Full-Fat Canola Seed as a Feedstuff for Turkeys

Full-Fat Canola Seed as a Feedstuff for Turkeys

Full-Fat Canola Seed as a Feedstuff for Turkeys R. E. SALMON and V. I. STEVENS Research Station, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Swift Current, S...

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Full-Fat Canola Seed as a Feedstuff for Turkeys R. E. SALMON and V. I. STEVENS Research Station, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Swift Current, Saskatchewan, S9H 3X2, Canada and B . D . LADBROOKE POS Pilot Plant Corporation, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 2R4, Canada (Received for publication June 25, 1987)

1988 Poultry Science 67:1731-1742 INTRODUCTION

Improvements in rate of growth and feed efficiency of growing turkeys have often been shown to result from the use of supplementary fat to increase the bioavailable energy concentration of the diet (Jensen et al., 1970; Sell et al., 1985). However, the adverse effect of increased fat on durability of pellets tends to limit the nutrient density of practical diets (Salmon, 1985). Incorporation of full-fat oilseeds in the diet may provide a means of achieving increased energy concentrations while maintaining satisfactory pellet quality (Friedrich, 1983). Leeson et al. (1978) reported that broilers were able to utilize 200 g/kg of whole rapeseed of a canola variety (Tower), in mash diets, and that there was no advantage in grinding or heating the seed. Summers et al. (1982) similarly observed no benefit from grinding or heat treating canola seed (variety unspecified) used in pelleted diets

for broilers, but found that weight gains were depressed and dietary fat and energy were poorly utilized. However, Moody et al. (1978) fed 250 g/kg of whole autoclaved Tower canola seed to growing turkeys, with no adverse effect on performance to 112 days of age. No single study reported to date has examined and clearly distinguished between the effects on the nutritive value of full-fat canola seed of heat treatment alone and those of heat treatment combined with other methods of processing such as grinding, flaking, or steam pelleting. Therefore, a series of experiments was conducted 1) to determine the effect of various methods of preparation on the comparative efficiency of utilization and true metabolizable energy values of full-fat canola seed, and 2) to investigate appropriate dietary conditions (amino acid supplementation, etc.) required to maximize performance of turkeys fed full-fat canola seed.

1731

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ABSTRACT Feeding of various forms of full-fat canola seed products was compared with feeding canola meal plus oil at up to 200 g/kg canola meal equivalent (on an oil-adjusted basis) in mash or pelleted diets for turkeys to 6 wk of age. Comparisons of seed-processing methods demonstrated that cooking was ineffective, but both flaking and extrusion increased live weights and improved feed efficiency of birds fed full-fat canola seed. Stem pelleting was more effective, resulting in similar feed efficiencies for whole and processed seed. Live weights were slightly reduced for birds fed whole or flaked seed even when the feed was pelleted. Neither lysine nor arginine supplementation affected performance of birds fed control, canola meal, or full-fat (flaked) seed diets. Increased protein did not improve weight gain of birds fed whole or flaked canola seed in the diet. Response to methionine was less with canola diets than with the wheat-soybean meal control diet. In another experiment steam-pelleted diets containing 100 or 200 g/kg of canola meal or equivalent full-fat canola seed [whole or flaked (uncooked)] were fed to Medium White turkeys to 12 wk of age; controls were fed wheat-soybean meal diets. Diets with canola meal gave performance equal to that of controls. Full-fat canola seed at 165 g/kg supported growth equal to that of birds fed control or canola meal diets, but live weights were reduced by feeding 330 g/kg. Feed efficiency was lower than expected for birds fed full-fat canola diets, and high rates of inclusion reduced carcass fleshing. (Key words: canola meal, canola seed, full-fat canola, pelleting, turkeys)

SALMON ET AL.

1732 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Rosedowns laboratory screw press, and extraction a Crown Iron Works six stage counter-current solvent extractor (Crown Iron Works Co., Minneapolis, MN). The extruded soy/canola blend was prepared on a Wenger X20 continuous cooling extruder (Wenger Mfg. Ltd., Kansas City, MO) at a temperature of 130 C. The TMEn value of each diet was determined using adult White Leghorn cockerels by the method of Sibbald (1976) as modified by Wolynetz and Sibbald (1984). Experiment 2. To determine whether reduced live weights associated with whole, and to a lesser extent, flaked seed in Experiment 1 may have resulted from lower availability of protein or amino acids or both, diets containing 330 g/kg of either whole or flaked seed were prepared, with protein content as in Experiment 1 or increased to reduce the energy:protein ratio by 10%. Each basal diet was supplemented with either 2 or 4 g/kg DL-methionine and 0 or 2.3 g/kg lysine (Table 1). Diets were steam pelleted and fed to 224 male Hybrid 1500 Medium White turkeys in battery brooders from 1 day old to 6 wk of age. Experiments were arranged in a 2 (seed forms) X 2 (methionine) x 2 (lysine) x 2 (protein) x 2 (replicates) completely randomized experimental design. Experiments. To assess the possible involvement of a lysine-arginine imbalance in the reduced gains observed with some diets high in full-fat canola or canola meal, diets containing 330 g/kg of raw flaked canola or 200 g/kg of canola meal and a wheat-soybean meal control diet were supplemented with 0, 1, or 2 g/kg DL-methionine, 0 or 2 g/kg lysine, or 0 or 2 g/kg arginine. Steam-pelleted diets were fed to 432 Hybrid 1500 Medium White poults of both sexes in battery brooders from 1 day old to 4 wk of age. Experiments were arranged in a 3 (diets) x 3 (methionine) X 2 (lysine) x 2 (arginine) X 2 (sex) randomized block design, with blocks (replicates) consisting of either male or female poults. Experiment 4. This experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of full-fat canola in practical diets in comparison with fully extracted canola meal and a wheat-soybean meal control diet. It was also designed to determine whether the small growth reduction resulting from feeding whole or flaked seed could be overcome by introducing the two types of seed at a later stage in the growing cycle. A total of 720 sexed Medium White poults were fed experimental diets from 1 day old to

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Experiment 1. To determine the processing method required to render nutrients in canola seed readily available to the bird, diets containing various types of processed canola seed were fed to 612 male Nicholas Large White poults in wire mesh-floored battery brooders from 1 day old to 6 wk of age. Nine poults were placed/pen in Replication 1 and 8 poults/pen in Replication 2. Birds were kept in battery brooders (Petersime units; Petersime Incubator Co., Gettysburg, OH) to 2 wk, and then in unheated batteries in a room where the temperature was thermostatically controlled. Room temperature was reduced by 3 C/wk to approximately 21 C from an initial temperature of 30 C. Feed and water were available at all times; the room was lighted 23 h/day. Processing methods applied to canola seed were: 1) whole (unprocessed); 2) whole, cooked; 3) flaked; 4) flaked, cooked; 5) extruded (as 50:50 blend canola flake/soybean meal); and 6) canola meal plus oil. Dietary concentrations fed (11, 22, 33% of diet) were equivalent, on an oil-adjusted basis, to 67, 133, and 200 g/kg canola meal (maximum recommended level). All diets (Table 1) were fed in both mash and pelleted form. Pellets were prepared in a commercial type steam pelleter. The statistical model was a 6 (seed forms) x 3 (concentrations) X 2 (mash or pellets) X 2 (replicates) completely randomized factorial design. In Experiments 1 and 2, higher than normal levels of supplementary methionine were added to the diets to ensure that a deficiency of this amino acid would not limit performance (Table 1). In Experiment 3, the response to lower levels of methionine supplementation was investigated. All canola products required in Experiments 1 to 3 were processed at the POS Pilot Plant, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, from seed of a Brassica napus cultivar that contained 24.5% protein, 40.6% oil, 7.6% moisture, .93 mg/g glucosinolates, and erucic acid (59% of fatty acids). Meal derived from this cultivar contained 2.7% residual oil and 11.0% moisture, and by calculation, 38.7% protein. Flaking was accomplished widi a Turner Ipswich roller mill (E.R.F. Turner Ltd., Ipswitch, England, UK) with a roll clearance of .2 mm and rotative speed of 300 rpm. Cooking was done for 30 min in a Simon Rosedowns two-stage laboratory cooker (Simon Rosedowns Ltd., Hull, England, UK), with top and bottom trays maintained at 60 and 80 C, respectively. Expelling employed a Simon

5

4

44.2 10.6

13.5 3.23

305

27.0 10.1 2.69 5.16 2.50

67.0 43.0

59.0

428 356

Meal, oil

44.2 10.6

14.4 3.44

326

29.4 10.2 2.88 5.52 2.50

63.2 220 2

278 388

Full-fat

44.2 10.6

14.4 3.44

326

29.4 10.2 2.88 5.52 2.50

86.0

134

63.2

278 388

Meal, oil

Medium

44.2 10.6

15.2 3.63

347

31.8 10.3 3.05 5.86 2.50

66.9 328 2

136 416

Full-fat

44.2 10.6

15.2 3.63

347

31.8 10.3 3.05 5.86 2.50

200 128

66.9

136 416

43.9 10.5

15.2 3.63

347

7.00"

31.8 10.3 3.05 5.86

66.9 328 3

131 416

Whole or flaked seed, raw or cooked, or extruded with equal parts soybean meal.

Variables: DL-methionine 0, 1, or 2 g/kg; L-lysine (as hydrochloride) 0 or 2 g/kg; L-arginine (as hydrochloride) 0 o

Variables: DL-methionine 2 or 4 g/kg; L-lysine (as hydrochloride) 0 or 2.3 g/kg; starch to total 7 g/kg.

3

1

37

3 1

4 50 6 32

Hig

lent protein leve Normal

(.g/Kg;

Meal, oiI

High

Low, medium, and high; equivalent on oil-adjusted basis to 6.7, 13.3, and 20% canola meal, respectively.

44.2 10.6

13.5 3.23

305

27.0 10.1 2.69 5.16 2.50

no 2

'Whole or flaked seed, uncooked.

2

1

Meal

MJ

Calculated analysis Protein (N X 6.25), g/kg TME n MJ/kg Mcal/kg TME n /kg protein

428 356

Wheat, ground (15% protein) Soybean meal (48% protein) Fishmeal, herring Canola, full-fat Canola meal Canola oil Fat, stabilized animal Dicalcium phosphate Calcium carbonate Salt Vitamin-mineral premix DL-Methionine Variables

59.0

Full-fat

Ingredients

Low

Experiment 1: processed canola seed1

TABLE 1. Composition of diets: Experiments 1 to 3

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1734

SALMON ET AL. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Experiment 1. Feeding flaked canola seed improved live weights over those of birds fed whole seed, but extruded seed or equivalent levels of fully extracted meal plus oil produced results superior to both (P<.01; Table 3). Cooking either whole or flaked seed did not affect live weights or feed efficiency produced. Feeding of flaked seed in mash diets was associated with markedly improved feed efficiency over that of whole seed, as was extrusion, but meal plus oil gave the best overall results. Steam pelleting improved growth of birds fed all forms of seed (P<.01), and resulted in similar feed efficiency ratings for all forms of raw or processed seed. An interaction of the rate of inclusion of canola seed in the diet with feed form indicated that the variation in live weights noted above was greater with mash diets and at higher concentrations of canola seed in the diets (P<.05). Furthermore, feed efficiency declined at higher rates of inclusion in mash diets but improved when diets were pelleted. However, efficiency of utilization of TMEn was relatively constant for all seed forms, confirming that the feed efficiency response was related to changes in bioavailable energy due to the method of processing. An interaction of seed form with dietary concentration indicated that the growth rate declined as the concentration of whole or flaked seed in the diet increased (P<.05; Table 4). However, diets contained extruded seed or canola meal plus oil produced similar live weights at all rates of inclusion. The conclusion from this experiment was that flaking and extrusion improved the availability of the energy (primarily of the oil) in canola seed, whereas cooking had no such beneficial effect. Steam pelleting was even more effective, however, and resulted in similar feed efficiencies for whole and processed seed. True metabolizable energy assays of the diets as fed confirmed the effects of processing on bioavailability of energy (Table 5). However, the TMEn values obtained, even for pelleted diets, were lower than those calculated from values determined on individual feedstuffs. The discrepancy was most marked at the higher rates of inclusion, raising questions regarding the use of TMEn values determined on high fat feedstuffs in calculating energy values for mixed feeds.

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slaughter at 12 wk of age. Diets incorporated the following canola seed products: 1) control (wheat-soy-fish meal); 2) canola meal, 100 or 200 g/kg; 3) whole, uncooked seed, 165 or 330 g/kg; 4) flaked, uncooked seed, 165 or 330 g/kg; 5) whole seed 0 (starter), 165 (grower), and 330 g/kg (finisher); and 6) flaked seed 0 (starter), 165 (grower), and 330 g/kg (finisher). Each dietary treatment was assigned to two pens of male and two of female poults except the control diets, which were fed to four pens of each sex. Housing consisted of 48 floor pens, 3.89 m2 in area, in a heated building. An infrared lamp in each pen provided supplementary brooder heat. Litter consisted of wood shavings. Metal feed troughs were replaced within 3 wk by cylindrical hanging feeders. Lighting was continuous. Canola products fed in this experiment were produced in a commercial crushing plant, from one lot of seed. Levels of 165 and 330 g/kg of whole or flaked seed were calculated to be equivalent on an oil-adjusted basis to 100 and 200 g/kg of canola meal, respectively. All diets were pelleted in a commercial type steam pelleter. As the objective was to compare commercially feasible diets, no attempt was made to make the control and full-fat canola diets isocaloric. Control and canola meal diets were, however, calculated to be isocaloric, and all diets within each feeding period were similar in energyrprotein ratio (Table 2). Individual live weights and pen feed consumption amounts were recorded at 28, 56, and 84 days of age. Birds in one duplicate pen that had been assigned to each treatment were slaughtered at 84 days and the others at 91 days. All birds in each replicate were slaughtered within a 2-day period and deprived of feed, but not water, for 12 h prior to slaughter. Slaughter was accomplished by electrical stunning and severing of the carotid artery and jugular vein, followed by evisceration using commercial procedures. After chilling overnight in icewater slush, all birds were graded by an experienced inspector according to Canadian grading regulations. Each carcass was rated separately for finish (fat) and fleshing factors on a 9-point scale, with scores of 1 to 3, representing Grade C carcasses, 4 to 6 Grade B, and 7 to 9, Grade A. Data from each experiment were evaluated by ANOVA. Comparisons among treatment means were made by isolation of orthogonal sets of single degrees of freedom.

44.3 10.6

13.1 3.13 44.3 10.6

13.1 3.13

295

2.60 65.0 5.00

2.60 52.5 5.00 1.05

295

8.4

9.2

.60

23.0

23.8

200

58.0

377 260

High

44.0 10.5

13.9 3.32

Uncooked seed, whole, or flaked.

44.0 10.5

15.2 3.63

349

5.81 1.70

5.32 1.50

318

3.02

9.0

28.0

328

66.9

122 436

High

2.77

9.6

25.8

164

61.1

346 384

Low

Low and high; equivalent to 100 and 200 g/kg canola meal, respectively.

44.3 10.6

13.1 3.13

295

24.5 10.0 2.60 40.0 5.00 1.50

100

58.0

430 318

Low

Canola, full-fat1'2

'High inclusion rate only is shown; low rate may be obtained by interpolation.

2

1

Meal

MJ

Calculated analysis Protein (N X 6.25), g/kg TME n MJ/kg Mcal/kg TME n /g protein

483 375

Wheat, ground Soybean meal Fish meal Canola meal Canola, full-fat Dicalcium phosphate Calcium carbonate Salt Fat, stabilized animal Vitamin-mineral premix DL-Methionine L-Lysine-HCl

58.0

Control

Ingredient

Canola meal 1

Starter diets (0 to 4 w k )

50.6 12.1

13.2 3.16

262

25.0 10.0 2.60 45.0 5.00 1.40

25.0

552 334

(g/KgJ

ftr/lrrr}

Control

50.6 12.1

13.3 3.18

262

.50

2.60 70.0 5.00

8.4

23.5

200

25.0

445 220

Canola meal 3

Grower diets (4 to

TABLE 2. Composition of diets: Experiment 4

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**P<01.

*P<.05.

Using TME n determined by assay; 1 MJ = ,239 Meal.

.027 .019 .016 .047

SEM Seed form Concentration Feed form Concentration in diet X feed form

1

2.49 2.48 2.39

3.61 3.63 3.45

.049 .035 .029 .086

NS NS

**

NS

** *

2.30 2.19 2.06

NS NS

Significance Concentration in diet Concentration in diet X feed form

Concentration in diet Low Medium High

**

** * **

NS

* *

**

NS NS

3.56

2.45

2.19

Significance Whole vs. flaked Raw vs. cooked (whole) Raw us. cooked (flaked) Extruded or meal and oil vs. others Extruded vs. meal and oil Mash vs. pellets Seed form X feed form

X

3.76 3.65 3.28 3.40 3.76 3.53

2.36 2.32 2.46 2.45 2.54 2.59

.. .

2.08 1.99 2.18 2.18 2.28 2.38

n-rr\

(Kg)

3.83 3.60 3.50

3.65

3.61 3.37 3.63 3.54 3.73 3.98

Pellets

Feed intake Mash

Seed form Whole, raw Whole, cooked Flaked, raw Flaked, cooked Extruded Meal and oil

Pellets

Mash

Variables

Liveweight

.630 .608 .603

.614

.545 .547 .647 .633 .634 .677

Mash

.0048 .0033 .0028 .0083

**

NS

** • ** **

NS

** *

• (g/g)

.642 .674 .676

.664

.644 .672 .669 .682 .666 .654

Pellets

Feed efficiency (gain: feed)

TABLE 3. Effect of seed preparation and feed form on performance of Large White turkeys fed full fat canol

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FULL-FAT CANOLA FOR TURKEYS

1737

available to the birds. The possibility was addressed in Experiment 2. Experiment 2. The increase in methionine from 2 to 4 g/kg, inclusion of lysine, and difference in seed form all failed to affect live weights, feed intake, and feed efficiency (Table 6). However, increased dietary protein reduced both live weights and feed efficiency. It is concluded that the slightly reduced growth observed with whole or flaked seed in Experiment 1 was not a result

Despite improvements in bioavailability of energy resulting from flaking or steam pelleting, differences in final live weights indicated that neither of these processes made canola seed fully equal in nutritional value to extruded seed or canola meal and oil. Although cell structures were ruptured sufficiently to release their oil for digestion, the crushing, shearing, heating, and pressurizing forces applied may have been inadequate to render the protein fraction fully

Seed form

11.0(6.7)

22.0(13.4)

32.8 (20.0)

Whole, raw Whole, cooked Flaked, raw Flaked, cooked Extruded Meal plus oil

2.34 2.27 2.42 2.43 2.41 2.49

2.24 2.23 2.32 2.25 2.43 2.53

2.07 1.96 2.22 2.25 2.38 2.45

2.39

2.34

2.22

SEM (concentration in diet X seed form)

.047

1

Interaction was significant (P<.01).

2

Number in parenthesis indicates canola meal equivalent.

TABLE 5. Effect of seed preparation and pelleting on true metabolizable energy values, corrected to nitrogen balance (± SEM), (as-fed basis) of diets (Experiment l)1 Variable

Pellets

Mash

Pellets

Mash (kcal/g)

Seed form2 Whole, raw Whole, cooked Flaked, raw Flaked, cooked Extruded Meal plus oil

10.2 10.4 12.4 12.5 12.6 13.0

Concentration in diet 3 Low Medium High

11.8 ± .3 11.9 ± .5 11.8 ± .8

± .7 ± .3 ± .1 ± .1 ± .5 ±.3

12.8 13.1 13.2 13.2 13.1 12.9

±.2 ±.2 ±.3 + .3 ± .2 ±.2

12.7 ± .04 13.1 ± .04 13.3 + .13

2.43 2.49 2.96 2.98 3.01 3.10

± ± ± ± ± ±

16 07 02 .02 .12 .08

2.83 : .07 2.84: .11 2.81 : .19

3.06 3.14 3.16 3.15 3.12 3.09

± ± ± + ± ±

.04 .04 .08 .06 .05 .04

3.03 ± . 0 1 3.13 ± .01 3.19 ± .03

1 Standard errors of five replicate determinations on each sample averaged ± .16 kj/g, ranging from .02 to .8 kj/g (± .04, .004, and .119 kcal/g, respectively). 2

SEM, n = 3 (concentrations in diet).

3

SEM, n = 6 (seed forms).

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TABLE 4. Effect on live weight of seed form and full-fat canola concentration in diet (Experiment 1)'

SALMON ET AL.

1738

TABLE 6. Effect of methionine, lysine, and protein on performance of Medium White turkeys fed full-fat canola seed in pelleted diets to 6 weeks of age (Experiment 2)

Treatment 1

Liveweight

Feed intake (kg)

Feed efficiency (gain:feed) (g/g)

1.84 1.82 NS

2.60 2.56 NS

.690 .687 NS

Lysine, g/kg 0 2.3 Significance

1.82 1.84 NS

2.56 2.60 NS

.689 .687 NS

Protein Normal High Significance

1.87 1.80 **

2.59 2.57 NS

.700 .677 *

Seed form Whole Flaked Significance

1.85 1.81 NS

2.63 2.53 NS

.687 .690 NS

1

No significant interactions.

*P<.05. **P<.01.

of lower availability of protein or amino acids in these seed forms in comparison with that in extruded or fully extracted canola seed. Experiment 3. Neither lysine nor arginine supplementation, alone or in interaction, significantly affected any measure of performance (Table 7). Thus the absolute and relative levels of those amino acids appear to be satisfactory in unsupplemented turkey starter diets containing the maximum recommended level of canola products. Supplementation with methionine (0, 1, or 2 g/kg) significantly increased live weights and feed intake (P<.01) (Table 7). However, a significant interaction with diet treatment (P<.05) revealed a much greater response to supplementation from a wheat-soybean meal diet than from diets containing canola products. Failure of birds to respond with improved feed efficiency to the increased energy concentration in full-fat canola diets over that of control and canola meal diets may be attributed to limited absorption of fatty acids by young poults. Feed efficiency rates of birds fed from 2 to 4 wk wheat-soybean, canola meal, and full-fat canola diets were .64, .65, and .70, respec-

tively, showing that energy utilization improved with age for birds fed the higher-fat diets. Experiment 4. Treatment effects on live weights and feed efficiency are summarized in Table 8, and comparisons among specific treatment combinations are shown in Table 9. Experimental treatment responses were generally similar at 4 and 8 wk of age to those at 12 wk. Therefore, responses will be discussed in terms of overall performance to 12 wk of age. Control diets produced heavier final live weights but lower feed efficiencies than the other treatments combined (P<.01). Within canola treatments, canola meal at either 100 or 200 g/kg gave results similar to those of the control treatment. Feeding canola meal resulted in heavier weights (P< .01) but lower feed efficiency (P<.05) than feeding either whole or flaked seed. There were no differences between performance of birds fed diets containing whole and those fed flaked full-fat canola; feeding 165 g/kg of either whole or flaked canola gave superior growth to that obtained by feeding 330 g/kg (P<.01). Delayed introduction of full-fat canola offered no advantage over feeding from Day 1; performance of birds in the former group was similar to the

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Methionine, g/kg 2 4 Significance

FULL-FAT CANOLA FOR TURKEYS

g/kg of full-fat canola; however, the increase in feed efficiency was considerably less than the calculated 16% increase in energy concentration of those diets. This apparent decrease in efficiency of energy utilization from feeding high energy diets could indicate either reduced absorption of fat at high dietary levels or increased deposition of fat on the carcass. However, finish grades of all groups were uniformly high (males, 98.3; females, 100% grade A), and, therefore, failed to distinguish possible differences in carcass fat deposition among treatments. Diets containing full-fat canola products adversely affected carcass fleshing, the effect increasing with the dietary level (Tables 8 and 9). Reduced fleshing and edible meat yield have

TABLE 7. Effect of lysine, arginine, and methionine on performance of poults fed canola products to 4 weeks of age (Experiment 3)

Treatment

Liveweight2

Feed intake (kg)

Feed efficiency (gain: feed) (g/g)

Lysine, g/kg 0 2 Significance

730 741 NS

1,003 1,024 NS

.678 .675 NS

Arginine, g/kg 0 2 Significance

731 740 NS

1,008 1,019 NS

.676 .677 NS

Diet Wheat-soybean meal Methionine, g/kg 0 1 2

711 784 782

980 1,096 1,070

.674 .671 .685

Canola meal (200 g/kg) Methionine, g/kg 0 1 2

743 754 765

1,025 1,039 1,059

.676 .677 .675

Full-fat flaked canola seed (330 g/kg) Methionine, g/kg 0 1 2

687 693 701

950 949 955

.670 .676 .682

Significance Diet (D) Methionine (M) DX M

** ** *

1

No significant interactions other than that shown.

2

Males and females combined.

*P<.05. •*P<.01.

** *• **

NS NS NS

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average of birds fed 165 or 330 g/kg for the entire growing cycle. The mean rate of gain at 12 wk of age was about 90 g/day, therefore the differences in live weight observed, even where significant, were not great. Turkeys fed full-fat canola at 165 g/kg required less than 1 additional day to equal the final weight of the control groups, and those fed 330 g/kg of full-fat canola, approximately 3 days. Feed efficiencies were no higher for birds fed diets containing 165 g/kg of full-fat canola than for birds fed the equivalent 100 g/kg of canola meal, despite a 6% increase in calculated nutrient density. Feed efficiency increased by approximately 5% when the diet contained 330

1739

.040 .016

NA = not applicable at 4 wk.

Concentration in starter = 0; grower = 165; finisher = 330 g/kg.

Treatments X sex interactions were not significant.

.0108 .0044

"Significantly different (P<.01) in all cases.

3

2

1

treatments sex

SEM

3.34 2.73

male female

Sex4

.973 .834

3.03 2.86 3.04 3.06 2.93 3.03

.884 .823 NA 3 .886 .842 NA 3

whole, whole, whole, flaked, flaked, flaked,

FFC, g/kg

165 330 0/165/330 2 165 330 0/165/3 30 2

3.11 3.09

.921 .920

100 200

CM, g/kg

Kkg)

Liveweight 8 wk

3.08

4 wk

.935

Levels

Treatments

Control

Variable

.055 .022

.0102 .0042

.758 .728

.743 .766 .742 .742 .770 .729

5.52 5.17 5.36 5.50 5.28 5.35 6.15 4.74

.736 .750

.731

0 to 4 wk

5.55 5.51

5.55

12 wk

.0057 .0023

.613 .587

.594 .623 .586 .599 .621 .590

.612 .600

.597

(g/g)

Feed efficiency (ga 4 to 8 wk

TABLE 8. Performance of turkey broilers fed canola meal (CM) or full-fat canola seed (FFC) to 1

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NA

Not applicable at 4 wk.

**P<.01.

*P<.05.

2

.-

3.00 os. 3.03

3.06 vs. 2.93

2.95 os. 3.04

3.11 os. 3.09

NS

.

NS

••

NS

5.39 os. 5.35

5.50 vs. 5.28

5.34 os. 5.36

NS

..

NS

"

NS

5.35 os. 5.37 5.52 os. 5.18

NS

5.53 os. 5.36

** **

Significance

5.55 vs. 5.51

**

NS

5.55 os. 5.40

(kg)

X

NS

Significance

12 wk

CM = Canola meal; FFC = full-fat canola meal; amounts in diet given in grams per kilogram.

.886 vs. .842

Flaked FFC: Average of 165 and 330 vs. 0/165/330

1

NA'

Whole FFC: 1 6 5 M . 330 .884 vs. .823

Flaked FFC: 165 us. 330

3.03 os. 2.86

**

.853 vs. .864

FFC: whole vs. flaked

Whole FFC: Average of 165 and 330us. 0/165/330

2.98 os. 3.01

NS

.921 vs. .920

3.10os. 2.99

NS

.921 vs. .859

CM: 100os. 200

3.08 i>s. 3.01

(kg)

CM us. FFC

** **

X

.935 vs. .879

(kg)

X

Significance

8wk

Control vs. others

Treatments compared

1

4 wk

Liveweight

NA

.742 os. .770

NA

.743 os. .766

.755 os. .756

.736 os. .750

.743 os. .755

(g/g) .731 vs. .747

X

.

NS

NS

NS

NS

NS

Significance

0 to 4 wk

.610 os. .590

.599 vs. .621

.608 os. .586

.594 os. .623

.601 os. .603

.612 os. .600

.606 os. .602

(g/g) .597 os. .603

X

.

**

•*

NS

NS

NS

NS

Significance

4 to 8 wk

Feed efficiency (gain:feed)

Treatment means and significance

.526

.513

.522

.510

.520

.516

.515

(g/g) .511

JC

TABLE 9. Selected comparisons of treatment effects on liveweigkt, feed efficiency, and carca

d from http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/ at University of Sydney on August 28, 2014

1742

SALMON ETAL.

However, the energy contributed by full-fat canola may not be fully utilized by growing turkeys, and possible adverse effects of high rates of inclusion on carcass fleshing grades remain to be clarified. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The financial support of the Canola Utilization Assistance Programme is acknowledged (Project 84-33). The Food Production and Inspection Branch of Agriculture Canada gave its customary excellent cooperation in grading the carcasses. REFERENCES Friedrich, W., 1983. Behandlungsverfahren von Sqjavollbohnen-Eiweissqualitat and Olverdaulichkeit. Fette Seifen Anstrichm. 85:346-354. Translated by H. Pfost. Feedstuffs 56:E-1,2; 1984. Jensen, L. S., G. W. Schumaier, and J. D. Latshaw, 1970. "Extra caloric" effect of dietary fat for developing turkeys as influenced by calorie-protein ratio. Poultry Sci. 49:1697-1704. Leeson, S., S. J. Slinger, and J. D. Summers, 1978. Utilization of whole Tower rapeseed by laying hens and broiler chickens. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 58:55-61. Moody, D. L., S. J. Slinger, S. Leeson, and J. D. Summers, 1978. Utilization of dietary Tower rapeseed products by growing turkeys. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 58:585-592. Salmon, R. E., 1984. Effect of grower and finisher protein on performance, carcass grade, and meat yield of turkey broilers. Poultry Sci. 63:1980-1986. Salmon, R. E., 1985. Effect of pelleting, added sodium bentonite and fat in a wheat-based diet on performance and carcass characteristics of small white turkeys. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 12:223-232. Sell, J. L., R. J. Hasiak, andW. J. Owings, 1985. Independent effects of dietary metabolizable energy and protein concentration on performance and carcass composition of torn turkeys. Poultry Sci. 64:1527-1535. Sibbald, I. R., 1976. A rapid bioassay for true metabolizable energy in feedingstuffs. Poultry Sci. 55:303-308. Summers, J. D., H. Shen, and S. Leeson, 1982. The value of canola seed in poultry diets. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 62:861-868. Wolynetz, M. S., and I. R. Sibbald, 1984. Relationships between apparent and true metabolizable energy and the effects of a nitrogen correction. Poultry Sci. 63:1386-1399.

Downloaded from http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/ at University of Sydney on August 28, 2014

previously been associated with reduced dietary protein (Salmon, 1984) but not with inclusion of fat up to 90 g/kg of the diet (Salmon, 1985). Experiments 2 and 3 revealed no indication of a deficiency of protein or a deficiency or imbalance of methionine, lysine, or arginine in diets containing the same concentrations of fullfat canola as were fed in Experiment 4. It is concluded that pelleted diets containing up to 200 g/kg of canola meal were equivalent in production of growth rate and feed efficiency to the wheat-soybean meal control diets. Further, pelleted diets incorporating 165 g/kg of full-fat canola, either whole or flaked, were essentially equivalent to the control or canola meal diets, but final live weights were reduced when the diet contained 330 g/kg of full-fat canola. However, feed efficiency of birds fed diets containing full-fat canola improved less than expected on the basis of calculated energy concentrations. The results of this series of experiments demonstrate the importance of processing whole (full-fat) canola seed intended for use as a high energy feedstuff to improve its nutritive value for growing turkeys. Unprocessed seed was poorly utilized, and cooking failed to improve its nutritive value. Flaking the seed in a roller mill improved live weights and feed efficiency. However, steam pelleting the diets was even more effective, and resulted in feed efficiencies for whole and flaked seed similar to those of equivalent levels of canola meal plus oil. Diets containing canola meal or full-fat canola required less supplementary methionine for maximum performance than a diet based on wheat and soybean meal. This study confirmed the efficacy of inclusion of up to 200 g canola meal/kg in feedstuffs for turkey broilers, and showed that up to 165 g/kg of whole or flaked canola seed may be incorporated in pelleted diets without material decrease in performance. By this means, diets of increased energy concentration may be produced while maintaining satisfactory pellet quality.