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F. GENERAL F10. Apparatus, methods, mathematics (multidisciplinary) 86:1270 Anderson, R.N., 1985. Drilling technology: wellloggers and scientists. Nature, Lond., 316(6028): 486-487.
The tremendous advances of the oil companies in well-logging have great potential for the Ocean Drilling Project. Here a conference on such techniques, held at Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (May, 1985), is recapped. Briefly covered are borehole instrumentation for neutron activation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasound, and seismology. Combined with analytical, tomographic and imaging algorithms, such techniques yield chemical composition, lithology, fracture locations, dip and bedding planes, shear wave velocities, attenuation coefficients, and stress fields--with nary a look at the material. Lamont-Doherty Geol. Observ., Palisades, NY 10964, USA. (fcs)
86:1271 Bewers, J.M. et al., 1985. An intercomparison of seawater filtration procedures. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 16(7):277-281.
All the systems intercompared are able to provide uncontaminated filtrates for copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese and, with two exceptions, for cadmium and iron at levels that would be encountered in uncontaminated coastal waters. Bedford Inst. of Oceanogr., P.O. Box 1006, Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4A2, Canada. 86:1272 Cleveland, W.S. and Robert McGill, 1985. Graphical perception and graphical methods for analyzing scientific data. Science, 229(4716):828-833.
Computer graphics have opened many new technological avenues for the display of visual data. However, little is known about human graphical perception, and thus about the most psychologically efficient means for packing and presenting such information. Recent experiments of the authors with graphical perception are reviewed, the outgrowth of which is a preliminary identification and ordering of the main tasks involved in graphical decoding. AT&T Bell Labs., 600 Mountain Ave., Murray Hill, NJ 07974, USA. (fcs)
86:1273 Fiscella, B., P.P. Lombardini and P. Trivero, 1985. The impact of higher-order Bragg terms on radar sea return. Nuovo Cim., (C)8(2):118-124.
The possibility that radar sea return observed using a Ku band fan beam Doppler airborne scatterometer flown over crude oil artificial spills might have been back-scattered via the second-order Bragg interaction is surmised. An attempt is made to justify the absence of the first-order Bragg term. Ist. di Fis. Gen. dell'Univ., Torino, Italy. 86:1274 Fiscella, B., P.P. Lombardini, P. Trivero, P. Pavese and R. Cini, 1985. Measurements of the damping effect of a spreading film on wind-excited sea ripples using a two-frequency radar. Nuovo Cim., (C)8(2): 175-183.
An artificial slick (l litre) of oleic alcohol is observed with a radar system using two wavelengths (3.2 and 9.8 cm) with the purpose of measuring the damping effect of the film on the two short gravity waves in Bragg resonance with the radar waves. Ist. di Fis. Gen. dell'Univ., Torino, Italy. 86:1275 Godfrey, J.S. and K.R. Ridgway, 1985. Estimation of errors in seasonal cycles. J. phys. Oceanogr., 15(8): 1138-1143.
A formula is first given for the error in a 2-harmonic seasonal curve of best fit through a set of oceanographic data points, assuming the departures from the true mean are independent random numbers. Departures of actual oceanographic measurements from the mean seasonal cycle are in fact correlated with one another, owing to long-period nonseasonal variability; hence the error estimate from the formula will generally be too small. If the data set can be split into two statistically independent sets, a method estimates the factor by which the formula should be multiplied to account for the effect of correlations on the error estimate. Analyses suggest that the results are reasonably independent of the method of splitting. CSIRO Div. of Oceanogr., Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia. 86:1276 Gordon, H.R., R.W. Austin, D.K. Clark, W.A. Hovis and C.S. Yentsch, 1985. Ocean color measurements. Adv. Geophys, 27:297-333.
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Ocean color measurement using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard Nimbus-7 is overviewed including: techniques for extracting phytoplankton pigment concentrations from satellite imagery; the CZCS's ability to assess global pigment concentration; and the use of repetitive passes to study the physical mechanisms which drive the biological processes. At present pigment concentration can be extracted from the imagery to within about ___30% over concentration ranges from 0-5 mg/m 3 in many waters. Dept. of Phys., Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables. FL, USA. (msg) 86:1277 Ishikawa, Hidehiro and Nozomu Den, 1985. Program of two-dimensional interpolation and an example of its application [a computer program for contour maps of bathymetry, geomagnetic anomalies and gravity anomalies]. J. Fac. mar. Sci. Technol., Tokai Univ., 20:23-31. (In English abstract, Japanese.) Dept. of Mar. Sci., Univ. of Tokai, Japan. 86:1278 Larraza, A., S. Putterman and P.H. Roberts, 1985. A universal 1/f power spectrum as the accumulation point of wave turbulence. Phys. Rev. Letts, 55(9):897-900. Phys. Dept., Univ. of Calif., Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA. 86:1279 McManus, J., R.W. Duck, A.H.A. Alrasoul and J.D. Thomas, 1985. Effects of storage before analyzing suspended sediment samples from lakes, rivers, and estuaries. J. sedim. Petrology, 55(4):613-615. Tay Estuary Res. Centre, Univ. of Dundee, Scotland. 86:1280 Mitome, Hideto, Toshio Koda and Shuji Shibata, 1985. An acoustic positioning system using demodulated signals of an FM ultrasonic wave. IEEE Jl ocean. Engng, OE- 10(3):316-323. Mech. Engrg. Lab., Agency of Indust. Sci. and Tech., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan. 86:1281 Robinson, A.L., 1985. A spatially resolved surface spectroscopy. Science, 229(4718): 1074-1076. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope rastered across a surface traces out the surface profile by registering and being corrected for the magnitude of a tunneling current induced between the materials. Insofar as the profile has dimensions the same as individual atoms or molecules, it is the latter, in fact, which are being seen; thus the location and composition of adsorbed molecules may be pinpointed.
While there are practical difficulties with vibrational surface spectroscopy (much of the experimental work is coming from IBM research facilities) STM is likely to join the analytical arsenal. (fcs)
86:1282 Robinson, I.S., 1985. Satellite oceanography. An introduction for oceanographers and remotesensing scientists. Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester; 455pp. This volume, designed to introduce oceanographers to an exciting new research tool and to acquaint sensor technologists and remote-sensing specialists with the fundamentals of oceanography, has also been written for the senior undergraduate/postgraduate in oceanography or remote sensing. The first section is a broad review of satellite remote sensing from the oceanographer's viewpoint with chapters on space possibilities (space hardware and data transmission), oceanographic possibilities (sensor capabilities, dynamic oceanographic processes), remote sensing principles (sensor calibration, atmospheric correction, etc.), and image processing. The second section examines oceanographic applications of remote sensing in greater detail and contains chapters on ocean color scanners, infrared sensors, passive microwave radiometers and microwave altimeters. Four chapters on measuring waves and surface roughness discuss the interaction between radar and the ocean surface, and principles and applications of altimeters, synthetic aperture radar, and the scatterometer. The final chapter looks to the future in remote sensing satellites (ERS-I, TOPEX), upcoming developments in data analysis and new trends in ocean science. Dept. of Oceanogr., Univ. of Southampton, UK. (msg)
86:1283 Ross, D.B., V.J. Cardone, James Overland, R.D. McPherson, W.J. Pierson Jr. and T.-W. Yu, 1985. Oceanic surface winds ]using satellite microwave systems]. Adv. Geophys., 27: 101-140. The Seasat experiments have shown the potential for obtaining global measurements of surface wind to an accuracy of -+ 2 m/sec and _ 20 ° in direction. The scatterometer (specifically designed to estimate wind velocity), the multifrequency microwave radiometer and the altimeter all generate signals containing the wind vector. Radar backscatter, characteristics of the marine wind field, the empirical algorithms employed, and the effects of including satellite data in general circulation models are all discussed. NOAA, AOML, Miami, FL, USA. (fcs)
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86:1284 Saltzman, Barry (ed.), 1985. Satellite oceanic remote sensing. Special issue. Adv. Geophys., 27:1-511; 11 papers.
86:1288 Swift, C.T. et al., 1985. Observations of the polar regions from satellites using active and passive microwave techniques.Adv. Geophys., 27:335-392.
Results, accomplishments and applications of Seasat, TIROS-N, and Nimbus-7 measurements of the ocean surface and near-surface are summarized in this special volume. The introduction provides an historical perspective on remote sensing. Subsequent chapters discuss results from each satellite; the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the ocean surface; present capabilities of sensors to observe winds, waves, storms, SST, and ocean color; and applications to fisheries. Appendices include instrumentation, the Seasat validation program, data availability, and glossaries of acronyms and symbols. Dept. of Geol. and Geophys., Yale Univ., New Haven, CT, USA. (msg)
SAR, SASS and SMMR observations from Seasat and the SMMR sea-ice algorithm from Nimbus-7 flights are discussed, and selected parts of the Seasat sea-ice data set are analyzed, including observations on meteorology, altimetry, the ice-edge, ocean waves, and ice sheets. Among the accomplishments are the measurement of sea ice dynamics from sequential SAR observations with an accuracy previously obtained only with manned drift stations; discrimination of sea-ice type using combined active (SASS, SAR) and passive (SMMR) satellite imagery; the mapping of glacial ice sheet topography using radar altimetry; and the radar altimetry measurement of waves and surface wind speeds in the MIZ. Dept. of Elect. and Computer Engrg., Univ. of Mass., Amherst, MA, USA. (msg)
86:1285 Shawki, G.S.A. and A.Y. Kandeil, 1985. How to avoid corrosion problems. Mater. Engng, 102(3): 45-52. This general overview discusses mechanisms of corrosion and degradation of materials due to corrosion. Guidelines to minimize corrosion, such as materials selection and compatibility, protective measures, and maintenance are presented. Qatar Univ., Doha, Qatar. (msg)
86:1286 Sherman, J.W. III., 1985. The 1978 oceanic trilogy: Seasat, Nimbus-7, and TIROS--N. Adv. Geophys., 27:11-60. Preliminary results from Seasat, Nimbus-7, and TIROS-N are presented as a function of the 6 types of sensors rather than the geophysical observables. All sensors 'met or exceeded the original design specifications.' NOAA, Natl. Environ. Satellite, Data and Inform. Serv., Washington, DC, USA. (msg)
86:1287 Southworth, C.S., 1985. Characteristics and availability of data from Earth-imaging satellites. Bull. U.S. geol. Surv., 1631:102pp. This report compiles the types of satellite data information available from the individual federal agencies. Sensor characteristics, coverage index maps, sample data products, and additional sources of information on several Earth-imaging systems (Landsat, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, Seasat, Nimbus-7, and shuttle imaging radar-A) are discussed.
86:1289 Woodroffe, C.D., 1985. Studies of a mangrove basin, Tuff Crater, New Zealand. II. Comparison 9 f volumetric and velocity-area methods of estimating tidal flux. Estuar. coast. Shelf Sci., 20(4) :431-445. Comparison of discharge-time curves using the two techniques reveals a similar pattern of discharge over time with peak ebb discharge exceeding peak flood discharge and peaks reaching similar values. However, the volumetrically modelled discharge predicted an earlier reversal of the tide and an earlier ebb peak discharge. It is implied that the water surface is not horizontal at all tidal stages and that water surface slopes develop on the ebb tide resulting from inertial effects in restricted channels and on the mangrove-covered mudflats. The volumetric model is therefore inappropriate for the calculation of tidal flux, especially where this is used to calcuate budgets of sediment or organic matter. The velocity-area method estimates discharges in excess of those predicted volumetrically. The disparity probably results from estimating discharge using only one station in the cross-section and is similar to errors of estimating discharge observed in other studies. North Australia Res. Unit., Australian Natl. Univ., P.O. Box 41321 Casuarina, NT 5792, Australia.
F40. Area studies, surveys (multidisciplinary) 86:1290 Duvenage, I.R. and P.D. Morant, 1984. Report No. 31: Keurbooms/bitou [andl Piesang [estuariesl.
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Estuaries of the Cape [South Africa]. Part II. CSIR Res. Rept, S. Afr., 430:64pp. NRIO, ECRU, CSIR, SteUenbosch, South Africa. 86:1291 Lawyer, L.A. et al., 1984. 1984 review [of Antarctic research]. Special issue. Antarct. J., 19(5): 1-252; 157 papers.
The 1984 review of Antarctic research is divided into 13 sections: terrestrial geology and geophysics, meteorites, glacial geology, land ice, ocean sciences, marine geology and geophysics, the ice-edge zone, marine biology, terrestrial biology, medicine, the lower and upper atmospheres, and a miscellaneous section on support services, mapping, etc. Representative examples of reports presented are: inhomogeneous tracer distribution in the Southern Ocean, excess CO 2 in the Weddell Sea, paleoclimatological indices in the Southern Ocean, phytoplankton dynamics of the Weddell Sea MIZ, sea-ice microbial communities, and bottom water circulation in the South Australian Basin during the last 3.2 m.y. (msg) 86:1292 L6pez-Jurado Marqu6s, J.L., 1985. [Note on the climatology and hydrology of the Rias Bajas, Spain.] Infmes t~c. Inst. esp. Oceanogr~ Madrid, 23:13pp. plus figures and tables. (In Spanish, English abstract.) Inst. Espanol de Oceanografia, Muelle de Pelaires s/n. Palma de Mallorca, Spain. 86:1293 Morant, P.D., 1984. Report No. 26: Olifants [Estuary]. Estuaries of the Cape [South Africa]. Part II. CSIR Res. Rept, S. Afr., 425:54pp. NRIO, ECRU, CSIR, Stellenbosch, South Africa. 86:1294 Owen, G.P. and L.J. Tilly, 1985. A preliminary examination of outwelling from a tropical lagoon. Carib. J. Sci, 21(1-2):13-18.
Nutrient and carbon exchanges were monitored over two 24 hour cycles between Joyuda Lagoon and coastal shelf waters off western Puerto Rico. Net export was observed for both nutrients and carbon, amounting to an export of 10% of the lagoon's estimated annual net primary production. CEER, Mar. Ecol. Div., Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00708, USA. (gsb) 86:1295 Sarabun, C.C., Alan Brandt, M.A. Tyler and G.D. Smith, 1985. Biological transport, internal waves,
and mixing in the Chesapeake Bay. Johns Hopkins APL tech. Dig., 6(3):227-236.
This article discusses the problem of anoxic waters in the bay and how the onset of anoxic conditions relates to the bay's physical oceanography. A field test conducted in May 1984 revealed significant high-frequency internal wave activity with implications for physical mixing, biological community evolution, and sampling strategies. Johns Hopkins Univ., APL, Laurel, MD 20707, USA. 86:1296 Smith, M.J. and J.B. Anderson, 1984. USCGC Polar Sea Ross Sea cruise, 1983-1984. Report. Antarct. J., 19(5):77-80.
Fifty-nine phleger core and grab samples revealed that ice-rafted sediments are important today only on the eastern and outer shelf; residual glacial marine sediments with calcareous shell debris cover the tops of banks in the western Ross Sea and the shelf edge-upper slope; terrigenous silts and clays are important east of 180 degrees and biogenic silica is important west of 180 degrees. Dept. of Geol., Rice Univ., Houston, TX 77251, USA. (mwf) 86:1297 Tr~guer, P., 1985. Results of the 'ECORADE' Program, Brest [Francel. Oceanis, 11(3): 143-306; 14 papers. (In French, English abstracts.) The ECORADE program, initiated by researchers at the Institute d'Etudes marines of Brest (University of Bretagne occidentale), was designed to examine the major interactions between pelagic and benthic organisms and their environment in the coastal area between the bays of Brest and Douarnenez. Nutrient inputs from the Iroise Sea and from small rivers, especially those in the Bay of Brest, are considered. Topics include distribution of dissolved nutrients and organic matter; the effects of N, P, Si, vitamins and trace metals on phytoplankton growth; a model of phytoplankton biomass growth during a spring bloom; comparative distribution of free-living and particle-bound bacteria; fine-sand macrofauna in the Bay of Douarnenez; and ecology of macrobenthos in polluted sediments of the Bay of Brest. Inst. d'Etudes Mar., Univ. de Bretagne occidentale, 29283 Brest Cedex, France. (msg)
F70. Atlases, bibliographies, databases, etc. 86:1298 Cartier, J.-P. and Francine Paquin, 1985. A blind chemist's approach to automated scientific information. Can. J. Chem., 63(7):p.1372.
Computer access to chemical information by a blind chemist is made possible with a VersaBraille system (Braille Information Processor). The CAS database of the DIALOG system is used. Preliminary trials showed the need for a rigorous procedure to avoid loss of data; a functional method is suggested as a substratum to circumvent costly problems. Dept. de chim., Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, PQ H3C 3P8, Canada.
meetings held in April 1985. The reports are direct meeting records as submitted by the session chairmen and reflect the consensus of participants; they are not definitive plans for the U.S. WOCE component. Copies of these reports are available from Worth D. Nowlin, Jr., WOCE Planning Office, Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843-3146. (msg) 86:1302 Purdy, G.M., 1985. Downhole measurement opporamities. Announcement. Eos, 66(32):578-579.
FI00. Expeditions, research programs, etc. 86:1299 Ainley, D.G. and C.W. Sullivan, 1984. AMERIEZ 1983: a summary of activities on board the R/V Melville and USCGC Westwind. Report. Antarct. J., 19(5):100-103.
Marginal ice zone studies were conducted in the southern Scotia and NW Weddell seas, focusing on (1) the occurrence of and reasons behind enhanced productivity and biomass associated with the ice edge, and (2) the seasonal advance and retreat of the ice margin and its effects on the region's biota. Ships were positioned in both open water and pack ice. Project objectives and station sampling activities are summarized here. Point Reyes Bird Observ., Station Beach, CA 94970, USA. (slr) 86:1300 Das, P.K., 1985. The Monsoon Experiment 119791. Mausam, 36(2): 151-158.
Operational procedures of the Monsoon Experiment (a subprogram of the FGGE), prominent features of the monsoon (strong temperature gradients, GOES cloud vectors), and a primitive equation model of the monsoon are presented. Thus far, models can partly simulate the monsoon trough but cannot explain why it periodically moves from its normal location. Although models cannot yet simulate the initial stage of monsoon formation, some success has been forthcoming in predicting the course of a depression once initiated. Dept. of Meteorol., Univ. of Nairobi, Kenya. (msg) 86:1301 Nowlin, W.D. Jr., 1985. WOCE planning report series. Eos, 66(36):p.627.
As part of an overall strategy to formulate specific plans for the upcoming World Ocean Circulation Experiment, the U.S. Scientific Steering Committee of WOCE is issuing a series of planning and technical reports first presented during ocean sector
During the next few years the Ocean Drilling Program plans deep penetration of igneous crust, and will provide opportunities for short- and long-term in-situ borehole monitoring of chemical and physical processes. The announcement here is to alert potentially interested scientists and to stimulate the formulation of proposals to take advantage of this unique opportunity. More information is obtainable from the JOIDES Office, Graduate School of Oceanography, Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882. (fcs) 86:1303 Reynolds, Michael, David Enfield, Hugh Milburn, George Galasso and Tim Williams, 1985. Information Report. TOGA [Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere] meteorological station network. Eos, 66(36):627-628.
Since wind anomalies in the equatorial Pacific are associated with the beginning and development of an E1 Nifio event, better wind and other meteorological data may aid in detecting, predicting and, ultimately, understanding the E1 Nifio-Southern Oscillation phenomenon. This article describes the series of remote satellite-reporting meteorological stations being deployed along the coast of South America and on equatorial islands across the Pacific. Their purpose is to support the TOGA program by gathering wind speed and direction, air temperature, barometric pressure, shortwave radiation, and miscellaneous engineering measurements. Coastal Climate Co., Seattle, WA, USA. (wbg) 86:1304 Vieira, M.E.C., 1985. Peconic Bays estuarine studies. Eos, 66(32):579-580.
This system in eastern Long Island is small in size but possesses most of the processes present in larger estuaries. A 2-year field and modeling study of motion mixing and exchange was undertaken in 1984 by the Marine Sciences Research Center of the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Data reduction and analysis is near completion; when
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models are complete they will provide information to local governments for management decisions. Mar. Sci. Res. Center, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY, USA. (mwf) 86:1305 Webster, Ferris, 1985. World Ocean Circulation Experiment. WOCE/TOGA Data Management Working Group meeting report. Bull. Am. met. Soc., 66(7):853-854. Presentations and conclusions are summarized from an ad hoc meeting in Washington, D.C., (August 1984) to develop an effective data management system for the two major ocean climate experiments taking place over the next decade: the Interannual Variability of the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. Five general conclusions were reached: a common data management system is possible for the two projects; the system should possess many nodes; not all data formats need to be defined in advance, focus should be on existing data at first, and specialists should develop separate plans for each data type. A data management working group formed and met in June, 1985. For additional information, contact: W.D. Nowlin, Jr., WOCE Planning Office, Dept. of Oceanogr., Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843, USA. (wbg) 86:1306 Wyrtki, Klaus, 1985. The Oceanography Report. Sea level data by satellite. Eos, 66(32):p.578. Improvements to the Pacific Ocean remote sea level station network, installed during 1974-1975, are described. Essentially real-time synoptic data is now available. Each sea level station consists of a tide house, stilling well, and automated gauges and timers powered by solar systems. Data is transmitted periodically to the GOES satellite. Several sampling and averaging strategies are employed; one is for tsunami warnings where 2-second samples are converted to 4-min averages. Hawaii Inst. of Geophys., Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA. (fcs)
FI60. Applied oceanography 86:1307 Bishop, J.M. (guest editor), 1985. Applied oceanography. [Meeting users' needs.] Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 19(2):3-55; 8 papers. Applied oceanography, the use of ocean science to solve practical problems of the ocean user community (the Navy and the shipping, fishing, and offshore development industries), is the common
theme of this issue. Topics include: acoustic anti-sub warfare systems, mine laying, amphibious assaults, etc.; the design of offshore structures and site selection; a computerized oil spill model to assess the environmental impact of oil leasing activities; siting, designing and building various ocean renewable energy systems; relationships between the early life cycles of the blue crab and brown shrimp and prevailing circulation patterns; using storm surge models to determine flood insurance rates; and using wind wave and current data in the Optimum Track Ship Routing system. Natl. Advisory Comm. on Oceans and Atmos., Washington, DC, USA. (wbg) 86:1308 Dendrou, S.A., C.I. Moore and V.A. Myers, 1985. Application of storm surge modeling to coastal flood rate determinations. Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 19(2):42-50. An applied oceanographic joint probability method approach employs meteorologic models, hydrodynamic models and statistical methods to assess the risk of coastal flooding. A refined and expanded version of this method is presented from a case study for New York City. The method provided consistent and accurate results throughout hundreds of miles of coastline and illustrates how sophisticated scientific technologies can be applied to assess the risk of natural hazards. Camp, Dresser & McKee, Annandale, VA, USA. 86:1309 Dooley, A.L., 1985. Applied oceanography and ship ocean routing. Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 19(2):51-55. The results of a study into the effectiveness of ocean routing as a means of reducing hull damage are presented along with a demonstration of the benefits from minimization of voyage duration. Results from a specific application of Optimum Track Ship Routing (OTSR) and Global Minimum Time Routing (GMTR) are included. Oceanroutes, Inc., New York, NY, USA. 86:1310 Earle, M.D., 1985. The application of physical oceanography to the offshore oil and gas industry. Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 19(2):12-18. An important application of physical oceanography is determination of conditions for offshore operations and structural design. Important phenomena include winds, waves, storm surges, currents, and tides; numerical models play a major part in development of needed information. Techniques used to provide essential oceanographic information for the offshore industry are summarized. Important advances are being made concerning wind fields,
surface waves, current profiles, satellite remote sensing, statistics, and computer technology. MEC Systems Corp., Manassas, VA, USA. 86:1311 Kraft, L.M. Jr., S.C. Helfrich, J.N. Suhayda and J.E. Marin, 1985. Soil response to ocean waves. Mar. GeotechnoL, 6(2):173-203. A layered viscoelastic model inclusive of waveseabottom interaction is used for a parametric study of the effects on soil motion of wave-degeneration, -height and -period; water depth; and physical sedimentary properties. Analyses are for conditions typical of the Mississippi Delta. Marine Geoconsultants, Camarillo, CA, USA. (fcs) 86:1312 LaBelle, R.P. and C.M. Anderson, 1985. The application of oceanography to oil-spill modeling for the outer continental shelf oil and gas leasing program. Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 19(2):19-26. Computerized simulation modeling is used to predict potential spill occurrence and contact with areas of ecological or economic concern. Predictions are used to analyze and describe the oil-spill risks related to individual lease sales and play an important part in leasing decisions. This paper provides a description of how the Oil-Spill Risk Analysis (OSRA) model of the Minerals Management Service has been adapted to account for the variations in each of the OCS region's physical oceanography and biological environments. Emphasis is on the representation of wind and surface currents used to simulate the transport of spilled oil in each region. Minerals Mgmt. Serv., Reston, VA, USA. 86:1313 McCormick, M.E. and Robert Cohen, 1985. Oceanography applied to renewable ocean energy sources. Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 19(2):27-33. Four ocean energy resources (temperature gradients, waves, currents, and tides) and methods of their exploitation are discussed. For each energy conversion system, the problems posed by the environment on siting, design, construction and operation are discussed, along with the oceanographic considerations and measurements required in conjunction with the siting of such systems. Possible environmental effects of the energy conversion plants are considered. U.S. Naval Acad., Annapolis, MD, USA. 86:1314 Nambiar, M.R.M., G.V. Rao and S.K. Gulhati, 1985. The nature and engineering behavior of
OLR (1986)33 (2) fine--grained carbonate soil from off the west coast of India. Mar. Geotechnol., 6(2):145-171.
Grain-size analysis, x-ray diffraction and SEM studies of the soil show a 47-55% calcium carbonate content in the form of nonsketetal needles of aragonite and calcite with a balance primarily of kaolinite. Analyses of consolidation and shear test results and stress-strain characteristics reveal that the soil is in a normally consolidated state. Compression indices generally exceed those predicted for terrigenous soils of the same liquid limit. Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Regional Engrg. Coll., Calicut, India. (hbf) 86:1315 Winokur, R.S. and D.L. Bradley, 1985. Naval applications of oceanography. Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 19(2):5-11.
Scientific advances in oceanographic knowledge, global-scale sensing capability and environmental models are giving fleet commanders, system developers and oceanographers the opportunity to understand the ocean and its impact on modern naval hardware. This knowledge will provide the [U.S.] Navy with a tactical oceanography capability and an ability to influence anti-submarine warfare tactics of the future. Office of Naval Res., Arlington, VA, USA.
F170. Engineering and industry 86:1316 Brouwers, J.J.H., 1985. Parametric resonance and instability in offshore structures. Delft Prog. Rept, 10(2):173-183. Shell U.K., London, UK.
FI80. Ships, submersibles, etc. 86:1317 Kaharl, V., 1985. The Oceanography Report. SWATH [Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull Vessel]: calm seas for oceanography. Eos, 66(36):626-627.
This is a report on a novel kind of ship likely to join the oceanographic research fleet in the mid-1990s: the Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull vessel. The SWATH ship offers an extremely stable platform (less motion-induced fatigue and sickness); a large, flexible, and accessible deck area; and the capability of maintaining course and speed in higher seas than a comparably-sized monohull (shorter transit times).
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While this type of ship does have some disadvantages (it's ill-suited for hauling heavy, high-density loads), its strengths are thought to outweigh its weaknesses for oceanographic researchers, largely because of its superior seakeeping abilities. WHOI has commissioned a design for a SWATH research vessel. WHOI, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. (wbg)
F220. Medicine and public health 86:1318 Gacutan, R.Q., M.Y. Tabbu, E.J. Aujero and F. Icatlo Jr., 1985. Paralytic shellfish poisoning due to Pyrodinium bahamense vat. compressa in Mati, Davao Oriental, Philippines. Mar. Biol., 87(3): 223-227. SEAFDEC, Tigbauan, Iloilo City, Philippines.
F250. Waste disposal and pollution (see also B 3 5 0 - A t m o s p h e r i c pollution, C 2 1 0 Water pollution, E300-Effects of pollution) 86:1319 Elliot, E.L. and R.R. Colwell, 1985. Indicator organisms for estuarine and marine waters. FEMS Microbiol. Revs, 32(2):61-79. The use of bioindicator organisms in coastal and estuarine waters is reviewed. Newly developed epifluorescent/immunofluorescent direct detection of pathogens may be the 'most reliable method for determining public health hazards in marine and estuarine waters.' Colwell: Dept. of Microbiol., Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. (mwf) 86:1320 Feldt, W., G. Kanisch, M. Kanisch and M. Vobach, 1985. Radioecological studies of sites in the northeast Atlantic used for dumping of low-level radioactive wastes. Results of the research cruises of FRV Walther Hetwig 1980-1984. Arch. Fisch Wiss., 35(3):91-195. A study of Atlantic dumpsites (from 1967 and the present), as well as comparison areas, led these authors to conclude that no public danger exists from low-level dumping. Radionuclides and stable element measurements along with species and biomass analyses were made for water, plankton, nekton, sediment and benthic organism samples, and although low biomass and high Actiniaria Sr-90 and Cs-137 were observed at the 1967 site, deep-sea fish radionuclide levels were low in comparison to those
of the North Sea (a commercial fishery). It is suggested that nuclear weapons testing-derived radionuclides may obscure increased radionuclide levels from leaching drums in all but the nearest vicinity. Labor fur Radiookologie der Gewasser der Bundesforsch. fur Fisch., Hamburg, FRG. (gsb) 86:1321 Hamilton, E.I., 1985. Viewpoint. Radiation dose---the marine environment, a cause for concern? Mar. Pollut. Bull., 16(8):305-309. Following a discussion of the public's view of safety in the nuclear industry and the complexity of risk assessment, the author concludes that there are three problems associated with radionuclide release into marine waters: insufficient understanding of marine processes that contribute to radiological protection, such that models are developed with inadequate data; organizations concerned with radiological protection are not usually composed of individuals who have expertise in marine processes; and 'the statistical factors...used to describe the risks associated with the transport of radionuclides along marine food chains to man are too near those commonly accepted as normal risks from day to day life.' Inst. for Mar. Environ. Res., Plymouth, UK, (msg) 86:1322 Hill, M.D. and R.J. Pentreath, 1985. The science of sea dumping. Letter to the editor. Nature, Lond., 316(6030):p.672. The authors address the criticism of scientific modelling offered by Reddish and Cousins (Nature, 11 July p.100), particularly their concerns over failure to clearly specify the underlying theoretical assumptions, and a lack of experimental validation. Some details of the study under discussion are clarified. It is suggested that direct validation is not always possible and there are often misconceptions regarding exactly what a model is attempting to achieve. Natl. Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OXII 0RQ, UK. (lit) 86:1323 Norton, M.G., A. Franklin, S.M. Rowlatt, R.S. Nunny and M.S. Rolfe, 1984. The field assessment of effects of dumping wastes at sea. 12. The disposal of sewage sludge, industrial wastes and dredged spoils in Liverpool Bay [U.K.]. Fish. Res. tech. Rept, Minist. Agric. Fish. Fd, Gt Br., 76:50pp. Since the turn of the century, sewage sludge has been dumped into Liverpool Bay, an important spawning ground, nursery area and commercial fishery, which
also is used for recreation and navigation. This report presents results of detailed monitoring studies undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food to investigate the effects of sewage sludge disposal. Discussed are waste input, factors affecting waste dispersal, fecal bacteria distribution, sediment dynamics and composition, and correlations between macrobenthos and sediment characteristics. U.K. Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Washington, DC, USA. (msg) 86:1324 O'Connor, T.P., H.A. Walker, J.F. Paul and V.J. Bierman Jr., 1985. A strategy for monitoring of contaminant distributions resulting from proposed sewage sludge disposal at the 106-mile ocean disposal site. Mar. environ. Res., 16(2):127-150.
Once disposal is initiated, the strategy requires sampling the upper mixed layer at 36 stations, mostly within 100 km of the site, and deployment of near-bottom sediment traps along a line extending 300 km from the site. Based on initial results, subsequent sampling locations will be selected to refine estimates of the extent of sludge-derived contamination. Constituents which can be used to detect sludge in water at a dilution of 106, and in sediment traps when diluted by 100 with natural material, include zinc, PCBs, coprostanol and spores of Clostridium perfringens, Other synthetic organic compounds may prove to be useful tracers. NOS, Office of Oceanogr. and Mar. Serv., NOAA, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. 86:1325 Zeppetello, M.A., 1985. National and international regulation of ocean dumping: the mandate to terminate marine disposal of contaminated sewage sludge. Ecology Law Q., 12(3):619-664.
Sewage sludge disposal is discussed in the context of regulations at both the national (the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuary Act, also known as the Ocean Dumping Act) and international (the London Dumping Convention) levels. Although dredged spoils and industrial wastes represent a major input, this review concentrates on sewage sludge because its dumping is on the increase, reduct,~on of its contaminants is possible through pretreatment, and a legal-political controversy presently surrounds the issue. The article deals with both the operative regulations and their interpretations, recent developments, and proposals for amelioration of the dumping problem. The author was Law Clerk, Judge Cecil Poole, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, San Francisco, CA. (gsb)
F260. Resources, management, economics 86:1326 Anderson, L.G. (comment) and J.A. Wilson (reply), 1985. The economical management of multispecies fisheries. Land Econ., 61(3):319-326. Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA. 86:1327 Clark, W.G., 1985. Fishing in a sea of court orders: Puget Sound salmon management 10 years after the Boldt decision. N. Am. J. Fish. Mgmt,
5(3B):417-434. The 1974 Boldt decision, which allocated harvestable fish (salmon and steel_head) evenly between Indians and non-Indians in Washington State, led to a court-supervised management system which the author views as successful in achieving conservation and allocation goals. Some remaining disputes could be resolved by updating the Puget Sound Plan, a project presently underway. School of Fisheries, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. (lit) 86:1328 Gale, R.P., 1985. Federal management of forests and marine fisheries: a comparative analysis of re. newable resource management. Nat. Resour. J.,
25(2) :275-315. Marine fisheries management and forestry management as practiced by the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service, with its regional Fishery Management Councils, and the U.S. Forest Service are analyzed as to similarities, differences, and possible future trends. The author predicts that increasingly complex management decisions will result in the demise of FMCs accompanied by a more powerful NMFS or perhaps the formation of a National Marine Resources Service. Dept. of Sociology, Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA. (msg) 86:1329
Harrison, C.S., 1985. A marine sanctuary in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands: an idea whose time has come. Nat. Resour. J., 25(2):317-347. Management of marine resources here is dispersed among various federal, state, and regional agencies, each pursuing a rational course of action within the context of its own goals but leading to interagency conflict, inefficient exploitation of fishery resources, and inadequate protection of wildlife. Designating the region a marine sanctuary would be a bold step, requiring political compromise by all agencies but such a step would provide funds for enhanced law enforcement, resource monitoring, and public edu-
cation. The author is with Goodsill, Anderson, Quinn & Stifel, Attorneys at Law, Honolulu, HI, USA. (mwf) 86:1330 Laurs, R.M. and J.T. Brucks, 1985. Living marine resources applications [of remote sensing]. Adv. Geophys., 27:419-452. Because satellite remote sensing provides information on changing (rather than average) oceanic conditions, it has great potential for fisheries research and management. Applications discussed here include the use of infrared thermal data to identify marine habitats and to explain circulation variability and water mass distributions; highresolution SASS wind-stress data to model larval transport mechanisms; and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner to locate ocean fronts, effluents, water masses and circulation characteristics as well as to relate quantitatively ocean color measurements to chlorophyll and seston concentrations. The utilization of satellite imagery data to produce thermal boundary charts, sea ice forecast charts, etc. is also discussed. NMFS, SWFC, La Jolla, CA, USA. (msg) 86:1331 Scheffer, V.B., 1985. Opinion. Sea otters or shellfish: a choice. Mar. mamm. Sci., 1(3):261-262. Wildlife management's purpose is to maintain abundant animal populations, which may include reducing certain populations, but the author argues that effective management requires sensitivity to public attitudes and preferences. Protecting the otters (which would enhance kelp production leading to diversified niches for fish, etc.) or zonal management (involving killing or translocation) may not be as desirable as reducing the otters' impact on shellfisheries through mariculture--a compromise solution. 14806 SE 54th St., Bellevue, WA 98006. (llt) 86:1332 Schmitz, F.J., J.S. Chang, M.B. Hossain and Dick van der Helm, 1985. Marine natural products: spongiane derivatives from the sponge lgernella notabilis. J. org. Chem., 50(16):2862-2865. Dept. of Chem., Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA. 86:1333 Shapiro, M.E., 1985. Sagebrush and seaweed robbery: state revenue losses from onshore and offshore federal lands. Ecology Law Q., 12(3):481-509. Land holdings, including more than one billion acres o f submerged lands on the outer continental shelf, constitute the federal government's second largest
source of revenue. Federal actions such as refusal to provide states with a 'fair and equitable share' of revenues from offshore oil/gas production, mineral leasing policies, and use of appropriation bills to circumvent mandated state revenue sharing threaten the states with loss of revenues. The background and evolution of these programs are discussed; although focused on the effects on California, national effects and strategies for protection of states' rights are also discussed. The author is a senior consultant for energy and natural resources at the California Senate Office of Research, Sacramento, CA. (lit) 86:1334 Thompson, J.E., 1985. Exudation of biologicallyactive metabolites in the sponge Aplysina fistularis. I. Biological evidence. Mar. Biol., 88(1): 23-26. Dept. of Chem., Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA 94305, USA. 86:1335 Thompson, J.E., R.P. Walker and D.J. Faulkner, 1985. Screening and bioassays for biologicallyactive substances from forty marine sponge species from San Diego, California, USA. Mar. Biol., 88(1):11-21. Biologically-active substances were investigated from 35 demosponge species and 5 calcareous sponge species collected from intertidal or shallow subtidal habitats; strong activity was found in 11 demosponges and, subsequently, 38 natural products with antimicrobial activity were isolated from 8 of these. Discussion relates the possession of biologically-active substances to the ecology of each sponge species; for example, sponges with antimicrobial substances are rarely overgrown. Dept. of Chem., Stanford Univ., CA 94305, USA. 86:1336 Walker, R.P., J.E. Thompson and D.J. Faulkner, 1985. Exudation of biologically-active metabolites in the sponge Aplysina Bstularis. II. Chemical evidence. Mar. Biol., 88(1):27-32. Thompson: Dept. of Chem., Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
F280. Policy, law, treaties 86:1337 CarveU, C.M., 1985. Viewpoint. The London Dumping Convention's ninth consultative meeting: a pivotal event. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 16(7):265-267. The ninth consultative meeting of parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution
by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (known as the London Dumping Convention) is the most important one so far, as it will address radioactive waste dumping, an issue attended by technical, political, and emotional problems. Two aspects of this issue require resolution: (1) whether to ban the ocean disposal of all radioactive waste, and (2) whether 'emplacement into the seabed of radioactive waste' constitutes an act of dumping as it is defined in the treaty. Satisfactory resolution will require compromise among those holding extreme positions. Dept. of Public Intl. Law, Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland. (wbg) 86:1338 Couper, A.D., 1985. The marine boundaries of the United Kingdom and the Law of the Sea. Geogrl J., 151(2):228-236. The author outlines the main possible divisions of the U.K.'s marine boundaries (territorial sea, contiguous zone, Exclusive Economic Zone, Exclusive Fishing Zone, high seas), and discusses conflicting national claims to sea surface and water column (e.g., dispute over Rockall as an island) and determination of continental shelf outer limits. The conclusion drawn is that the U.K. should sign the 1982 U.N. Law of the Sea Convention to ensure access to other seas for research, navigational freedom, and cooperative resource development. Dept. of Maritime Studies, UWIST, Colum Dr., Cardiff CF1 3EU, UK. (lit) 86:1339 Jones, Cheryl, 1985. [U.S.! Sixth Circuit narrows definition of 'wetlands' for purposes of Corps of Engineers' jurisdiction. Note. Nat. Resour. J., 25(2):480-494. In 1977 the Army Corps of Engineers developed a new definition of wetlands which was narrowly interpreted by the U.S. Sixth Circuit Court in a case involving undeveloped land in suburban Detroit, Michigan. A short history of the Corps' jurisdiction over dredge and fill activities and an analysis of the court's narrow interpretation are presented. The inconsistency of wetlands designation envisioned as a result may be resolved by a more precise definition by the Corps, congressional action or an appeal to the the U.S. Supreme Court. (llt) 86:1340 Vicufaa, F.O. (ed.), 1984. The Exclusive Economic Zone. A Latin American perspective. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado; 188pp. In 1981 the Institute of International Studies of the University of Chile sponsored a conference on the
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concept of Exclusive Economic Zones. Chile was an appropriate setting as that country had proclaimed an EEZ as early as 1947; in fact most Latin American nations have a long history of legislation concerning jurisdiction over various marine resources. This volume assembles the presentations of the 1981 conference plus others deemed important. Chapters discuss the origin of the concept of an EEZ and Latin American practice and legislation; the economic interest underlying the need for exclusive maritime zones; formal and informal negotiations during UNCLOS; the legal status of the EEZ in the 1982 LOS Convention; the problem of military uses in EEZs; the regime of fisheries; and dispute settlement under the convention. The author is the former head of the Delegation of Chile to the Law of the Sea Conference. (msg) 86:1341 Wright, D.A., 1985. Editorial. Chesapeake Bay: pollution and politics. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 16(8): 299-300. The seven-year, federally funded Chesapeake Bay Program and the state funded follow-up programs known as Chesapeake Bay Initiatives are described here as politically successful but scientifically weak projects. It is estimated that ~25% of the initial funding (---$30 million) was spent on collecting original data. The lack of long-term data ~tnd a history of poor management have produced management models based on inadequate data. The author argues for long-term programs unhindered by changing political climates. (llt)
F290. International concerns and organizations 86:1342 Anonymous, 1985. France in trouble at Auckland [New Zealand]. The sinking of Rainbow Warrior. Nature, Lond., 317(6032):p.1. The French actions in New Zealand only served to increase the respectability of the maritime environmentalist group, Greenpeace. Whatever the outcome, the author here questions the 'assumption...that it is entirely permissible for governments to send their secret agents to take up clandestine residence in ostensibly friendly countries,' and calls for inclusion of a code of conduct for secret agents in all international agreements 'designed to make the world a safer and more seemly place.' (lit) 86:1343 Anonymous, 1985. Progress reported on plans for Sea-Bed Authority. UN Chronicle, 22(3):27-28.
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The 'encouraging progress' made at the meeting of the Preparatory Commission for the International Sea-Bed Authority and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (March-April, 1985) is detailed. Special commissions (subsidiary bodies of the commission), continued work on (1) problems of land-based producer States resulting from sea-bed mining, (2) the Enterprise, the sea-bed mining arm of the proposed Sea-Bed Authority, and (3) a sea-bed mining code. Rules for the International Tribunal and questions of overlapping claims of applicants for the status of 'pioneer investors' were also discussed. (wbg)
F310. Contemporary development of science (especially o c e a n o g r a p h y ) 86:1344 Anonymous, 1985. Upsetting apple--carts: [British research establishment]. Nature, Lond., 316(6031) :p.754. Beset by dwindling funds and uncertainty over the fate of the research establishment, Britain's research community has had a bad year. This article presents an analysis of the situation in terms of funding ('there will be no extra funds'), management ('the Rothschild principle...is now dead'), leadership (or the lack thereof), institutional changes (which should start with the Advisory Board for the Research Councils itself), and the need for coordination of the nation's research effort. The scientific community should not wait for the government to act but should take charge of events and save itself. (wbg)
86:1345 Connor, Steve, 1985. The greying of Britain's science. New Scient., 107(1472):48-50. This paper reports the results of a study on the aging of scientists at the Cavendish Laboratory (Physics Dept., U. of Cambridge). Whereas in the late 1940s half of the researchers were under 35, by the 1980s, only about 10% were below that age. The study cites other data showing this is not an isolated phenomenon in Britain. As there are factors operating against the recruitment of young talent (the use of short-term contracts in research appointments, etc.) and other research shows that a scientist's peak research years may be between 36 and 40 (so scientists need to start young), Britain may face a shortage of scientific talent and accomplishments in ten years or so. (wbg) 86:1346 Irvine, John, Ben Martin, Tim Peacock and Roy Turner, 1985. Charting the decline in British
science: commentary. Nature, Lond., 316(6029): 587-590. Recent data on the comparative scientific performance of different nations suggest that the decline in British basic science apparent during the 1970s began to level off at the start of the 1980s. However, rather than heralding the beginning of a revival, the evidence suggests that this is merely a temporary halt to the long-term slide.
F340. Biographies, obituaries, etc. 86:1347 Maxwell, R., M. Swallow, J.D. Milliman and R. Revelle, 1985. [A tribute to] Mary Sears on the occasion of her 80th birthday. Deep-Sea Res., 32(7A):743-884; 4 papers. Perspicacity, tenacity, patience, tolerance, kindness, fairness, forthrightness, courtesy and crustiness (just a touch) are a few of the words chosen to describe Mary Sears or her personal and professional style. I myself would like to add courage, wisdom, sense of humor and calm resolve, all of which she possesses in abundance. Doyenne of oceanography, Mary is not just one of its chief editors and bibliographers. She aided U.S. Naval Intelligence operations in WWII, and effectively founded what would become the Navy Oceanographic Office. She is a member of nine scientific or honorary societies, as well as a recipient of the Johannes Schmidt medal. She has had an administrative or organizational hand in numerous oceanographic institutions and undertakings. And she is a true and loyal friend of science, her community and the many she has worked with--still providing wise counsel to, e.g., John Milliman and myself. (fcs)
F360. Science education 86:1348 Whiteford, G.T., 1985. Satellite geography: tomorrow's perspective today. J. environ. Educ., 16(3): 21-28. This article is a guide to 'learning from above' or using LANDSAT satellite images in the classroom to enable children to gain a better understanding of geography. The various uses of the seven spectral bands of the Thematic Mapper scanner aboard LANDSAT 4 (sensitive to both vegetation and some minerals) are discussed as are the four spectral bands of the Multispectral Scanner (sensitive to chlorophyll and plant biomass). General rules for interpreting
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color composites are given (pink and red tones signify vegetation, etc.) and other practical suggestions for planning and using image analyses to monitor Earth conditions are made. Dept. of Geogr., Univ. of New Brunswick, Canada. (wbg)
Recent astronomical techniques (laser sounding of the Moon) and numerical calculations for ocean tidal dynamics still do not converge enough to confidently set a rate for tidal energy dissipation. (fcs)
F370. Multidisciplinary scientific studies
86:1353 Parker, D.E., 1985. Climatic impact of explosive volcanic eruptions. Met. Mag., Lond., 114(1355): 149-161.
(general interest) 86:1349 Gates, W.L., 1985. The use of general circulation models in the analysis of the ecosystem impacts of climatic change. Clim. Change, 7(3):267-284. Dept. of Atmos. Sci., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. 86:1350 Harrison, S.J., 1985. Heat exchanges in muddy intertidal sediments: Chichester Harbour, West Sussex, England. Estuar. coast. Shelf Sci., 20(4): 477-490. Observations demonstrate that marked changes in temperature at intertidal mud surfaces occur on a flow tide; magnitude and direction of these changes are dependent on external atmospheric and marine conditions, and on the timing of tidal inundation. Calculated heat exchange values for the 3 h prior to high water fall into four distinct timing zones. There is a relationship between thermal stress, measured as rate of change of temperature with time, and time of high water. Mud surfaces are net receivers of heat energy from inundating water layers. Dept. of Environ. Sci., Univ. of Stifling, FK9 4LA, Scotland. 86:1351 Jannasch, H.W. and M.J. Mottl, 1985. Geomicrobiology of deep--sea hydrothermal vents. Science, 229(4715):717-725. The dependence of vent communities on chemolithotrophic bacterial production and vent-emitted reduced inorganic compounds, rather than solar energy, is discussed. Inorganic chemical processes, predominantly the production of H2S from both basalt and seawater sources, are described. Both anaerobic (methanogenic, sulfur-respiring, and extremely thermophilic) and aerobic (H2S, CH4, H 2, iron and manganese-oxidizing) microorganisms have been isolated. Biol. Dept., WHOI, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. (gsb)
86:1352 Kagan, B.A., 1985. Comparison of astronomical and geophysical estimations of tidal energy dissipation. Okeanologiia, 25(3):373-377. (In Russian, English abstract.)
The 1984 analysis of Kelly and Sear which reported decreased air temperature over land following major volcanic eruptions of the past 100 years is extended using the same eruptions as those in Kelly and Scar's superposed epoch analysis, and marine temperatures together with a land air temperature data set. Results do not show 'any consistent tendency to significant post-eruption coolness.' Based on analysis of air temperature anomaly maps, 'volcanic eruptions do not predispose the atmospheric circulation to particular patterns.' Although the reported coolness over Northern Hemisphere lands peaking two months after eruptions appears valid, a bias induced by the Southern Oscillation may alter the statistical significance of the results. Meteorol. Office, Bracknell, UK. (msg) 86:1354 Stickney, R.R., 1984. Estuarine ecology of the southeastern Uulted States and Gulf of Mexico. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, TX; 310pp. Because 'learning to live in harmony with the environment involves, to some extent, learning how that environment functions,' this book was designed to present an objective account of estuaries. The 11 chapters include a general background in marine and estuarine science, four chapters on estuarine processes, five on estuarine biology, and a concluding chapter on man's impact on estuaries. (mwf) 86:1355 Walsh, J.J. et al., 1985. Organic storage of CO2 on the continental slope off the Mid-Atlantic Bight, the southeastern Bering Sea, and the Peru coast. Deep-Sea Res., 32(7A):853-883. Measurements of slope sediment organic content, sedimentation rates, isotope ratios, amorphous silica, particle size and calcium carbonate were made to assess the impact of nutrient input from continental shelves. The slopes are suggested to act as depocenters for anthropogenic CO2, with an estimated annual storage of 0.30 to 0.48 × 109 tons C. Carbon loading was attributed to overfishing off Peru and eutrophication off the Mid-Atlantic Bight, while no anthropogenic transients were observed on the
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F380. Advances in science, reviews (general interest)
low plankton concentrations) appears to be a slow swimmer with an inefficient filtering mechanism. Observations of a 'bright silvery lining' in the shark's mouth suggest a bioluminescent function whereby the megamouth attracts plankton in a manner similar to the abyssal anglerfish. Dept. of Physiol., Univ. of Calif. Med. Sch., Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA. (msg)
86:1356 Anonymous, 1985. Drilling cores clarify stratigraphy. Eos, 66(35):617-618.
86:1359 Dusheck, J., 1985. Arctic dinosaurs raise questions. Sci. News, Washington, D.C., 128(9):p.135.
Cores from 12 drillholes from the area that once joined the Iberian Peninsula with Newfoundland (ODP Leg 103) showed that one seismic reflector considered to mark the top of a granitic basement actually lies over a carbonate platform and that another, considered to correspond to a discontinuity between brittle and ductile layers deep within the crust, actually lies a few km below terrigenous elastics sloughed off the continent in the early stages of rifting. (mwf)
The theory that dinosaurs became extinct as a result of the darkness and falling temperatures caused by an asteroid impact has been challenged by the recent recovery of the 65-myr-old bones of two prehistoric reptiles and three dinosaur species at a site near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. The discovery suggests that there were either mass migrations or the dinosaurs belonged to a previously unidentified dark-adapted species. (lit)
Bering slope. Includes ca. 100 references. Dept. of Mar. SCI., Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA. (gsb)
86:1357 Collins, Elizabeth, 1985. Whaling: inaccuracies in numbers. Nature, Lond., 316(6028):p.478.
The International Whaling Commission's Scientific Committee will use the 10-year moratorium on commercial whaling researching ways to count whales and how to use the data for management purposes as well as to assess the impact of whaling. Counting whales is not an easy task (unlike trees, they don't stand still and, unlike fish, we don't know enough about their reproductive rates to predict trends). This article discusses briefly three techniques for counting whales (catch per unit effort, mark and recapture, and the sightings method) and the problems associated with each. The sightings method, as it is being improved by the work of the Sea Mammal Research Unit and others, is now thought to offer the best hope for producing accurate counts. (wbg) 86:1358 Diamond, J.M., 1985. Filter-feeding on a grand scale [the megamouth shark, Megachasm pelag/osl. Nature, Lond., 316(6030):679-680.
Examination of the second specimen of Megachasma pelagios captured near Los Angeles, California (November 1984), has shed new light on the habits of this large (4.5 m, 750 kg) filter-feeder. Only three of the ~300 shark species are filter feeders; the other two (the basking and whale sharks) are strong swimmers that feed near the surface. In contrast, the megamouth shark (which inhabits deep water with
86:1360 Gambles, Peter, 1985. Origin of mantle turbulence. Nature, Lond., 316(6027):392-393.
Several papers presented at the European Union of Geosciences' Strasbourg meeting (April, 1985) are discussed. Cutting across traditional barriers between geophysics and geochemistry, the papers addressed the issue of single or double mantle convective systems, source regions, and the mechanisms by which geochemical heterogeneities evolve. By this time the models are quite sophisticated and can be expected to converge with results from high-pressure experimental petrology. Gambles is an Assistant Editor of Nature. (fcs) 86:1361 Hovland, Martin, Alan Judd and George Maisey, 1985. North Sea gas feeds the North Sea fisheries. New Scient, 107(1468):p.26.
An unmanned submersible was used to observe and analyze sediments at two sites: one with continuous natural gas seeps and one with pockmarks, presumably the result of episodic gas release. At both sites CH 4 and higher hydrocarbons were detected and fauna was enriched. Different organisms were dominant in the pockmark sediment, which consisted of hard rock (carbonate cement-bound sand, silt, and shell). Thermogenic gas is proposed to migrate upward to the sea floor and through Quaternary sediment (bypassing or escaping traps), and to be altered by degradative and oxidative processes in mini-reservoirs, resulting in a mixed gas (thermogenic and biogenic). (gsb)
86:1362 Kerr, R.A., 1985. Continental drift nearing certain detection. Science, 229(4717):953-955.
Space-based measuring systems and better understanding of measurement errors are rapidly bringing scientists closer to claiming detection of continental drift. Very Long Baseline Interferometry can measure the distance between Europe and North America with a precision of 3 mm; however due to interference from the Earth's atmosphere, the instrument is precise only to 2-3 cm, and thus cannot depict the 1.7 cm/yr movement predicted by the geological record. The infinitesimal unsteadiness of Earth is another significant source of error. Adjustments for these problems incorporated into analyses of VLBI measurements between Westford, Massachusetts, and Onsala, Sweden, and between Haystack Observatory, Massachusetts, and Onsala, yield a rate of 2.0-+ 0.2 cm/yr. 'A growing consensus that the true error in measurements is ~ 1 cm/yr supports privately held opinions that the detection of continental drift is imminent if not already accomplished.' (msg) 86:1363 Lewin, Roger, 1985. Catastrophism not yet dead. Science, 229(4714):p.640.
In a recent issue of Nature (315:659.), Antoni Hoffman argues that the 26 million year cycle of extinction reported by Raup and Sepkoski (1984) is an artifact of the way the data were gathered, quantified, and analyzed; an editorial in the same issue of Nature seems to agree with him. This author also finds the arguments against periodicity persuasive but concludes it is unlikely that its proponents will abandon the new catastrophism soon. (wbg)
86:1364 Merlen, Godfrey, 1985. The 1982-83 El Nifio: some of its consequences for Galapagos wildlife, Notic. Galapagos, 41:8-15.
The author, a naturalist guide in the Galapagos National Park, describes the 1982-1983 event and the return to the usual seasonal patterns. Terrestrial animals such as cuckoos, anis, finches, and rice rats multiplied enormously during the wet E1 Nifio but were violently cut back afterward; seabirds and aquatic mammals were greatly reduced during El Nifio but bred prolifically afterward. Casilla 2542, Quito, Ecuador. (mwf) 86:1365 Pain, Stephanie, 1985. [Britaln'sl ministers backtrack on 'barnacle bill.' New Scient., 107(1468):p.20.
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Copper-based antifouling paints were replaced in the 1970s by organotin formulations which are much more toxic to marine life. Though banned 3 years ago in France, Britain has only recently moved to ban the most toxic formulations as of January, 1986, with a review promised for 1987. As the ban applies to its sale, not its use, many boatowners will try to beat the deadline--bad news for the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, the native British oyster, Ostrea edulis, phytoplankton, barnacle larvae, and filterfeeding bivalves. (llt) 86:1366 Robin, G. de Q., 1985. Contrasts in Vostok [Antarctica] core--changes in climate or ice volume? Nature, Lond., 316(6029):578-579. Two papers in this issue of Nature (Lorius et al., and Yiou et al.) provide 'an exciting glimpse' of results to come from geochemical study of the 2 km ice core drilled by the Soviets at Vostok Station in Antarctica. The core is the first to span the last interglacial, and appears to provide a continuous record of 'fossil atmosphere' for the last 150,000 yr. The record is not unambiguous, and alternative interpretations of 8~80 data are discussed here. Scott Polar Res. Inst., Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1ER, UK. (fcs) 86:1367 Salisbury, M.H. and G.H. Scott (and Leg 102 shipboard scientific party), 1985. Ocean Drilling Program: looking down an old hole. Nature, Lond., 316(6030):p.682. The success of the in-situ geophysical measurements in a borehole through young Pacific crust (Site 504) prompted a return to Hole 418A on the Bermuda Rise to make similar measurements that allow comparison with older and colder crust. Results could indeed be interpreted in terms of crustal aging. In particular, temperature measurements at the Atlantic site suggest conductive rather than convective heat flow implying that porosities of the older crust are sealed off with alteration products, effectively metamorphosing (absenting) Layer 2A. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
(fcs) 86:1368 Swinbanks, David, 1985. Deep-sea clams: new find near Japan's coast. Nature, Lond., 316(6028): p.475.
Giant clam colonies have now been reported from Sagami Bay (1300 m), the mouth of the Tenryu Canyon (3840 m), and the inner wall of the Japan Trench (5640 m). The find in Sagami Bay lies very close to land, opening the possibility of regular in-situ experiments. (mwf)
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86:1369 Weisburd, S., 1985. Walling for the warming: the catch-22 of CO 2. Sci. News, Washington, D.C., 128(11): 170-174. The catch here is that we don't yet know enough about the effects of increased atmospheric levels of CO 2 and other trace gases (all called the 'greenhouse' gases) to predict the future with confidence, but if we wait until we do it may be too late to affect, prevent, or prepare for it. That current modelling efforts are inadequate does not alarm all scientists; many feel that there is time for another decade of research before decisions must be made. Others contend that this attitude is foolhardy; in the words of one, 'We're performing an experiment on ourselves at a faster rate than we're understanding it.' (slr)
86:1372 Wilson, J.T., 1985. Plate tectonics: room at the top of the world. Nature, Lond., 316(6031):p.768. The general kinematics of plate tectonics would suggest that the Arctic Basin is under compression. But recent data indicate that seafloor spreading takes place there too. This is perhaps not so different from the western United States where, in spite of overriding by the East Pacific Rise, active spreading appears to continue. It must be that spreading forces are generated deep in the mantle and can occur despite passive compressional kinematics above. Dept. of Phys., Univ. of Toronto, M5S 1A7, Canada.
F390. Educational literature 86:1370 Weisburd, S., 1985. [ODPI Leg 104: rifting, currents and climate north of the Arctic Circle. Sci. News, Washington, D.C., 128(11):p.165. The 'longest hard-rock core ever obtained during one leg' was recovered from the Voting Plateau when scientists drilled 1200 m beneath the seafloor through previously reported reflectors and into volcanic rocks of Eocene age that recorded 121 volcanic flows, 49 layers of volcanic debris, and 7 magma dikes. Preliminary findings touched upon here suggest that the plateau region was higher in the Eocene than now; that glassy basalts from below the reflectors contain fragments of continental crust that may be related to the Caledonite Mountains of northern Europe; that the onset of glaciation in the Norwegian Sea began 0.5 myr before a colder climate was present in more southerly North Atlantic waters; and that warm North Atlantic currents entered the Norwegian Sea in the past and were strongest near the coast, similar to present current patterns. (msg)
86:1371 Weisburd, S., 1985. Chemical study zeros in on deep magma. Sci. News, Washington, D.C., 128(7): p.104. Radon and mercury levels in surface soils may together provide a fairly complete picture of ancient and modern magmatic activity in an area. Because radon is short-lived, elevated levels at the surface reflect recent activity. Mercury, on the other hand, is reactive and cumulative, thus signaling the extent of past activity. Results of Stanley Williams' work in California's Long Valley Caldera are described. (fcs)
86:1373 Threlfall, William, 1985. [Seabirds] Stacked on a cliff. In Atlantic Canada, seabirds nest in varying rock configurations or at different heights; each species has a specialized niche which helps to minimize competition. Int. Wildl., 15(5) :41-43. 86:1374 Thurston, Harry and Stephen Homer (photographer), 1985. [The Bay of] Fundy's fecund barrens. Long considered a muddy desert, the prospect of a major tidal-power project has led to an astonishing reassessment. Audubon, 87(5):88103.
F420. Miscellaneous 86:1375 Hall, Howard (story and photographs), 1985. Swimruing into danger? Hundreds of children risk their lives in a controversial fishery off the Philippines. Int. Wildl., 15(5):4-13. This article is an underwater photographer's eyewitness account of a Muro Ami fishery near the Philippines in the South China Sea. These fisheries employ boys (as young as 7) as swimmers on long voyages (10 months), aboard ships with poor sanitary and dangerous working conditions (sharks, working depths of 80 feet, etc.), but pay the swimmers 'well'. Divers trail 'scare lines' with rocks that bounce off coral to herd nearly the entire fish population of a reef into a net, raising the possibility of damaging the reef and exhausting the fish supply. There are apt to be surprises here for those who have
already-formed opinions about this controversial practice. (wbg)
Stommel, Henry (with a foreword by Rear-Admiral G.S. Kitchie R.N., Ret.), 1984. Lost islands. The story of islands that have vanished from nautical charts. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver; 146pp. ' M y interest in lost islands came about...when I
suddenly spied [in the 1936 Oxford Advanced Atlas] Ganges Island off the coast of Japan...[and envisioned its] use as a base for oceanographic monitoring.' As it turned out Ganges did not exist, but in
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1982 there it was again on a globe in the Boston Lufthansa office. 'I find myself fighting a wild impulse to ask a Lufthansa agent to arrange a vacation itinerary there via Tokyo.' In fact, there were hundreds of specious islands on the nautical charts of the 1900s--some placed by error in positioning, others by error in documentation; still others were false interpretations (low cloud banks, e.g.), and a few were frauds. Then, of course, the Earth itself has arranged the disappearance of an island or two since its charting. Enjoy some armchair islomania: Spread out the charts inserted in this book, 'gather your favorite atlases and maps around you...translate yourself to that enchanted crimson hour at sea,' and raise the island of your dreams. (fcs)