MONDAY, OCTOBER 20
Poster Session: Food/Nutrition Science; Education; Management; Food Services/Culinary; Research From Cook to Chef: A New Perspective on Child Care Author(s): M.L.C. Plummer1, S. Brown2; 1American Dairy Association Indiana, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, 2Second Helpings, Inc., Indianapolis, IN Learning Outcome: Each participant will achieve an increased knowledge of culinary skills, a recipe booklet meeting the nutritional measurements by USDA, DOE and DNC for each child to achieve the 900-1000 mgs. calcium required daily by using milk, cheese and yogurt. With a focus on decreasing obesity and increasing nutritious food consumption in children, culinary trainings were delivered across Indiana to participants in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. These trainings were a joint effort between a chef and a dietitian to provide education on nutrition, culinary practices, sanitation, food variety, and time and labor saving kitchen designs. Participants gained knowledge about food modiﬁcation, substitutions, adding ﬂavor without salt, and kitchen organization. Culinary knowledge was measured through a pre and post-test. Other concerns that were discussed at the workshops include the use of honey and peanut butter, safety when serving dried/sticky fruits, allergies, and intolerances. Other discussions included workload vs. kitchen layout and meal consumption. In total, 257 people attended seminars from 148 different child care facilities (many sites sent more than one person) which impacted 11,163 children. A program follow-up survey has been issued on menu changes, dairy consumption, and skill development. This program was recorded and posted on the Department of Education website for future viewing. Participants received a bag containing culinary tools, a knife, recipe cards, and entered into a rafﬂe to win equipment they needed to prepare the recipes prepared in class. Each class was given time to prepare, sample, and clean up the event. This clinic will be provided again in 2014 by other agencies serving this population. A monthly newsletter has been requested with a new culinary technique referenced.
The Effect of Tomato Size on the Taste, Texture, Mouthfeel and Fiber Content of Tomato Sauce Author(s): P.H. Terry, P. Clickner; Nutrition and Dietetics, Samford Univ., Birmingham, AL Learning Outcome: The participant will be able to increase dietary ﬁber in the diet by simply making small changes to the diet, such as tomato size and skin inclusion in sauces and other recipes. Few Americans consume an adequate intake of dietary ﬁber, which has been shown to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, hypertension, high cholesterol, and hyperglycemia. Supplements are available to boost ﬁber intake; however, natural ﬁber from whole food sources are preferred as these sources of dietary ﬁber also contain numerous other nutrients and phytochemicals that are beneﬁcial to good health. The purpose of this experiment is to determine, through objective and subjective testing, the effect of varying tomato size (Roma, cherry, and Beefeater) and including skins in a tomato sauce has on the overall palatability and ﬁber content of said sauce. Using a common recipe with the only variance being the size of tomatoes and inclusion of their skins, four samples were prepared and tested. Subjectively, they were tested on a Hedonic scale (1-9) and statistically analyzed using a paired sample ttest. Objective testing involved oven drying the samples and evaluation with the TA. XT2 texture analyzer. Statistical analysis revealed little differences between taste, texture, and mouth feel scores for each sauce, which indicated a minimal effect of skin inclusion and tomato size on overall palatability. Objective testing revealed that the sauce made with the cherry tomatoes was richer in dietary ﬁber than the control, Roma tomato sauce with skins, and Beefeater tomato sauce with skins. These ﬁndings suggest that small changes in recipes, such as tomato size and skin inclusion in sauces, can have a signiﬁcant positive impact on nutritional values without sacriﬁcing palatability. Funding Disclosure: None
Funding Disclosure: DOE
Factors Relating to Home Meal Preparation among Low-Income Adults
Acceptability, Usage and Knowledge of Resistant Starch
Author(s): H. Desai, D. Palmer; Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ
Author(s): M.C. Schmidt, A. Grady, K. Jolley, R. Moore, S. Vaughan; Ag/ Nutrition, Southern Utah Univ., Cedar City, UT
Learning Outcome: To determine cooking self-efﬁcacy and other relating factors among low-income adults in New Jersey.
Learning Outcome: Participants will learn that resistant starch has the potential of replacing ﬂour in creating acceptable baked products.
This pilot study examined variables potentially related to the number of meals low-income adults prepare at home. A convenient sample of low-income adults (n¼126) were interviewed at job training, GED program, substance abuse recovery and family success centers, and faith-based sites in Atlantic City, Camden, Mount Holly, Newark, and Trenton, New Jersey. Participants, predominantly Black (n¼76), White (n¼31) or Hispanic (n¼21) women (n¼95), were asked how often they cooked meals at home, and to rate on a 5-point Likert scale (5¼very conﬁdent) their self-efﬁcacy to prepare tasty, low-fat meals. A previously developed negative cooking attitudes scale, comprised of 4 questions with 5-point Likert responses, was also administered. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables. The number of meals/week prepared at home was correlated with participants’: demographic characteristics, self-efﬁcacy and cooking attitudes scores. Over 95% disagreed that cooking: takes too much time, is frustrating, is too much work, or is tiring. Meals cooked/week was not signiﬁcantly related to any demographic variables. Although not signiﬁcant, there was an inverse relationship between negative cooking attitudes and the number of meals cooked. Participants’ self-efﬁcacy (mean ¼ 3.5 + 1.4) was signiﬁcantly correlated with both the number of meals cooked (r¼0.21; p<0.05) and positive attitudes towards cooking (r¼0.18; p<0.05). These ﬁndings suggest that low-income people, overall, have positive attitudes towards cooking and cook most meals at home. While higher self-efﬁcacy and better attitudes towards cooking are associated with increased home meal preparation; research should be done to determine if these relationships are causal.
Type 2 diabetes affects 8% of adults and is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. Although many medical treatments are established to alleviate diabetic complications, it is advantageous long-term to increase tissue insulin sensitivity and reduce the development of type 2 diabetes. One functional ﬁber shown to retard glucose absorption and increase insulin sensitivity is resistant starch (RS). Several companies claim RS as capable of replacing a portion of ﬂour in home baking without altering the texture or taste of the ﬁnal product. If these claims are true, RS could be a beneﬁcial addition to diets. This study developed three recipes (biscuit, cookie, mufﬁn) that replaced varying percentages of ﬂour with RS. A triangle test was conducted with 17 subjects, mean age 43.8 years ( 10.6), to determine if participants could correctly identify the presence of RS in products. Results indicated that 65%, 71%, and 76% of participants could not identify which sample contained RS. A subsequent survey explored acceptability of each RS product and subjects prior knowledge of RS. The acceptability was 52%, 100%, and 82% for the biscuit, cookie, and mufﬁn recipes. Acceptability of each product containing RS was similar to the acceptability of the unmodiﬁed versions of those products. Prior to this study, 88% of the population had not heard of RS. This study showed that RS is not a commonly known product in this population, can replace a percentage of ﬂour in recipes, and produce an acceptable result in these baked goods. Funding Disclosure: None
Funding Disclosure: None
September 2014 Suppl 2—Abstracts Volume 114 Number 9
JOURNAL OF THE ACADEMY OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS