General

General

OLR (1981)28 (6) 477 is no longer sufficient for studying life-history evolution; training in development, quantitative genetics, and physiology are...

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OLR (1981)28 (6)

477

is no longer sufficient for studying life-history evolution; training in development, quantitative genetics, and physiology are now necessary. Includes ca. 200 references. Biological Labs., Reed College, Portland, Oreg. 97202, USA. (mjj) 81:3385 Stenseth, N.C., 1980. Spatial heterogeneity and population stability: some evolutionary consequences. Oikos, 35(2): 165-184. Includes ca. 175 references. Zoological Inst., Univ. of Oslo, P.O. Box 1050, Blindern, Oslo 3, Norway. 81:3386 Thomson, J.D., 1980. Implications of different sorts of evidence for competition. Am. Naturalist, 116(5):719-726. Department of Ecology and Evolution, SUNY, Stony Brook, N. Y. 11794, USA. 81:3387 Wicken, J.S., 1980. A thermodynamic theory of evolution. J. theor. Biol., 87(1):9-23. Div. of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Behrend College of Penn State Univ., Erie, Penn. 16563, USA.

stability and density, predation on seeds and plants, vivipary, and life-history evolution. (mii) 81:3389 Hylleberg, Jorgen et al., 1979/1980. Proceedings of the 6th Symposium of the Baltic Marine Biologists [Arhus, Denmark, 20--26 August 1979]. Relationship and exchange between the pelagic and benthic biota. Ophelia, Suppl. I:31M pp.; 28 papers. Among the specific biota studied were: Baltic herring, Macoma balthica, cockles, Crangon crangon, sculpin, Hydrobia spp., Zostera marina and associated epiphytes, and Cladophora glomerata and associated epiphytic diatoms; processes included, among others, bioturbation, wave action, oxygen budgets, Zn uptake, production, eutrophication and pollution. (sir) 81:3390 Katunin, D.N. et al., 1979. Effect of water management on the biological productivity of the Azov and Caspian seas. Trudy vses. nauchno-issled. Inst. morsk, ryb. khoz. okeanogr. (VNIRO), 133:170pp; 12 papers. (In Russian, English abstracts.)

FA10. Miscellaneous

E400. Books, collections (general) 81:3388 Brinck, Per et al., 1980. Theories in population and community ecology. Proceedings of a conference in Uppsala, Sweden, 25-28 February 1980. Oikos, 35(2): 129-290; 15 papers. Changes in the focus of ecology from primarily descriptive natural history to a study of mechanisms and strategies are noted; establishment and activities of the Ecological Research Committee in Sweden are described. Topics covered include: diversity and coevolution, competition in flowering and pollination, environmental regulation of population

81:3391 Williams, D.D., 1980. Invertebrate drift lost to the sea during low flow conditions in a small coastal stream in western Canada [Vancouver Island]. Hydrobiologia, 75(3):251-254. In early summer over a 5-day period, 20,156 animals, weighing 0.96 g (dry weight), were collected in drift llets. Considerable daily variation in total captures was attributed to a few dominant taxa exhibiting atypical drift patterns. Possible use of the outgoing animals as food for juvenile salmon is discussed. Div. of Life Sciences, Scarborough College, Univ. of Toronto, West Hill, Ontario, M1C IA4, Canada.

F. GENERAL F10. Apparatus, methods, mathematics (multidisciplinary)

81:3392 American Chemical Society, Subcommittee on Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 1980. Guide-

lines for data acquisition and data quality evaluation in environmental chemistry. Analyt.

Chem., 52(14):2242-2249. These guidelines, formulated by the subcommittee, stress three strategic considerations: development

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and use of specific, sensitive, reliable methods; the use of protocols for all components of the sampling and measurement process; and provision of quality assurance at every step of the process. More confident interlaboratory use of analytical results should follow. (sir) 81:3393 Cavallo, L.M. and W.B. Mann, 1980. New National Bureau of Standards contemporary carbon-14 standards. Radiocarbon, 22(3):962-963. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. 20234, USA.

OLR (1981) 28 (6)

81:3397 Walker, Terriss, 1980. A simple maximum-minimum salinity sampler. Limnol. Oceanogr., 25(6): 11221123. Bottles are described that collect water samples of maximum and minimum salinity when placed in a temporally varying estuary. School of Biological Sciences, James Cook Univ. of North Queensland, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia.

F40. Area studies, surveys (multidisci81:3394 Childress, J.J. and T.J. Mickel, 1980. A motion compensated shipboard precision balance system. Deep-Sea Res., 27(11A):965-970. A balance system that can rapidly (20 s) weigh to a precision (95% confidence interval) of +- 3 mg (weights below 20 g) or better than +_0.02% (20 to 300 g) aboard moderate sized ships in moderate sea states is described. Marine Science Inst., Univ. of Calif., Santa Barbara, Calif. 93106, USA. 81:3395 Klein, Jeffrey, J.C. Lerman, P.E. Damon and Timothy Linick, 1980. Radiocarbon coneentration in the atmosphere: 8000-year record of variations in tree rings. First results of a U.S.A. workshop. Radiocarbon, 22(3):950-961. Results of intercalibration among several laboratories involved in the radiocarbon dating of samples of known age are discussed in detail. Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Penn. 19104, USA. (bwt) 81:3396 Oxnard, C.E. et al., 1979/1980. Analysis of form. Symposium held 27-30 December 1979 in Tampa, Florida. Am. Zool., 20(4):619-972; 9 papers + 1301 abstracts, Present methodology allows depth of analysis and comparison of form not previously possible in 'perhaps the oldest biological study.' Form is investigated as it pertains to specific hypotheses (i.e., form results from development of the individual; form results from structure-function relationships, both ontogenetic and phylogenetic; form is a product of as yet unknown evolutionary processes) and as an interest in its own right. Various methods of analysis are covered in detail, along with some of the problems and diversity of results encountered. Includes an author index to abstracts. (sir)

plinary)

81:3398 Hnatiuk, S.H., 1980. The numbers of land birds, waders, sea birds, land crustaceans and certain insects on the lagoon islands of Aldabra Atoll. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Lond., 14(2):151-161. Logarithm of the island area was the most important factor influencing numbers of land- and wading bird species. The log of the number of plant species determines nearly half the variation in number of insect groups; vegetation structure complexity is the 'only significant variable predicting the number of' land crustacean species. Inter-island distances (_<1600 m) do not appear to present great barriers; immigration and extinction rates are probably balanced. 13 Easffield Court, Ferndale, Western Australia 6155, Australia. (smf) 81:3399 McCaffrey, R.J. and John Thomson, 1980. A record of the accumulation of sediment and trace metals in a Connecticut salt marsh. Adv. Geophys., 22: 165-236. The long-term, constant deposition rate estimated for n°Pb based on excess 2~°Pb in salt marsh peat agreed with the local atmospheric deposition rate and excess -'t°Pb levels in local upland soils, indicating quantitative retention following deposition in the marsh. Changes m excess 2~°Pb activity with depth enabled calculation of the age-depth relationship; results agreed with an independent measurement of sea-level rise. As Cu, Zn and Pb appear to be fixed as sulfides, their historical (100 yr) flux was estimated based upon peat core concentrations and the 2J°Pb chronology. Includes X-radiograph cross-sections of peat structure, micrographs of pyrite framboids, and 7 pages of references. Grad. School of Oceanography, Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, R. I. 02881, USA. (mjj)

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F. General

81:3400 Saltzman, Barry (ed.), 1980. Estuarine physics and chemistry: studies in Long Island Sound. Adv. Geophys., 22:424pp; 8 sections. Considering Long Island Sound as an 'urban estuary occupying a basin-like setting, protected from highly energetic encounters with the open ocean, and capable of retaining a memory of estuarine processes in its deposits over its entire existence,' 8 papers are devoted to the transport, geochemistry, physicochemistry and evolution of sediments. Also discussed are nuclide sources and sinks, and salt marsh trace metal accumulation. Includes a total of about 30 pages of references. Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Yale Univ., New Haven, Conn., USA. (izs) 81:3401 Valentine, P.C., J.R. Uzmann and R.A. Cooper, 1980. Geology and biology of Oceanographer Submarine Canyon. Mar. Geol., 38(4):238-312. Observations, photographs and samples from a series of submersible dives, supplemented by data from previous geological and biological surveys, provide a detailed description of the canyon at the southeast edge of Georges Bank. The oldest rock was a Santonian (Late Cretaceous) calcareous siltstone, The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary was identified 950 m below sea level atop a 300 m section of Upper Cretaceous rock. Silty clays, erratics and gravels probably date from the Late Wisconsin. Southwest drift, currents and internal waves transport sediments within the canyon. Three faunal depth zones can be distinguished; maximum diversity was noted at shallow and middle depths. Commercial fishing has not affected the canyon's ecosystem. U . S . Geological Survey, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, USA. (hbf)

F70. Atlases, bibliographies, etc. 81:3402 Altman, P.L. (ed.), 1980. CODATA Directory of Data Sources for Science & Technology: Zoology Chapter. CODATA Bull., 38:79pp. The Directory is intended as a reference tool for locating 'reliable data on a given subject.' Each chapter encompasses national and international data programs, data centers, major publication series, other data sources (e.g., museums, specimen collections) and bibliographies; the Zoology Chapter is representative. Includes subject and author indexes, CODATA Secretariat: 51 Boulevard De Montmorency, 75016 Paris, France. (izs)

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81:3403 Polach, Dilette, 1980. The first 20 years of radiocarbon dating. An annotated bibliography, 1948-68; a pilot study. Radiocarbon, 22(3):9971004. A 1000-entry, annotated compilation was presented at the Xth International Radiocarbon Conference in the form of a pilot study; the compiler has amassed to date over 3000 titles for the 20-year period. As computer information retrieval proved unsatisfactory, it is proposed that a regularly updated comprehensive annotated bibliography be established and maintained (financial support must be garnered). P.O: Box 43, Garran, ACT 2605, Australia. (sir)

FI00. Expeditions, research programs, etc. 81:3404 Batisse, Michel, 1980. The relevance of MAB [Man and the Biosphere program]. Environ. Conserv., 7(3):i79-184. Objectives and approach of MAB, conceived by UNESCO in 1971 as an approach to solving environmental and resource problems, are described and its merits stressed; activities center on regional networks of integrated pilot projects, interdisciplinary research, demonstration, training and education. UNESCO, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris, France. (smf)

FI60. Applied oceanography 81:3405 Hamilton, James, 1980. Three-dimensional Fourier analysis of drag force for compliant offshore structures. Appl. Ocean Res., 2(4): 147-153. Vickers Offshore (P&D) Ltd., Craven House, Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria LA14 1AF, U.K. 81:3406 Mehlum, Even, 1980. A circular cylinder in water waves. Appl. Ocean Res., 2(4):171-177. Sentralinstitutt For Industriell Forskning, Forskningsv. 1, P.B. 350 Blindern, Oslo 3, Norway.

F170. Engineering and industry 81:3407 Langen, Ivar and Ragnar SigbjOrnsson, 1980. On stochastic dynamics of floating bridges. Engng Struct., 2(4):209-216. The Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

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FI80. Ships, submersibles, etc. 81:3408 Meredith, Brian, 1980. INMARSAT--satellite communications. Mar. Policy, 4(4):329-330. Structure of the newly-formed International Maritime Satellite Organization (a result of Inter-governmental Maritime Consultative Organization conferences) is described. Its aim is to improve world shipping telecommunications and efficiency of ship management. The organization, 'a kind of intergovernmental consortia,' reconciles diverse and occasionally opposing political and economic interests in one operational agency. Barnet, Herts, U.K. (smf)

F190. Navigation, cartography,

etc.

81:3409 Reed, R.K., 1980. (Letter.) On the existence of a large, unnamed seamount in the central North Pacific. Deep-Sea Res., 27(11A):973-974. Data from the U. S. National Ocean Survey's Project SEAMAP (1961-1970) clearly indicate there is no seamount south of the Mendocino Fracture Zone where one is shown on older charts. Unfortunately, the survey's latest chart (530), dated 1976, still shows the spurious feature, which implies a need for tighter revision and evaluation of the maps' databases, Pacific Marine Environ. Lab., NOAA, Seattle, Wash. 98105, USA. (fcs) 81:3410 Riemersma, J.G., 1980. Quality control of offshore positioning surveys. Int. hydrogr. Rev., 57(2):4160. Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague, Holland.

F250. Waste disposal and pollution also

B350-Atmospheric

pollution,

(see C210-

W a t e r pollution, E300-Effects of pollution) 81:3411 Clark, R.B., 1980. Are fines a deterrent [to surreptitious discharge of oily waste]? Editorial. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 11(11):305-306. British penalties of up to 50,000 pounds for the discharge of oil into territorial waters appear to have little effect; detection, especially at sea, is difficult and prosecution uncommon. Refusal to accept in port a ship known to have polluted, or blacklisting

OLR { 1981) 28 (6)

offending vessels, would be very effective but is illegal and could have economic repercussions through retaliation. (smf)

F260. Resources, management, economies 81:3412 Cunningham, S. and D. Whitmarsh, 1980. Fishing effort and fisheries policy. Mar. Policy, 4(4):309316.

Successful fisheries management has come increasingly to encompass the concept of controlling fishing efforts--a measure of the amount of activity involved in exploiting a fish stock. Measurement of fishing effort is explained, and its importance in fisheries policy and management is highlighted. Marine Resources Research Unit, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Locksway Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 8JF, U.K. (smf) 81:3413 Cushing, D.H., 1980. European fisheries. Viewpoint. Mar. Pollut. Bull., I l(l l):311-315. Twenty-three of the 43 North Atlantic fish stocks examined for fisheries management by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea are either banned to commercial fishing or overexploited. A contributing problem is the capture of small fish. Regulation of net mesh size and management by monthly catch quota enforcement appear to be the answers despite fishermen's fears of reduced earnings (which may occur temporarily). (smf) 81:3414 Munson, D.A. (manager), 1980. South Slough Estuarine Sanctuary [Oregon]. Bull. coast. Soc., 4(3): 3-4. Dedicated formally in May 1980, the South Slough Estuarine Sanctuary (south of Coos Bay) is the first estuarine area to receive funding under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972. This account of the first year's activities describes construction of an initial educational trails system, development of an estuarine education grant, uses of sanctuary facilities, etc. South Slough Estuarine Sanctuary, Oregon, USA. (smf) 81:3415 Myers, Norman, 1980. The problem of disappearing species: what can be done? Ambio, 9(5):229-235. Loss of habitat and indirect exploitation of resources, the major reasons behind the present (and

O L R (1981) 28 (6)

F. General

increasing) extinction rate of one species per day, are inextricably linked to Northern-Southern Hemisphere resource confrontations. The author urges efforts toward a comprehensive, systematic strategy encompassing the social, economic, political and biological factors that must be considered if we are to make deliberate (rather than haphazard) choices of which species to save, and which to consign to oblivion. P.O. Box 48197, Nairobi, Kenya. (smf) 81:3416 Tegner, M.J., 1980. M u l t i s t ~ i e s considerations of resour¢e management in southern California kelp beds. Can. tech. Rept Fish. aquat. Sci., 954: 125143. Reduction of spiny lobster, abalone and sheephead populations (which prey on or compete with sea urchins) due to fishing may be responsible for the destructive overgrazing of some southern California kelp beds by sea urchins. History of the ecosystem and human impact on the nearshore environment are discussed. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., USA. (smf)

F280. Policy, law, treaties 81:3417 Germany, Federal Republic, 1980. [Federal Republic of Germany: Act on interim regulation of deep seabed mining (effective, August 17, 1980).] Int. leg. Mater., 19(5):1330-1339. 81:3418 U.N., 1980. [United Nations Third Conference on the Law of the Sea: documents from the Ninth Session (July 28-August 29, 1980).1 Int. leg. Mater., 19(5):1129-1295. The larger part of this article consists of a reproduction of the informal text of the Draft Convention on the Law of the Sea, in toto. The course of negotiations leading to this second revision (August 1980) of the negotiating text is outlined. Includes a 15-page Table of Contents for the Draft Convention. (smf)

F320. Literature of science 81:3419 Garfield, E., 1980. The literature of marine biology, Biologiyamor., Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1980(3):3-20. (In Russian, English abstract.) Inst. for Scientific Information, Philadelphia, Penn., USA.

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F340. Biographies, obituaries,

etc.

81:3420 Filatova, Z.A., N.G. Vinogradova, A.P. Lisitzin and T.S. Rass, 1980. [L. A. Zenkevieh, 1889-1970, and oeeanography.] Okeanologiia, 20(5):757-791; 4 papers. (In Russian.)

F370. Multidisciplinary scientific studies (general interest) 81:3421 Olsson, I.U., 1980. Content of 14C in marine mammals from northern Europe. Radiocarbon, 22(3):662675. Collagen extracted from bones of seals and whales killed between 1657 and 1906 was analyzed, and reservoir ages of Scandinavian seawater were calculated. Results agree closely with earlier values based on shells and mammals, although the reservoir effect may be slightly smaller than previously thought. Inst. of Physics, Uppsala Univ., Box 530, S-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden. (mjj) 81:3422 Stuiver, Minze and R.S. Kra (eds.), 1979/80. Proceedings of the Tenth International Radiocarbon Conference---Bern. [Switzerland, 19-26 August 1979.] Radiocarbon, 22(2):133-562; 48 papers. Proceedings of the conference, in which approximately 165 scientists participated, are about evenly divided in two issues of Radiocarbon. Natural and anthropogenic carbon-14 variations, radiocarbon dating techniques, the dating of various substances (wood, plant materials, bone and terrestrial and marine shells) and a review of Dilette Polach's book on the first two decades of radiocarbon dating are included in the present issue. (hbf) 81:3423 Stuiver, Minze and R.S. Kra (eds.), 1979/80. Proceedings of the Tenth International Radiocarbon Conference---Heidelherg. [F.R.G., 19-26 August 1979.] Radiocarbon, 22(3):565-1016; 48 papers. The second part of the radiocarbon conference was held in Germany and included sessions devoted to oceanography, the Quaternary, accelerator techniques, soils and groundwater, calibration and data reporting, dating various materials, and history. Oceanographic papers treat bomb-produced carbon-14; measurements of carbon-14 in the Persian Gulf, southern Indian Ocean, and in northern European marine mammals; modelling; the relationship between tritium and carbon-14; behavior of

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carbon-14 and carbon-13 in estuarine waters; and gas exchange rate measurements. The Quaternary session included presentations on Australian coastal sediments, a sea sediment core, sea level history, Persian Gulf crustal movements, and the eastern Mediterranean climate as inferred from mollusk shells. (hbf) 81:3424 Wiley, E.O., 1980. Phylogenetic systematics and vicariance hiogeography. Syst. Bot., 5(2): 194-220. The author presents his own views on reconstructing phylogenetic relationships ('histories of taxa'), one of the primary objectives of phylogenetic systematics. Vicariance biogeography is described as a method for studying 'histories of biotas' based on comparing 'congruent patterns of distribution among taxa' with Earth history. Museum of Natural History, Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 66045, USA. (mjj)

F380. Advances in science, reviews (gen-

O L R ( 198t } 28 (6}

Reported here is Tom Lancraft's (Univ. South Florida) study on the life-cycle of the eelpout (Melanostigma pammelas) which constitutes the first well-recorded evidence of an upward transport mechanism in the ocean. Eggs and hatchlings spend a year on the ocean bottom before moving up to the midwater zone to become the prey of game and commercial fish species. Implications are considered. (smf) 81:3427 Bascom, Willard et al., 1980. The coast. Oceanus, 23(4):67pp; 9 papers. Focusing on aspects of coasts and human involvement with that resource, this issue includes (but is not limited to) these topics: reliance of coastal zone management (CZM) on scientific knowledge; research and management in the Apalachicola experiment; an evaluation of CZM in the 70's and a prospectus for the 80's; storms and regional morphology; barrier island hazard mapping; U.S. federal policies for undeveloped barrier islands; and management of off-road vehicular traffic in fragile coastal ecosystems. (smf)

eral interest) 81:3425 McNaughton, N.J. and C.T. Pillinger, 1980. Comets and the origin of life. [Colloquium report.[ Nature, Lond., 288(5791):p.540. In a colloquium which brought together 'the pundits of earthbound chemical evolution and cometary science,' a number of interesting features emerged: (1) cometary composition appears remarkably constant despite type or age; (2) laboratory attempts to reproduce cometary composition and environment have resulted in production of 'life-like' organic molecules, leading to origin of life theories incorporating introduction of such molecules into the Earth's proto-atmosphere; (3) extraterrestrial 'Brownlee particles' represent 'probable cometary debris' (and await detailed analysis); and (4) in-sltu spacecraft measurements of, e.g., Halley's Comet (no longer planned) are necessary to provide some definitive answers to rather fascinating speculations, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England. (slr)

F390. Educational literature 81:3426 Anonymous, 1980. Ascending fish could carry radioactive waste into food chain. New Scient., 88(1230):p.638.

81:3428 Sullivan, Mark and Fred Bavendam (photographer), 1980/81. [Tides and proposed oil refinery at Eastport, Maine.I Natn. Wildl., 19(1):34-43; 2 papers. Numerous color photos enhance the text. 81:3429 Zaremba, Robert, 1980. Coast Guard Beach [Eastham, Massachusettsl: a case study in the

importance of drift lines. Cape Naturalist, 9(3):49-55. Drift lines marking the highest extent of the tide and composed of 'marsh and dune grass remains, algae, and inorganic human debris,' have been important sites for re-establishment of vegetation along stormdestroyed sections of Coast Guard Beach (Cape Cod, Massachusetts). In vegetated areas, drift line vegetation traps wind-blown sediments, contributes to the recycling of nutrients, and is an important habitat for animals and insects. Three types of drift lines and their floras are described. Includes a species list. (hbf)

F420. Miscellaneous 81:3430 Boutron, Claude, Robert Delmas, William Kellogg and C.-C. Wall6n, 1980. [The atmosphere, global

OLR(1981)28(6) climate and anthropogenic 9(5):210-228; 3 papers,

F. General

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activities.] Ambio,

factor in climate change.' Presently available global climate monitoring systems are described; increased

While volcanoes rather than humans still seem to be the primary contributors of heavy metals and sulfur compounds to remote areas of the Earth (as revealed by polar ice sheet examinations), it seems obvious that 'humankind is emerging as a significant new

monitoring, especially of CO 2 levels, is urged. State-of-the-art of climate modeling is discussed with implications for the future; 'the most obvious course of action left open to society is to plan for a climatic change and a warmer Earth.' (sir)