemical measurements were tested in assembled CR2025 coin-type half-cell with lithium metal as counter electrode. The working 270

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Fig. 2. (a) XRD patterns of the samples, (b) Raman spectra of the samples, high resolution XPS spectra of Sn 3d (c) and Mn 2p (d) for [email protected] C.

matter at the end should be Mn2O3, and the carbon contents in the raw [email protected] can be inferred to be 50.3%. The carbon contents in [email protected] and MnO/[email protected] can be perceived directly from the weight loss by the end, and the values are 34.7% and 36.7%, respectively. For MnO/[email protected], the SnO2 content was accurately obtained from ICP-AES test. The result shows a 33.6% of SnO2 content in MnO/ [email protected] and MnO content can be estimated to be 29.7%. Thus the element ratio in metallic oxides of MnO/[email protected] is calculated to be Mn1.9SnO3.9, which is close to Mn2SnO4. So we consider roughly that the two products MnO/[email protected] and [email protected] have same element composition but different phases. The morphologies of the samples were observed by SEM. In Fig. 3a and b it can be seen that Mn-BDC exhibits a stacked flake morphology. After carbonization, in the image of intermediate product [email protected] (Fig. 3c, d), the flakes separate from each other. The thickness of the homogeneous flake is measured to be less than 50 nm and the width is about 2 μm. The final products [email protected] and MnO/[email protected] maintain the same morphology, except that MnO/[email protected] (Fig. 3g, h) displays a rougher surface, implying some SnO2 particles grow on the carbon surface. It is because during the formation of MnO/[email protected], at 300 °C in air, surface absorbed SnCl2 was transformed to SnO2 easily. While for the formation of [email protected], under the heat treatment condition (550 °C, Ar) surface absorbed SnCl2 cannot be transformed to SnO2 because of the lack of O2, and then SnCl2 can diffuse to the inner structure and react with MnO and oxygen atom in carbon to form Mn2SnO4. To observe the inner microstructure of the products, TEM was employed and the images are shown in Fig. 4. [email protected] exhibits a good coating structure: nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed in amorphous carbon. From the HRTEM image (Fig. 4c), the identical interplanar fringes of 0.513 nm are associated to the interplanar space (1 1 1) plane of Mn2SnO4. We do an analysis of the size of the Mn2SnO4 nanoparticles and the result shows a narrow distribution and mean

diameter is 8.9 nm. The high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscope (HAADF-STEM) and the corresponding element mapping (Fig. 4e-i) also reveal the uniformity of the [email protected] structure. As a comparison, the TEM image of the MnO/ [email protected] (Fig. S2) shows some aggregations of the particles on the surface. Pore structure is the key feature of MOFs-derived material and also the crucial factor that affects the electrochemical performance. For this reason, we applied N2 adsorption–desorption to analyze the pore structure of the products. The BET surface areas of [email protected], [email protected] and MnO/[email protected] are 284 m2 g−1, 85 m2 g−1, 45 m2 g−1, respectively, and the pore volumes are 0.33 cm3 g−1, 0.21 cm3 g−1, 0.09 cm3 g−1, respectively. The adsorption–desorption isotherms and pore size distributions are shown in Fig. 5. The specific surface area of [email protected] is less than that of [email protected], and the difference displays mainly on the micropores. It is obvious that the isotherms of [email protected] and [email protected] show hysteresis loops, which reveals the abundant mesoporous structures in both the samples. Generally, mesopores will provide channels for electrolyte, so that to improve material transport [25]. While MnO/[email protected] exhibits much less pore structures which may be ascribed to the growth of SnO2 occupied the pores. To evaluate the electrochemical behavior of our materials, galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements were performed at a current density of 100 mA h g−1 with a potential window of 0.01–3 V. As shown in Fig. 6a, the electrodes exhibit different cycling performance. [email protected] anode has a discharge specific capacity (Li-insertion) of 932 mA h g−1 at the 1st cycle and the capacity decreases during the first 10 cycles, then the capacity remains stable giving a reversible capacity of 528 mA h g−1. The addition of tin improves the capacity greatly. For [email protected], the first discharge and charge capacities are 1424 mA h g−1 and 986 mA h g−1, respectively. The initial Coulombic efficiency (CE) is 69.2% and from the second cycle, the CE stays at a high level. After 100 cycles, the [email protected] anode still has a reversible 271

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Fig. 3. SEM images of Mn-BDC (a, b), [email protected] (c, d), [email protected] (e, f), MnO/[email protected] (g, h).

capacity of 889 mAh g−1 and the capacity retention is as high as 90.1%. In contrast, MnO/[email protected] shows the first discharge capacity of 1472 mA h g−1, but the capacity fades severely during the first 30 cycles because of the low CE. Finally, after 100 cycles, the MnO/[email protected] delivers a reversible of 591 mA h g−1 and the capacity retention is only 75.9%. To further assess lithium storage behavior of the materials, the electrodes were discharged and charged at a variety of current densities. The corresponding rate performances are shown in Fig. 6b. The results are in good accordance with the cycling performance: [email protected] exhibits the highest and most stable capacity at all current density. At higher current density of 2 A g−1, it still has a stable capacity of 428 mA h g−1. Moreover, when the current reduces back to 100 mA g−1, the capacity can recover to the original level, showing an outstanding structure stability. However, MnO/[email protected], which has nearly the same element composition with [email protected], shows a drastic capacity decrease at high current densities and it only has a

capacity of 186 mA h g−1 at 2 A g−1. The performance of our material was compared with other ternary tin oxides contained or SnO2/metal oxides mixture materials reported (Table S1). It is believed that the superior performance of [email protected] derives from the unique micro-/ nano-scale combined configuration. Firstly, nanosized particles in carbon matrix are favorable for Li+ diffusion and alleviation of volume effect. Secondly, amorphous carbon matrix can buffer the volume change, moreover, this 2D flake structure is especially helpful to enhance the wettability of electrolyte and diffusion of matters. For MnO/ [email protected], from the perspective of morphology, on one hand some particles aggregated on the surface cannot be buffered by the carbon layer. On the other hand, its lower porosity compared with [email protected] is less advantageous for the diffusion of electrolyte. In order to further explore the mechanism of the large discrepancy in lithium ion storage behaviors of [email protected] and MnO/[email protected] materials, we conducted cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests (Fig. 7a, 7b). 272

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Fig. 4. TEM images of [email protected] (a-c) and the size distribution of Mn2SnO4 (d); STEM image (e), and corresponding elemental mapping images (f-i) of [email protected]

Fig. 5. (a) N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms of different samples and (b) Pore size distribution obtained by the NLDFT. 273

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According to the literatures [44], the following reactions may exist in lithium ion storage of Mn2SnO4.

Mn2 SnO4 + 8Li+ + 8e

Sn + xLi+ + xe

2Mn + Sn + 4Li2 O

Li x Sn

(0 < x < 4.4)

(1) (2)

Mn + Li2 O

MnO + 2Li+ + 2e

(3)

Sn + 2Li2 O

SnO2 + 4Li+ + 4e

(4)

As the curves of [email protected] (Fig. 7a) show, in the first scan, the cathodic peak at 0.34 V can be ascribed to the decomposition of Mn2SnO4 as described in Eq. (1) and the formation of SEI layer. The formation of alloy LixSn (Eq. (2)) can occur at lower voltage. In the first anodic scan, dealloying of LixSn results in the peak at 0.64 V and the peak at 1.25 V is referenced to the oxidation of Mn and Sn (Eqs. (2) and (3)). In the subsequent scans, the cathodic peak at 0.6 V can be assigned to the reduction of SnO2 and the cathodic peak at 0.4 V can be ascribed to the reduction of MnO. Notably, the CV curves of the 2nd and 3rd cycle are almost overlapped, indicating a good reversibility of reactions. For SnO2 and MnO, the following reactions are widely accepted [3,45].

SnO2 + 4Li+ + 4e Sn +

xLi+

+ xe

MnO + 2Li+ + 2e

Sn + 2Li2 O Li x Sn

(0 < x < 4.4)

Mn + Li2 O

(5) (6) (7)

It can be seen from the CV curves of MnO/[email protected] (Fig. 7b), there is no obvious cathodic peak at 0.6 V in the 2nd and 3rd scans, indicating the reactions described in Eq. (5) did not happen in these scans. As a result, the relative intensity of the anodic peak at 1.32 V is lower than that in [email protected], which may be caused by the absence of oxidation of Sn to SnO2. At such potential, only the oxidation of Mn to MnO took place. As a result, for MnO/[email protected], the reaction described in Eq. (5) is irreversible, which is a common phenomenon for SnO2. For

Fig. 6. Cycling performances of different samples at current density of 100 mA g−1 (a) and rate performances of different samples (b).

Fig. 7. CV curves of [email protected] (a), and MnO/[email protected] (b) electrodes at scanning rate of 0.2 mV s−1; charge–discharge curves of [email protected] (c), and MnO/ [email protected] (d) at 100 mA g−1. 274

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Eqs. (4). While the intensity of SnO2 peaks in MnO/[email protected] electrode after cycling is very weak which reveals the poor reversibility of the reduction of SnO2 to Sn in MnO/[email protected] material. This result is consistent with the CV test. Furthermore, the EIS studies of the electrodes after 10 dischargecharge cycles were carried out at open circuit voltage1.25 V to make a further insight into the activity of the materials. As shown in the Nyquist plots (Fig. 9), [email protected] possesses the smallest semicircle radius in the mid-frequency region which corresponds to the lowest charge transfer resistance [48]. The Rct value can be fitted using the Randles equivalent circuit (inlet of Fig. 9), and the Rct values for [email protected], MnO/[email protected] and [email protected] are calculated to be 42.3 Ω, 74.8 Ω and 113.6 Ω respectively. For [email protected], the “synergistic effect” make the reaction (3) and (4) easier to happen. So [email protected] has the lowest Rct. For MnO/[email protected], the reaction Sn + 2Li2 O ) is irreversible, so the Rct derives (SnO2 + 4Li+ + 4e mainly from reaction (7). While MnO particles in MnO/[email protected] has less reaction points compared with that in [email protected] because of the block of extra SnO2. So MnO/[email protected] has a higher Rct than [email protected] at 1.25 V.

Fig. 8. XRD patterns of the [email protected] and MnO/[email protected] electrodes after 100 discharge-charge cycles.

4. Conclusions In summary, we developed a new method to prepare flake-like carbon coated Mn2SnO4 nanoparticles using Mn-BDC as precursor and SnCl2 as additive tin source. The 2D and mesoporous morphology is beneficial for the performance as anode of LIBs. Moreover, the tests show the “synergistic effect” in Mn2SnO4 provides the material superiority over MnO/SnO2 on capacity and capacity retention. This design could present a new perspective for the preparation of high-performance ternary tin oxides materials and a better understanding of the lithium storage essence of tin-based materials. Acknowledgment This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51672021). Appendix A. Supplementary data

Fig. 9. Nyquist plots of different electrodes.

Supplementary data to this article can be found online at https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.04.150.

[email protected], the cathodic peak at 0.6 V reveals an enhanced reversibility of reversibility of conversion reaction (Eq. (4)) and this will provide more capacity to [email protected] In summary, for [email protected], reaction (1) only happens in first discharge cycle. And then Mn, Sn, Li2O disperse uniformly at atomic scale. Sn storage lithium as described in Eq. (2). In first charge cycle, Mn react with Li2O to form MnO, LixSn dealloys to form Sn, and moreover, Sn reacts with Li2O as described in Eq. (4). [email protected], reaction (3) can provide extra Li2O to Sn and promote the reversibility of reaction (4). This mutual promotion between reaction (3) and (4) is described as “synergistic effect”. This “synergistic effect” is also reported in other materials of SnO2 mixed with other metal oxides [46,47]. Apparently, this effect is more prominent in ternary tin oxides Mn2SnO4. In MnO/[email protected], although the amounts of Li2O is the same as that in [email protected], this “synergistic effect” is not evident in MnO/[email protected] because SnO2 and MnO are separated by each other. And this leads to the low reversibility of reaction (6). The comparison of the charge-discharge voltage profiles of [email protected] and MnO/[email protected] (Fig. 7c, d) also shows that the superior capacity of [email protected] over MnO/[email protected] mainly comes from the voltage region above 0.5 V, which is relative to the reversible transformation from SnO2 to Sn. To further validate the analysis, we conducted XRD test for both the two electrodes after 100 dischargecharge cycles. As shown in Fig. 8, the [email protected] electrode after cycling shows the obvious peaks of SnO2, MnO and small peaks of Sn, which demonstrates the improved reversibility of reaction described in

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