Fuzzy Logic Controller based on geothermal recirculating aquaculture system

Fuzzy Logic Controller based on geothermal recirculating aquaculture system

Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research (2014) 40, 103–109 H O S T E D BY National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries Egyptian Journal of Aquatic...

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Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research (2014) 40, 103–109

H O S T E D BY

National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries

Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research http://ees.elsevier.com/ejar www.sciencedirect.com

FULL LENGTH ARTICLE

Fuzzy Logic Controller based on geothermal recirculating aquaculture system Hanaa M. Farghally, Doaa M. Atia *, Hanaa T. El-madany, Faten H. Fahmy Electronics Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt Received 24 December 2013; revised 18 June 2014; accepted 19 July 2014 Available online 13 August 2014

KEYWORDS Geothermal energy; Aquaculture; Fuzzy Logic Control

Abstract One of the most common uses of geothermal heat is in recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) where the water temperature is accurately controlled for optimum growing conditions for sustainable and intensive rearing of marine and freshwater fish. This paper presents a design for RAS rearing tank and brazed heat exchanger to be used with geothermal energy as a source of heating water. The heat losses from the RAS tank are calculated using Geo Heat Center Software. Then a plate type heat exchanger is designed using the epsilon – NTU analysis method. For optimal growth and abundance of production, a Fuzzy Logic control (FLC) system is applied to control the water temperature (29 C). A FLC system has several advantages over conventional techniques; relatively simple, fast, adaptive, and its response is better and faster at all atmospheric conditions. Finally, the total system is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK to study the overall performance of control unit. ª 2014 Hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries.

Introduction Geothermal energy is the energy derived from the natural heat of the earth. The earth’s temperature varies widely, and geothermal energy is usable for a wide range of temperatures from room temperature to over 300 C. Geothermal energy can be used for both electricity generation and direct uses depending on the temperature and chemistry of the resources (Boyd and Lund, 2003; Gelegenis et al., 2006). Currently, direct uses are on commercial level and are replacing fossil fuels in uses of low heat applications (Kiruja, 2011; Mburu, 2009). Direct * Corresponding author. E-mail address: [email protected] (D.M. Atia). Peer review under responsibility of National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries.

utilization of geothermal energy consists of various forms for heating and cooling instead of converting the energy for electric power generation. The major areas of direct utilization are swimming, bathing and balneology, space heating and cooling including district heating, agriculture applications, aquaculture applications, industrial processes, and heat pumps (Lund et al., 2005, 2011; Lund, 1997). Catching fish from the wild may not yield enough products to meet consumer demand and simultaneously keep the natural ecosystem in balance. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that by 2030, about 40 million tons of seafood will be necessary to keep up with demand. Catfish is one type of fish that is quite popular in Egypt and readily available, either in the village or town (De Graaf and Janssen, 1996; Krause et al., 2006). The health benefits of catfish are rich in omega-3 fatty acid content, but

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejar.2014.07.004 1687-4285 ª 2014 Hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries.

104 increasing consumption of all types of fish and seafood is recommended to derive the best health benefits, catfish are excellent sources of protein that are low in fat, catfish is high in vitamin D, farm-raised catfish contains low levels of omega-3 fatty acids and a much higher proportion of omega-6 fatty acids. The protein in fish is of high quality, containing an abundance of essential amino acids, and is very digestible for people of all ages. Catfish is also generally lower in fat and calories than beef, poultry or pork. It is also loaded with minerals such as iron, zinc and calcium. The use of artificial intelligence has become more common in industrial and manufacturing process control systems in recent years. The advantages of AI systems include: (1) the rapid transfer of expert knowledge throughout an industry, especially those young industries that do not have enough available experts; (2) a reduction in labor costs due to automation of all primary functions; (3) improved process stability and efficiency; and (4) improved understanding of the process through the development and testing of the rules. Their usefulness in aquaculture has been advocated due to all of these reasons (Lee, 2000). RAS represent a new and unique way to farm fish. Instead of the traditional method of growing fish outdoors in open ponds and raceways, this system rears fish at high densities, in indoor tanks with a controlled environment. Attempts to advance these systems to commercial scale food fish production have increased dramatically in the last decade (Blancheton, 2000; Timmons et al., 2002; Timmons and Ebeling, 2007; Bijo, 2007; Molleda, 2007). The renewed interest in recirculating systems is due to their perceived advantages: the possibility to be placed near the fish markets, high product quality, shorter production cycles due to high food conversion factors and a constant monitoring of the farm environment in order to improve rearing conditions (Timmons et al., 2002) The functional parts of a RAS include a growing tank, sump of particulate removal device, biofilter, aeration subsystem, water circulation pump, and water heating system depending on the water temperature and fish species selected. Ozone and ultraviolet sterilization may be advantageous to reduce organic and bacterial loads (Timmons and Ebeling, 2007). This paper is concerned with the Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS). The design of the culture tank and the heat exchanger are presented. The Fuzzy Logic Controller is proposed to control the RAS temperature using the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation program. Materials and methods System design methodology This section discusses the system components’ design of geothermal system, load design, Heat Exchanger, and Fuzzy Logic Control as given below. The required RAS components are indicated in Fig. 1. Geothermal system design The Umm Huweitat well in eastern desert is taken as a case study. Geothermal water flows from the well at 70 C (Swanberg et al., 1983) and average flow rates of 0.12 L/s. The geothermal water passes through one side of the heat exchanger, and flows into the reinjection well. On the secondary

H.M. Farghally et al. Fine & Dissolved Solids Removal

Carbon Dioxide Removal Fish Culture Tank

Aeration

Disinfection

Waste solids Removal

Figure 1

Biological Filtration

Recirculating aquaculture system components.

side of the heat exchangers, fresh water is circulated through the heat exchanger and to the rearing tank system so that there is no actual contact or mixing between the geothermal water and rearing tank. The secondary hot water at 50 C enters the RAS tank. Geo-Heat Center Software inputs The Geo-Heat Center Software was developed for using in conjunction with geothermal direct use systems. The software includes several tools among them is the ‘‘HEATOOLS’’ which allows the calculation of the steady state heat loss from an indoor pond (or pool) in the evaporative, convective and radiant modes (Geothermal Direct – Use Software, 2012). In this case, the calculations assume that the pond (or pool) is located in an enclosed building such that evaporative and convective losses are driven only by natural convection of the air. The inputs to this software are the geothermal fluid temperature, the pond water temperature, the air temperature inside the building, the pond surface area, and the air relative humidity inside the structure housing the pond. Heat exchanger design Heat exchangers are devices that are used to transfer heat between two or more fluid streams at different temperatures. They can be classified as either direct contact or indirect contact type where the media are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix. Due to the absence of a wall, direct contact heat exchangers could achieve closer approach temperatures, and the heat transfer is often accomplished with mass transfer. The indirect contact heat exchangers are focused where a plate wall separates the hot and cold fluid streams, and the heat flow between them takes place across this interface. Plate heat exchangers and shell-and-tube heat exchangers are examples of indirect contact type heat exchangers (Thulukkanam, 2013). A plate heat exchanger is a compact one which provides many advantages and unique application features. These include flexible thermal sizing, easy cleaning for sustaining hygienic conditions, achievement of close approach temperatures due to their pure counter-flow operation, and enhanced heat transfer performance (Smith, 1995). Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred.

Fuzzy Logic Controller based on geothermal RAS

105

The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed (Rafferty, 2012). To design or predict the performance of a heat exchanger, it is essential to determine the heat lost to the surrounding atmosphere for the analyzed configuration. The heat power emitted from hot fluid (Qh), and the heat power absorbed by cold fluid (Qc) can be calculated as follows (neglecting potential and kinetic energy changes) (Shah and Sekulic, 2003); :

:

:

:

Qh ¼ mh ðhhi  hho Þ ¼ mh Ch ðThi  Tho Þ

ð1Þ

Qc ¼ mc ðhci  hco Þ ¼ mc Cc ðTci  Tco Þ :

ð2Þ

:

where mh , mc are mass flow rate of hot and cold fluid, respectively, hhi, hho are inlet and outlet enthalpies of hot fluid, respectively, hci, hco are the inlet and outlet enthalpies of cold fluid, respectively, Thi, Tho are the inlet and outlet temperatures of hot fluid, respectively, Tci, Tco are the inlet and outlet temperatures of cold fluid, respectively, and Ch, Cc are the specific heats of hot and cold fluid, respectively. From energy conservation, Qc = Qh = Q, and the heat transfer rate Q is related to the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) and to the log mean temperature difference (LMTD) by means of (Shah and Sekulic, 2003): Qc ¼ U A LMTD Cf



Cmax ðThi  Tho Þ Cmin ðThi  Tci Þ

Dt1  Dt2   1 ln Dt Dt2



Cmax ðTco  Tci Þ Cmin ðThi  Tci Þ

Dt1 ¼ Tho  Tci

ð5Þ

Dt2 ¼ Thi  Tco

ð6Þ

Desired Temperature

ð8Þ

The heat transfer rate is given by (Thulukkanam, 2013): Q ¼ e Cmin ðThi  Tci Þ

UA Cmin

ð10Þ

Cr ¼ Cmin =Cmax

ð11Þ

The epsilonNTU relationship is given for a simple double pipe heat exchanger for counter flow (Thulukkanam, 2013): e¼

1  exp½NTUð1  Cr Þ ; 1  Cr exp½NTUð1  Cr Þ

Control Unit

Figure 2

Thermostatic Valve

Rearing Tank

Proposed water temperature control subsystem.

Gain 1

Scope 1

Scope

-K Saturation 1

60

d

Gain 3 2 ce

Tank Temperature (Th)

Scope 2

e

e

ð12Þ

Cr < 1

m.

+ -

1

ð9Þ

The value of NTU is defined as (Thulukkanam, 2013): NTU ¼

ð4Þ

ð7Þ

Otherwise, if the hot fluid is the minimum fluid, then the effectiveness is defined as (Thulukkanam, 2013):

ð3Þ

The LMTD is derived as (Shah and Sekulic, 2003): LMTD ¼

where A is the total surface area for heat exchange, and Cf is a correction factor. The epsilon–NTU method is one of the heat exchanger analysis methods. The effectiveness/number of transfer units (NTU) method was developed to simplify a number of heat exchanger design problems. The heat exchanger effectiveness (e) is defined as the ratio of the actual heat transfer rate to the maximum possible heat transfer rate if there were infinite surface area. It depends upon whether the hot fluid or cold fluid is a minimum fluid. That is the fluid which has the : smaller capacity coefficient C ¼ m Cp . If the cold fluid is the minimum fluid then the effectiveness is defined as (Thulukkanam, 2013):

-K Gain 2

Saturation 2

Fuzzy Logic Controller

Scope 3

Figure 3

FLC design using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

1 du

106

H.M. Farghally et al.

Degree of membership

1

NB

NM

ZE

NS

PS

PM

PB

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 -1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Error

Figure 4

Membership function for input and output.

System design with Fuzzy Logic Controller

Results and discussions

Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) has excelled in dealing with systems that are complex, ill-defined, non-linear or time-varying (Reznik, 1997; Dadios, 2012) FLC is relatively easy to implement, as it usually needs no mathematical model (Reznik, 1997) of the control system. Fuzzy Logic has rapidly become one of the most successful of today’s technologies for developing sophisticated control systems because of its simplicity. The proposed control unit is adopted in Fig. 2. The proposed control unit is presented in Fig. 3. The block diagram of system design with FLC using MATLAB/SIMULINK is shown in Fig. 3. The desired temperature is compared with the water tank temperature to produce the error signal which is used as input signal to FLC. Membership function values are assigned to the linguistic variables, using seven fuzzy subsets: NB (negative big), NM (negative medium), NS (negative small), ZE (zero), PS (positive small), PM (positive medium), and PB (positive big). The values of input error (e) and change of error (ce) are normalized by an input scaling factor. The triangular shape of the membership function of this arrangement presumes that, for any particular input there is only one dominant fuzzy subset. The composition operation is the method by which the controlled output is generated. The Max–Min method is used for decision making. The output membership function of each rule is given by the minimum method. The membership functions of inputs and output are shown in Fig. 4. Table 1 shows the rule base of the FLC. As the system usually requires a non fuzzy value of control, a defuzzification stage is needed. The center of gravity method is used for the defuzzification algorithm because this method is simple and fast.

RAS tank, heat exchanger, heat load, and RAS simulation results are mentioned as follows.

Table 1

RAS tank Recirculating aquaculture systems are designed to raise large quantities of fish in relatively small volumes of water by treating the water to remove toxic waste products and then reusing it. Circular tank is selected to be considered for the following reasons:  Improves the uniformity of the culture environment.  Allows a wide range of rotational velocities to optimize fish health and condition.  Rapid concentration and removal of settleable solids. Table 2

Brazed plate heat exchanger design parameters.

Parameter

Symbol

Value

Inlet temperature of cold fluid Outlet temperature of cold fluid Inlet temperature of hot fluid Outlet temperature of hot fluid Heat capacity rate of hot fluid Heat capacity rate of cold fluid Minimum heat capacity rate Maximum heat capacity rate Heat capacity ratio Number of transfer units Effectiveness Log mean temperature difference Overall heat transfer coefficient Area of heat exchanger

TCi Tco Thi Tho Ch Cc Cmin Cmax Cr NTU e LMTD U A

22 C 50 C 70 C 45 C 501.6 J/kg C 321.86 J/kg C 321.86 J/kg C 501.6 J/kg C 0.6416 821.28 0.5833 21.4 C 4684.59 W/m2 C 57 m2

Rule base of Fuzzy Logic Controller. Change of error (ce)

Error (e)

NL NM NS ZE PS PM PL

NL

NM

NS

ZE

PS

PM

PL

NL NL NL NL NM NS ZE

NL NL NL NM NS ZE PS

NL NL NM NS ZE PS PM

NL NM NS ZE PS PM PL

NM NS ZE PS PM PL PL

NS ZE PS PM PL PL PL

ZE PS PM PL PL PL PL

Table 3 The input data of RAS using Geo Heat Centre Software. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Resource temperature Surface area Water temperature Air temperature Relative humidity

52 C 50 m2 29 C 28 C 72.53%

Fuzzy Logic Controller based on geothermal RAS Table 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

107 workers handling fish within the tank and safety issues. The RAS tank design parameters is estimated such as (depth, diameter, area) diameter to depth ratio is chosen to be 5:1, depth is equal to 1.6 m, diameter is equal to 8 m, and tank area is equal to 50.24 m2.

The output data of Geo Heat Centre Software.

Evaporative loss Convective loss Radiant loss Conductive loss Total loss Water flow requirement

7713 152 346 1202 9413 0.12

W W W W W lps

153.5338953 3.0284064 6.8770062 23.9117922 187.382646

W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2

Heat exchanger A plate heat exchanger is a type of heat exchanger that uses metal plates to transfer heat between two fluids. This has a major advantage over a conventional heat exchanger in that the fluids are exposed to a much larger surface area because the fluids spread out over the plates. This facilitates the transfer of heat, and greatly increases the speed of the temperature change. Brazed plate heat exchanger is selected for geothermal heating which provides different advantages that include their corrosion resistant materials availability such as the titanium and stainless steel at affordable price. The units are efficient and compact with rates of heat transfer three to ten times than those of tube and shell exchangers. Due to the simple construction of brazed plate heat exchanger, such units can be developed in small sizes, economically. The brazed plate heat exchanger is made by stainless steel. The brazed plate heat exchanger design parameters are shown in Table 2.

3

Load (W*10^4)

2.5 2 Winter

1.5

Summer 1 0.5 0 0

5

10

15

20

25

Time (hr)

Figure 5

Load variation of RAS over the year.

Selection of a tank diameter: depth ratio is also influenced by factors such as the cost of floor space, water head, fish stocking density, fish species, and fish feeding levels and methods. Choices of depth should also consider ease of

Heat load calculation Using the Geo Heat Centre software, the input data of RAS (resource temperature, surface area, water temperature,

m

0.8176 Display 2

Scope 3

t Scope 5

e

load sum

0.07668 84 .2

m

Scope

Display 1 I/p

Ref

o/p

load wint

tg tp

Control Subsystem Scope 1 RAS Subsystem th

Qmax

70

Thi

Scope 2

thi Tho

Scope 4 22

Tci Tco

tci

Heat exchanger Subsystem

Figure 6

84 .12 Display

MATLAB/SIMULINK of RAS system.

108

H.M. Farghally et al.

50

Conclusion Summer Winter

Tank temperature (C)

40

30

20

10

0

0

5

10

15

20

Time (hr)

Figure 7

Water temperature variation over the day using FLC.

Geothermal energy is a clean and renewable energy resource which can be found in many places in the world and especially in the tectonically active areas. This paper presented the design of RAS used for catfish using geothermal energy. A well at Umm Huweitat which is located on the Red Sea and approximately 20 km north of the city of Safaga is used as a source of geothermal energy. A brazed heat exchanger was designed using the epsilon–NTU analysis method. The Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) was proposed to control the water temperature at the desired value of 29 C for maximizing the RAS production. The FLC was built in the MATLAB/SIMULINK model. The FLC presented in this paper possessed excellent tracking of the desired water temperature. References

20 Summer

15

Winter

10

Error

5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20

0

5

10

15

20

Time (hr)

Figure 8

Error signal variation using FLC.

air temperature, and relative humidity) are indicated in Table 3. The total loss is composed from the evaporative loss, convective loss, radiant loss, and conductive loss (output data) are obtained and illustrated in Table 4. Heat load distribution over the year of RAS is shown in Fig. 5. RAS simulation The MATLAB/SIMULINK of the overall system is indicated in Fig. 6. The RAS consists of the RAS unit, the control unit and heat exchanger unit. The simulation is carried out over one day in two different seasons of the year. The fuzzy control methodology is used to fix the water temperature for optimum growth of the Catfish. At optimum temperature (29 C), Catfish grow quickly, convert feed efficiently, and are relatively resistant to many diseases. Fig. 7 indicates the response of the water temperature variation over the day using fuzzy controller. It is observed that, the water temperature tracks the reference very well and the temperature profile is very close to the reference temperature within almost the whole daily variation. On the other hand, the error result is zero as shown in Fig. 8.

Pada Anak Bijo, 2007. Feasibility Study of a Recirculation Aquaculture System, the United Nations University, Final Project Report. Blancheton, J.P., 2000. Developments in recirculation system for mediterranean species. Aquacult. Eng. 22 (1–2), 17–31. Tonya L. Boyd, John W. Lund, 2003. Geothermal heating of greenhouses and aquaculture facilities. In: International Geothermal Conference, Reykjavı´ k, pp. 14–19. Dadios, Elmer P., 2012. Fuzzy Logic – Controls Concepts, Theories and Applications. InTech Publisher. Gertjan De Graaf, Johannes Janssen, 1996. Handbook on The Artificial Reproduction and Pond Rearing of the African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus in Sub-Saharan Africa – A Handbook, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No 362. Rome, FAO. Gelegenis, John, Dalabakis, Paschalis, Ilias, Andreas, 2006. Heating of a fish wintering pond using low-temperature geothermal fluids, Porto Lagos, Greece. Geothermics 35, 87–103. Geothermal Direct –Use Software, Geo-heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, USA. http://geoheat.oit.edu/ software.htm. Kiruja, Jack, 2011. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy. Short Course VI on Exploration for Geothermal Resources, Kenya. Krause, Jared, Kuzan, Dustin, DeFrank, Mason, Mendez, Robert, Pusey, Justin, Braun, Carolyn, 2006. Design Guide for Recirculating Aquaculture System. Rowan University. Lee, Phillip G., 2000. Process control and artificial intelligence software for aquaculture. Aquacult. Eng. 23, 13–36. Lund, John W., 1997. Direct heat utilization of geothermal resources. Renewable Energy, 403–408. Lund, John W., Freeston, Derek H., Boyd, Tonya L., 2005. Direct application of geothermal energy: 2005 worldwide review. Geothermics 34 (6), 691–727. Lund, John W., Freeston, Derek H., Boyd, Tonya L., 2011. Direct utilization of geothermal energy 2010 worldwide review. Geothermics 40 (3), 159–180. Mburu, Martha, 2009. Geothermal Energy Utilization. Short Course IV on Exploration for Geothermal Resources, Kenya. Mercedes Isla Molleda, 2007. Water Quality in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems for Arctic Charr (Salvelinus Alpinus L.) Culture, Final Project Report, the United Nations University. Rafferty, Kevin D., 2012. Aquaculture, Geothermal Direct-Use Engineering and Design Guidebook, Chapter 11. Geo-Heat Center, Klamath Falls or Heat Exchangers, pp. 261–277. Reznik, Leon, 1997. Fuzzy Controllers Handbook: How to Design Them, How They Work. Newnes Publisher. Shah, Ramesh K., Sekulic, Dusan P., 2003. Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design. Wiley, New York. Smith, E.M., 1995. Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers. Wiley, New York.

Fuzzy Logic Controller based on geothermal RAS Swanberg, Chandler A., Morgan, Pual, Boulos, F.k., 1983. In: Geothermal Potential of Egypt, vol. 9. Tectonophysics, Netherlands, pp. 677–694. Thulukkanam, Kuppan, 2013. Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second ed. Dekker Mechanical Engineering, Tailor and Francis Group Press.

109 Timmons, M.B., Ebeling, J.M., 2007. Recirculating Aquaculture, Second ed. Cayuga Aqua Ventures, LLC publisher. Timmons, M.B., Ebeling, J.M., Wheaton, F.W., Summerfelt, S.T., Vinci, B.J., 2002. Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, Second ed. Cayuga Aqua Ventures Publisher.