International Journal of Psychophysiology 94 (2014) 120–261
Keynote Lecture 5 Neural systems underlying risk for depression: Towards a neurally-informed treatment approach John J.B. Allen Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is unfortunately common and creates a substantial economic and personal burden. An integrative account of neural mechanisms that give rise to risk for MDD will require the examination of multiple neural systems, those in the brain as well as those in the body. Work examining frontal brain electrical asymmetries, resting-state fMRI (RSfMRI) connectivity, and cardiac vagal control reveals a convergence of systems important in risk for MDD. The interaction of these systems – using simultaneously-acquired EEG, EKG, and RSfMRI data – suggests two key systems that may be altered in MDD. The ﬁrst system entails deﬁcits in MDD in the neural networks that provide for cognitive control and emotion regulation. These networks were identiﬁed by deriving two resting state (RS) networks, one using the subgenual ACC as a seed, the other the dorsal ACC, as abnormal activity in these ACC regions are among the most replicated ﬁndings in MDD. Simultaneous EEG was corrected for gradient and BCG artifacts, and CSD-transformed to attenuate distal contributions. Lateral frontal EEG asymmetry was signiﬁcantly negatively related to connectivity in the left inferior frontal gyrus. These ﬁndings that less relative left frontal activity (indexed by EEG) is related to increased connectivity of left IFG to two ACC-seeded RS networks are consistent with: 1) Hyper-connectivity in RSfMRI emotion networks in MDD; and 2) Frontal EEG asymmetry ﬁndings of less relative left frontal activity in risk for MDD. The second system implicated in MDD involves a dysregulation in the medial visceromotor network, resulting in decreased coupling between cardiac vagal control (assessed via Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia; RSA) and the brain systems that monitor and control autonomic function. Depressed patients show reduced BOLD-RSA covariation compared to never-depressed controls within multiple a priori brain regions associated with vagal control, collectively described as the medial visceromotor network (MVN). Finally, ﬁndings from these investigations suggest potential targets for intervention, and a preview of ongoing work is provided highlighting a relatively novel method of brain stimulation – transcranial ultrasound (TUS) – that may hold promise to positively inﬂuence mood. In three separate studies, a single session of TUS over inferior frontal cortex increased positive affect in healthy volunteers, suggesting the promise of TUS for altering mood in clinical populations.
Keynote Lecture 6 Understanding self and others in the social working memory Naoyuki Osaka Department of Psychology, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Philosophers and psychologists have been exploring issues about the representation of the self and others for a long time. Recently, social neuroscientists have joined the debate and started to investigate the unique seat of the self and others in the human brain using neuroimaging techniques. One of the interesting problems about the representation of self and others in the brain is whether they are domain speciﬁc or general. Medial prefrontal
cortex (MPFC) seems to play speciﬁc role in mentalizing by which we make sense of each other in terms of mental state. While social working memory (SWM) plays general role in understanding social event by maintaining/manipulating social information about beliefs, traits and mental state under cognitive control. However, neural correlates of the self representation in the brain remain unclear at present. We here present the way to understand self and others through their dynamic social interaction under several tasks. Firstly, we challenged possibility of the special seat hypothesis of the self using self-reference effect (SRE) which suggests better recall/ recognition when the memorized personality traits had been referred to the self. We explored the neural correlates of SRE to the self, close-others and distant-others using fMRI and found a common activation in DMPFC which result in no unique seat for the self processing. In the agent-based animation task, motions of simple geometric shapes can readily be understood as depicting social interactions. As intentional attribution of agency increased, we observed less MPFC activation but SWM activation instead of MPFC. We also found, in the theory-of-mind-based mentalization task, the second-order false belief task (difﬁcult task) required SWM in the DLPFC but not in the ﬁrst-order false belief task (easy task). Lastly, in the self-descriptive picture frustration task, asking who should be punished under a frustration, where the self punishes others (extrapunitive) or self punishes oneself (intropunitive), extrapunitive showed activation in the VLPFC while intropunitive people showed activation in the DLPFC, reﬂecting cognitive control for frustration reduction using SWM. In summary, these results suggested that as difﬁculty of the task increases the brain activities within MPFC expand to lateral PFC involving SWM regions. When attributing mental states to the self and others, SWM is likely a key to understand complex mentalizing. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.08.592
Symposium A1 Functional neuroimaging of deception Organizer: Svyatoslav V. Medvedev (Russia) There is a growing body of neuroimaging studies aiming to reveal fundamental brain mechanisms of deception. At this symposium we will present newly obtained experimental data in this domain, as well as general issues regarding the neurobiology of deception and methodological problems of its research will be discussed. The primary goal of this symposium is to demonstrate recent achievements in neuroimaging of deception and to show how multidisciplinary scientiﬁc studies with the use of currently applied methods for brain imaging, i.e. event-related potentials, positron-emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging can improve our understanding of how brain produce and process deception. Another task for this symposium is to consider methodological shift to ecologically valid experimental designs which assume transition from instructed lie settings towards free choice conditions. Recent neuroimaging data obtained in such experimental settings extend the traditional view on the role of brain regions frequently associated with the deception. In respect to the practical application of neuroimaging methods for the detection of deception, an issue that will also be considered in special talk, the study of how different cognitive processes can inﬂuence the future deceptive behavior is of particular importance. New data demonstrating
International Journal of Psychophysiology 94 (2014) 120–261
relationship between reward-related functional brain activity in basal ganglia and dishonest behavior will be presented. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.08.593
sensitivity in the nucleus accumbens, as measured using the MID task, predicted the frequency of dishonest behavior across individuals in the coin-ﬂip prediction task. These results suggest that reward sensitivity is an important determinant of honest and dishonest behavior.
Neural basis of deception
Tatia M.C. Leea, Chetwyn C.H. Chanb Laboratory of Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong b Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Deception related changes in functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus
We choose to withhold the truth sometimes, whether it is for malicious or benign reasons. The act of knowingly withholding the truth is “deception”. Because deception requires cognitive and affective processes that (1) identify the true facts and then (2) manipulate the identiﬁed information to achieve the goal of deception, brain activity underlying these two stages should be differentiable. This very assumption is the theoretical basis of neuroimaging studies on deception. We have employed behavioral, neurophysiological and neuroimaging methodologies to understand the neural correlates and processes of deception. We observed robust activation of the prefrontal region, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the inferior parietal region associated with deception, regardless whether affectively neutral or affective stimuli were used. Our fMRI and ERP studies further conﬁrmed that brain processes recruited for different stages of deception are differentiable. Future development of imaging studies on deception will be discussed. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.08.594
Reward sensitivity in the nucleus accumbens predicts dishonest behavior Nobuhito Abe Kokoro Research Center, Kyoto University, Japan Previous research indicates that consistently honest behavior in response to opportunities for dishonest gain is a matter of “Grace” rather than “Will”. That is, such behavior depends on automatic dispositions to behave honestly rather than the active deployment of cognitive control. The nature of these automatic dispositions remains unknown. In this talk, I will present functional neuroimaging data showing that reward sensitivity plays a critical role in determining whether an individual behaves honestly or dishonestly when confronted with opportunities for dishonest gain. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while completing a monetary incentive delay (MID) task in which they anticipated a monetary reward, no reward, or the avoidance of monetary punishment. Individual differences in reward sensitivity were indexed by the level of fMRI BOLD signal in the nucleus accumbens during the anticipation of reward. Subjects also performed an incentivized prediction task that gave subjects repeated opportunities to gain money dishonestly by lying. Subjects attempted to predict the outcomes of random computerized coin-ﬂips and were ﬁnancially rewarded for accuracy. In some trials, subjects recorded their predictions in advance. In other trials, subjects were rewarded based on self-reported accuracy, allowing them to gain money dishonestly by lying about the accuracy of their predictions. Dishonest behavior was indexed by improbably high levels of self-reported accuracy. We found that reward
Maxim Kireev, Natalia Medvedeva, Alexander Korotkov, Svyatoslav V. Medvedev N.P. Bechtereva Institute of the Human Brain of the Russian Academy of Sciencies, Russia There is a growing body of experimental data demonstrating that brain areas of the fronto-parietal brain network traditionally associated with deception processing are also responsible for the execution of honest actions. Corresponding patterns of changes in functional brain activity of the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and parietal lobe can be observed in ecologically valid experimental settings which implies free choice between truthful and deceptive actions (Greene and Paxton, 2009; Sip et al., 2013; Kireev et al., 2013). In particular, when both types of actions are not driven by external instruction and equally useful in terms of purposeful behavior they share the same fronto-parietal network. On the other hand, functional activity speciﬁcally associated with the execution of deception was recently found in caudate nuclei and inferior parietal cortex (Kireev et al., 2013). At the same time, the information regarding changes in the levels of functional brain activity is not enough for the experimental investigation of the exact neurophysiological mechanism providing the observed involvement of the fronto-parietal cortex and caudate nucleus in deception. As we suggested earlier, the activity in the caudate nucleus associated with the execution of deliberate deception can reﬂect the involvement of the error detection mechanism discovered by Bechtereva and Gretchin in 1968. In order to further investigate this possibility we conducted an analysis of psychophysiological interaction (PPI, Gitelman et al., 2003) with the usage of previously obtained fMRI data. For this purpose we used the generalized PPI toolbox (McLaren et al., 2012) and ROI-whole brain analysis with two functionally deﬁned ROIs located within the left head caudate nucleus (lNC, speciﬁcally related to the execution of deception)and the left middle frontal gyrus (lMFG, comparably activated by both deceptive and honest actions). As a result we revealed that the deliberate execution of deceptive actions was associated with increased functional interaction between adjacent clusters located in the left inferior frontal gyrus (lIFG) and both lMFG and lNC ROIs. Thus, the obtained experimental data shed light on possible ways of interaction between the error detection brain system (caudate nucleus) and the left frontal lobe executive brain system (MFG and IFG). An application of PPI analysis in combination with traditional model based fMRI data analysis substantially improved our understanding of functional brain organization in deception settings. In addition, the obtained results exhibit how functional brain system can be communicate for carrying out the purposeful behavior in general. The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for the Humanities #14-06-00915.