O I . R ~ 1 ~ 4 ) 31 t2i
84:0889 Jorgensen, Leif, 1983. Technical note. A simple night-day light simulator [with possible aquacultural uses]. Aquaculture, 34(1/2):145-149. Trondhiem Biol. Stasjon, N-7000 Trondheim, Norway.
84:0890 Rudloe, Anne, 1983. Preliminary studies of the maricuiture potential of the slipper lobster, Seyllarides nodlfer. Aquaculture, 34(1/2): 165169. Panacea Inst. of Marine Sci.. P.O. Drawer AB, Panacea, Fla. 32346, U S A
84:0891 Watanabe, Takeshi, Chikara Kitajima and Shiro Fujita, 1983. Nutritional values of live organisms used in Japan for mass propagation of fish: a review. Aquaculture, 34(1/2):115-143. Lab. of
Fish Nutrition, Tokyo Univ, of Fish., Konan, Minatoku, Tokyo 108, Japan.
E370. Theoretical biology and ecology 84:0892 Case, T,J. and Ron Sidell, 1983. Pattern and chance in the structure of model and natural communities. Evolution, 37(4):832-849, Strong et al. (1979) analyzed the Galapagos finches and concluded that random colonization was sufficient to account for patterns of body and bill sizes: Hendrickson (1981) came to the opposite conclusion for the ground finches. In this paper, some of Strong's 'expectations for community-wide character displacement' are shown to be inappropriate. ~\ distinction is made between 'size assortmenF and 'size adjustment'; significant size assortment but not size adjustment is found for both ground and tree finches, Dept. of Biol., Univ. of Calif., La Aflla, Calif. 92093, USA. (mjj)
F. GENERAL F10. Apparatus, methods, mathematics (multidisciplinary) 84:0893 Cavaleri, L., 1983. Accuracy of meteorologicaloceanographic data from spar buoys. Nuovo Cim., (C)6(I):1-18. Ist. per 1o Studio della Dinam.. Grandi Masse del C.N.R., San Polo 1364, 30125 Venezia, Italy. 84:0894 Good, l.J., 1983. The philosophy of exploratory data analysis. Philosophy Sci., 50(2):283-295. Exploratory data analysis is to be distinguished from confirmatory data analysis in that the former is concerned with observational data, the latter with experimental data. EDA, formally or informally, must precede the formulation of hypotheses; at present it is more of an art (requiring judgment) than a science. This paper 'gropes' toward a philosophy of EDA discussing along the way pattern recognition.
data reduction and simplification, neurophys~otogs, and rationality. Statistics Dept., Virginia Polytech Inst., Blacksburg, Va., USA. (fcs~ 84:0895 Guymer, T.H., 1983. A review of Seasat scatterometer data. Phil. Trans. R. Soc, (A)309(1508): 399-414. The technique to estimate near-surface wind veloclt~ is described. With few exceptions, wind speed can be retrieved to _+ 1.6 m/s and direction to _+ 17~ for winds 3-16 m/s; the technique is useful to ~25 ra/s, Some applications of scatterometer data are given: e.g., horizontal variation of wind stress curl, interpretation of SAR imagery, and inference of surface pressure fields. Inst. of Oceanogr. Sci., Brook Rd., Wormley, Godalming, Surrey GU8 5UB, UK. 84:0896 Hoge, F.E. and R.N. Swift, 1983. Airborne dual laser excitation and mapping of phytoplankton photo-
OLR (1984)31 (2)
pigments in a Gulf Stream warm core ring. Appl. Opt., 22(15):2272-2282.
An excimer pumped dye laser was used simultaneously with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser to excite phytoplankton pigments. High coherence between the two data sets existed within each water mass, but between water masses the response pattern of the photopigments differed distinctly. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Island, Va. 23337, USA. (mwf) 84:0897
Houghton, J.T., A.H. Cook and H. Charnock (eds.), 1982/83. The study of the ocean and the land surface from satellites. (Symposium, 10--11 November 1982.) Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (A)309(1508):241-464; 15 papers. Satellite data interpretation problems were the focus at this symposium on remote sensing. Significance and limitations of the data, principles and methods used in interpretation, and some hitherto unrealized aspirations were discussed. Among the specific applications of satellite study mentioned were mineral exploration; resource inventories; albedo and climate; oceanic waves, tides, and general circulation; surface temperature; ocean color; and polar and sea ice observations. (slr) 84:0898 motion-compensated launch/recovery crane [for use with towed instrumentationl. Technical note. Ocean Engng,
atmosphere--air density and its variations, scale height and temperature, and zonal winds. Royal Aircraft Estab., Farnborough, Hants, UK. 84:0901
Matsunaga, Katsuhiko, Kohji Igarashi, Kazuo Abe, Isao Kudo and Shigeru Fukase, 1983. In-situ filtration sampler for taking filtered water sampies. J. oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 39(3):115-118. (1Ia
Japanese, English abstract.) Dept. of Chem., Fac. of Fish., Hokkaido Univ., Hakodate, 041, Japan. 84:0902
Raney, R.K., 1983. Synthetic aperture radar observations of ocean and land. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (A)309(1508):315-321. A brief history of SAR is presented. Properties of electromagnetic radar measurement that are fundamental to SAR systems are discussed using SAR images derived from airborne and Seasat sources. The next decade of activity in radar satellites is outlined. Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Dept. of Energy, Mines and Res., 2464 Sheffield Rd., Ottawa K1A 0Y7, Canada. 84:0903
Wells, W.H., 1983. Techniques for measuring radiance in the sea and air. Appl. Opt., 22(15):23132321. Tetra Tech, Inc., 630 N. Rosemead Blvd., Pasadena, Calif. 91107, USA.
10(4):295-300. Ocean Engg., U.S. Naval Acad., Annapolis, Md. 21402, USA. 84:0899
Kidera, E.H. and S.A. Mack, 1983. Motion compensation system for ocean profiling. Technical note. Ocean Engng, 10(3):201-208. The motion compensation system developed for CTD profilers significantly reduces the effect of ship motion on profiler drop rates, thereby enhancing the measurement capabilities of vertical profilers. Ocean Engg., U.S. Naval Acad., Annapolis, Md. 21402, USA. 84:0900
King-Hele, D.G., 1983. Geophysical researches with the orbits of the first satellites. Geophys. Jl R. astr. Soc, 74(I):7-23. This paper offers a 'partial' view of an analysis of the orbits of the first satellites, particularly Sputniks 1 and 2. The topics include the zonal harmonics in the Earth's gravitational field and 3 features of the upper
F70. Atlases, bibliographies, databases, etc. 84:0904
Alexander, L.M., 1983. International Straits of the World (Gerard J. Mangone, General Editor).
Book review. Ocean Dev. int. Law, 13(2):269-275. The Northeast Arctic Passage; Malacca, Singapore and Indonesia; The Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz; The Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean; The Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden; and The Baltic Straits are the titles and subjects of the first 6 volumes of International Straits of the World. The volumes 'are similar in length and in general approach to the subject [and]...are adequately supported by maps, tables, footnotes, and indexes." There are appendices containing the texts of treaties and agreements. Topics include physical and economic geography, historical backgrounds, legal issues (particularly in reference to the Law of the Sea Treaty), international relations, military activity in
~1[ R , i4,4; ~,i ~ )
relation to the great powers, and marine environment issues. This extensive review summarizes the major contributions of each volume. Office of the Geographer, Dept. of State, Washington, D.C., USA. (msg) 84:0905 Pleasant, L.G. and Cyril Ponnamperuma (compilers), 1983. Chemical evolution and the origin of life. Bibliography Supplement 1981 [containing 337 references]. Orig. Life, 13(1):61-80, George Washington Univ. Med. Center, 2300 Eye St., Washington, D.C. 20037, USA,
F100. Expeditions, research programs, etc. 84:0906 Schiffer, R.A. and W.B. Rossow, 1983. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP): the first project of the World Climate Research Programme. (Overview.) Bull. Am. met. Soc., 64(7):779-784. NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546. USA.
FI70. Engineering and industry 84:0907 Grant, A.D., 1983. Bulk water flow to power marine beacons, d. Energy Engng, Am. Soc. civ. Engrs, 109(3): 142-151.
The system converts the energy of bulk water flows. An immersed Savonius-type rotor drives an electrical generator. Model results suggest that sufficient power for marine beacons or similar applications would be produced in flows with a mean velocity of 1.6 ft/s (0.49 m/s) and higher. System performance might be improved substantially by ducting to guide the flow through the rotor. Dept. of Thermodynamics and Fluid Mech., Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland. 84:0908 Johnson, J.B., 1983. A surface integral method for determining ice loads on offshore structures from in-situ measurements. Ann. Glaciol., 4: 124-128. Geophys. Inst., Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99701, USA. 84:0909 LeBlanc, L.A., 1983. Deepwater production. Special report. Offshore, 43(9):37-46; 6 reports.
Six reports on deepwater production hlghhght the state-of-the-art, including the launching ~f the longest single piece ever, the Exxon 27,000-ton guyed tower jacket, now onsite in the Gulf of Mexico. Mobil's new flexible deepwater production riser: Goodfellow Associates' GASP, a retrievable semisubmersible; and a Dutch monotower steel platform also are described. Subsea tree technology is covered in articles on (I) diverless maintenance and repair and (2) an acoustic tree control system (icl~; 84:0910 Lee, S.C., C.Y. Liaw and C.C. lung, 1983. Earthquake response of sea-based storage tanks. App/, Ocean Res., 5(3):150-157. Dynamics T e c h h~c Torrance, Calif. 90505. USA. 84:0911 C.J. Von Ah and J,J. Burgess, i983, Experiments with scale models of oil collectors for subsea well blowouts. II. ANd. Ocean Re,~., 5(3):120-128. Dept. of Ocean Engrg~, MIT. Cambridge, Mass. 02139, US,X
84:0912 Palmer, A.C., D.J. Goodman, M.F. Ashby. \ ( j . Evans, J.W. Hutchinson and AR.S. Pointer, 1983. Fracture and its role in determining ice forces on offshore structures. Ann. Gla, ioL, 4:216-221. R.J. Brown and Assoc., P.O. Box 345, 2280 AH Rijswijk (ZH), Netherlands 84:0913 Raman, H, and P.S.V. Rao, 1983. Dynamic pressure distribution on large circular cylinders caused by wind generated random waves. Ocean En~ng, 10(4):235-260. Hydraulic Engg. l~ab.. Italian Inst. of Tech., Madras, India.
F250. Waste disposal and pollution (see also B350-Atmospheric pollution, f2ll) Water pollution, E300-Effects of pollution) 84:0914 Finn, D.P., 1983. Nuclear waste management activities in the Pacific Basin and regional cooperation on the nuclear fuel cycle. Ocean Dev. ira. La,,,
13(2):213-246. This 5-part, 33-page paper discusses past, present. and projected nuclear activities in the Pacific Basin. Specific topics include the nature of nuclear activities, their legal validity, present and potential control measures affecting marine waste disposal, and the desirability of regional cooperative arrangements as a solution to environmental and
OIR (1984)31 (2)
economic management problems related to nuclear activities. Professional Staff, Select Committee on Intelligence, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C., USA.
(jch) 84:0915 Laine, E.P. and L.E. Shephard, 1983. Subseabed disposal of high level nuclear waste: site status. N E environ. Sci., 2(2):102-109. As an alternative to land-based disposal of high level nuclear waste, 21 subseahed sites were selected for initial study based on 'archived geological, geophysical, and oceanographic data.' At this stage of analysis, 5 sites (2 in the North Atlantic and 3 in the North Pacific) comply with guidelines re long-term stability and efficacy in preventing radionuclide release; these locations will be subjected to further investigation. Grad. Sch. of Oceanogr., Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, R.I. 02882, USA. (jch) 84:0916 McIntyre, A.D. (chairman), 1983. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Marine Pollution, 1982. I C E S coop. Res. Rept, 120:74pp. Topics discussed here include: lead in the marine environment (an overview): eutrophication in the Baltic Sea; assessing gross river discharge of trace metals and organohalogens; monitoring the biological effects of pollutants; the status of intercalibrations for contaminant determination; monitoring marine dumping grounds; and a review of environmental specimen banking. ICES, Palaegade 2-4, 1261 Copenhagen K, Denmark. (msg)
F260. Resources, management, economics 84:0917 Finkl, C.W. Jr., 1983. Environmental hazards and mitigation in the U.S. Middle Atlantic Coastal Zone. N E environ. Sci., 2(2):90-101. Growth management trends must be reversed by 1990 if coastal hazards are to be mitigated in zones already intensively developed. Meteorological, hydrological, geological, and human activity-induced hazards are discussed, and societal reaction to controls is analyzed. Coastal Educ. and Res. Fd. Inc., P.O. Box 2473, Colee Station, Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 33303, USA. (mwf) 84:0918 Kindlmann, Pavel, 1983. Do archipelagoes really preserve fewer species than one island of the same total area? Oecologia, 59(1):141-144.
The theory of island biogeography is used to investigate the optimal strategy in the design of nature reserves; some previous results are revised. A new form of the incidence functions is presented which suggests that to preserve the greatest numbers of species in refuges whose total size is given, the number of refuges must be limited. Centre of Math., Inst. of Entomol., Czechoslovak Acad. of Sci., Na sadkach 702, 37005 Ceske Budejovice, Czechoslovakia. 84:0919 Polunin, N.V.C., 1983. Marine 'genetic resources' and the potential role of protected areas in conserving them. Environ, Conserv., l 0( 1): 31-4 I. The author proposes the establishment of marine protected areas with the objective of conserving resources and maintaining biotic diversity. The genetics of marine populations are reviewed; the problem of reconciling marine conservation with economic development is addressed. Dept. of Biol., P.O. Box 320, University, Papua, New Guinea. (msg) 84:0920 Saenger, P., E.J. Hegerl and J.D.S. Davie (eds.), 1983. Global status of mangrove ecosystems. (IUCN Commission on Ecology Papers Number 3.) Environmentalist, (Suppl. 3):88pp. In this 88-page report, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources presents its findings on the global status of a widely threatened coastal resource: the mangrove forest. Sample chapter headings include: Factors which maintain ecological processes in mangroves, The causes and consequences of mangrove destruction, and Management of the mangrove resource. The philosophy is one of preventing further destruction to extant mangrove resources and developing and applying appropriate management techniques. A chief recommendation is to create awareness of the problems among users of coastlands. (jch) 84:0921 Squires, D.F., 1982. A marine biomass concept for the northeastern United States. N E environ. Sci., 1(2):124-130. A cooperative investigation into the potential of marine biomass as an energy source in the New York coastal area has targeted two common seaweeds, Laminaria and Gracilaria, as candidates for large scale conversion to natural gas or alcohol. Barriers to effective marine biofarming are outlined, e.g., competition for ocean space from commercial, industrial, and recreational users, and lack of proper
technical information in the U.S. regarding cultivation of marine biota. Economic and technical aspects of both large and small scale marine biomass farming are discussed; when coupled with fish or shellfish culture, such farms appear economically attractive. New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, N.Y. USA. (jch)
84:0922 VanderZwaag, David, 1983. Canadian fisheries management: a legal and administrative overview. Ocean Dev. int. Law, 13(2):171-211.
The constitutional, statutory and administrative moorings of marine fisheries are reviewed, highlighting in each case how the system works in practice. The extension of offshore fisheries jurisdiction to 200 miles left a wealth of problems, including harvesting over-capacity, processing overcapacity, and marketing. Other major problems are seasonality and fish quality. Dalhousie Ocean Studies Prog., Halifax, NS, Canada. (mwf)
84:0923 Young, O.R., 1983. Fishing by permit: restricted common property in practice. Ocean Dev. int. Law, 13(2):121-170.
A systematic evaluation of Alaska's limited-entry regime covers the 'unintended consequences and the pursuit of unstated objectives as well as the fulfillment of stated objectives.' Serious problems have been encountered and, despite some successes, future prospects are not auspicious. The appropriate response is to inquire into ways to overcome the defects within the overall context of restricted common property. Center for Northern Studies. Wolcott, Vt., USA. (mwf)
F280. Policy, law, treaties 84:0924 Hailbronner, Kay, 1983. Freedom of the air and the Convention on the Law of the Sea. A m . J. int. Law, 77(3):490-520. Under the new Law of the Sea the traditional freedom of the air above high seas may not be guaranteed, although the new concept of transit passage has alleviated fears that international aviation could be drastically curtailed. 'A balance between freedom of the air and jurisdictional claims of the coastal states has to be achieved.' Dept. of Law., Univ. of Konstanz, FRG. (mwf)
84:0925 Kent, George, 1983. Harmonizing extended zone legislation in Southeast Asia. Ocean D e r i n t Law, 13(2):247-268.
Harmonization, 'the deliberate alignment of l a ~ of different nations for the purpose of fulfilling their national interests,' is especially useful when concerned nations are reluctant to create a new international management body to work ota raternational issues. Opportunities for harmonization exist in fisheries, shipping, and environmental protection in regions such as Southeast Asia. Environment and Policy Inst., East-West (enter. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. (mwf)
84:0926 Lee, L.T., 1983. The Law of the Sea Convention and third states [nonsignatories]. 4m. J~ im i a ~ . 77(3):541-568.
The circumstances under which third states may "enjoy rights or incur obligations ~ under the nonseabed provisions of the Convention are discussed. Office of the United States Coordinator for Refugee Affairs, Dept. of State, Washington. D C I ' S A (mwf)
F290. International concerns and organizations 84:0927 Talbot, L.M., 1983. IUCN [International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources] in retrospect and prospect. Environ. Conserw. 10(1):5-11. An 'organization which promotes and carries on scientifically-based action for conservation" and a 'unique bridge between governments and the nongovernmental community,' IUCN 'represents virtually the last truly international forum where representatives of all nations may meet in a totally non-political context.' The IUCN's commissions on ecology, education, environmental planning, environmental policy, law and administration, national parks, and protected areas and species survival are composed of experts in their fields, providing 'one of IUCN's greatest strengths.' IUCN, World Conservation Centre, Avenue du Mont-Blanc, ! 196 Gland, Switzerland. (dgs)
OLR (1984)31 (2)
F310. Contemporary development of science
(especially o c e a n o g r a p h y )
84:0928 Abelson, P.H., 1983. Communication between scientists. Editorial. Science, 221(4615):p.1011. The unhealthy trends in verbal communication are as important as the problems of proliferating scientific literature. In annual meetings the commercial atmosphere of hotels sets the tone, 40 or more papers are presented simultaneously, and far too many slides are used in the 10- or 15-minute periods. The formula of the small closed symposium initiated by the Gordon Research Conferences is a 'favorite' alternative to the annual meeting. (mwf) 84:0929 Birchall, J.D., 1983. On the relative importance of relevance and irrelevance [in scientific research]. John D. Rose Memorial Lecture. Chem. Ind., 1983(14):534-541. The development of artificial lighting from the candle to the fluorescent tube is used to illustrate the idea that significant advances in a given field come about through the convergence of a multiplicity of seemingly unrelated discoveries and technologies. All the significant discoveries relevant to improvements in lighting would contemporaneously have been deemed irrelevant to lighting technology. It is only through the 'retrospectroscope's rose-colored lens' that relevance can be discerned. When looking forward, the term relevance 'may simply mean the obvious and short-term.' (fcs) 84:0930 Bondi, Hermann and J.M. Bates, 1983. 1984: the impact of science on society. Impact Sci. Soc., 1983(2): 189-197. How controllable have humans become? How can they learn to live with machines? The first question is probed by observing the extent to which Orwell's world of ant-like behavior is found under various forms of government. Political organization is not the only form of human control; modern mass production may well pose the greatest risk. The second question leads to concern over the effects on society of technology advancing at a greater rate than cultural change. NERC, Polaris House, North Star Ave., Swindon, Wilts SN2 I EU, UK. 84:0931 Chalk, Rosemary, 1983. Security and scientific communication. Bull. atom. Scient., 39(7): 19-23. Although the U.S. National Academy of Sciences' Corson Panel concluded in 1982 that scientific
communication was a 'very small part' of the technology transfer of direct military relevance to the Soviet Union, the U.S. government monitors such exchange with suspicion. The burden of proof that basic research is of no possible military or economic value to the U.S.S.R. has been placed on the academic community. Many groups believe recent restrictions 'damage the productivity and creativity of scientific work.' AAAS, Com. on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility, Washington, DC 20036, USA. (mwf) 84:0932 Cleveland, Harlan, 1983. The citizen as scientist and the scientist as citizen. Bull. Am. met. Soc., 64(5) :469-471. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research states in its prospectus that one of its missions is to provide 'a collective voice in the formulation of public policies which might affect the atmospheric sciences.' Too shortsighted, says the author, a student of public affairs. The corporation should instead provide 'a collective voice in the formulation of public policies which the atmospheric sciences might affect.' Major shifts in society's sense of direction are 'first formed in inchoate consensus by the people at large' while public executives catch up in 'jerky, arthritic moves.' The scientist today must, as a citizen and as a professional, help clarify the policy issues. Hubert H. Humphrey Inst. of Public Affairs, Univ. of Minn., Mpls, Minn. 55455, USA. (fcs) 84:0933 Gauffenic, Armelle, 1983. Nineteen Eighty-tour. from fiction to reality. Impact Sci. Soc., 1983(2): 133-138. What comparisons can we draw between George Orwell's portrayal of the future, Nineteen Eighty-four, and the real world of the year 19847 May we not take heart from the observation that the increasing need for uniformity and standardization appears to be matched by a mounting insistence on respect for the individual? 95 rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France. 84:0934 Richman, B.T., 1983. In Congress [U.S.]. Science exchanges. Eos, 64(34):p.515. In the last 15 months, 4 of the 8 U.S.-U.S.S.R. science and technology agreements that have expired have not been renewed. Two others will run out in 1984, including one in oceanography. These 'withering' contacts and the prospects for enhancing such
t . General
exchanges were discussed at a hearing by the Foreign Affairs Committee. (mwf)
84:0935 Ruckelshaus, W.D., 1983. Science, risk, and public policy. Science, 221(4615):i026-1028. The present (and a past) Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency expostulates on risk assessment and risk management in a "democratic polity grounded in a high technology civilization.' He appeals for uniformity of assessment procedures among regulatory agencies, and uniformity of management procedures among states and nations. He urges that scientists help in setting policy and in educating and involving the public. U.S. EPA, Washington. D.C. 20460, USA. (fcs)
84:0936 Wade, Nicholas, 1983. What science can learn from science fraud. New Scient,, 99(1368):273-275. Lately, cases of scientific fraud have been 'bubbling up at the rate of about one a month.' Some have been major scandals. Occasionally, as was the case with Cyril Burt's work linking IQ nearly exclusively to heredity, such fraud has had far-reaching consequences in public policy, if science's own checking mechanisms cannot detect gross, deliberate error, how can it be expected to fulfill its main task of quality control? The answer here is that time, rather than formal checking mechanisms, keeps science on the right track. Given time, most science, not just fraudulent science, is discarded and forgotten; it makes no lasting contribution. As to preventing fraud, a reduction of temptation is likely to have more effect than any kind of 'crackdown.' This would include, e.g., more honest distributions of credit and funds, and the raising of research standards. This article is based in part on the book by Wade and Broad entitled Betrayers of the Truth (Century Press, London, 1983). (fcs)
F320. Literature of science 84:0937 Clayton, Robert, 1983. Technology lecture. Developments in scientific information systems. Pro('. R. Soc., Lond., (A)388(1794):21-48. A recent report by the Royal Society and the British Library (British Library R & D Report No. 5626 entitled 'A study of the scientific information system in the U.K.') summarized the current difficulties in science publishing which include dwindling circulations, rising costs, increasing delays and suffocating quantities. The electronic journal, combined
OLR < i~;'8 ~ M !2i
with demand printing, offers the prospect of solving some of these problems provided that the main functions of the communication system (archival. reportorial, educational) are preserved or strength.~ ened, a provision not guaranteed by the mere existence of a glamorous technology. General Elec~tric Company p.l.c., East Lane, Wembley, Middlesex. HA9 7DP, UK. (fcs)
84:0938 de Sola Pool, Ithiel, 1983. ]'racking the flow of information. Science, 221 (4611 ):609-613 Growth trends of 17 communications media are compared from 1960-1977. As expected, growth rates in electronic media are very large compared with growth rates in print media; the cost per x*ord of most electronic media has stabilized or decreased during this period, whereas the cost has increased fol most print media. In addition to higher cost.,, the print media are suffering from 'informatiorl o~erload.' Dept. of Political Sci., M1T, Cambridge~ Ma~,, 02139, USA. (fcs)
84:0939 Shephard, F.C., 1983. The various roles of secondary publications. Some thoughts. Int. J. Micro~rcq~h~ its Video Technol., 2(2):101-104. Traditional bibliographic servlce.~ are mcaJ~t t~: provide 'disclosures' to 'inquiries." A tougher kind of problem is the 'enigma' to which there is no possible disclosure because there is no known solution. The solution to enigmas is, however, frequently levealed by the serendipitous juxtaposition of bits of knowledge not thought of as connected. A new kind of literature service [OLR], designed to partiali!, ~ddress this problem, presents browsable and manageable selections of abstracts. It has shown itself useful in oceanography, a multidisciplinary fieid It is in such multidisciplinary fields that literature reviews of this sort are likely to prove useful. P.() Box 465, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, U S A
F330. History of science (especiall 5 oceanography)
84:0940 Weber, J.R., 1983. Maps of the Arctic Basin seafloor: a history of bathymetry and its interpretation. Arctic, 36(2): 121-142. The history of oceanographic exploration ot the Arctic Ocean Basin from the beginning of this century is summarized. The major bathymetric charts since 1954 are discussed: comparison ol the LOREX bathymetric map with other maps reveals
OLR 11984) 31 (2)
that the Lomonosov Ridge is positioned accurately on early Soviet maps but is grossly in error on later U.S. and Canadian maps. The latest General Bathymetric Map of the Oceans may be inaccurate in areas where publicly available sounding data are scant. Dept. of Energy, Mines and Res., 1 Observatory Crescent, Ottawa, Ont., K l A 0Y3, Canada. 84:0941 Wells, E.B., 1983. Scientists' libraries: a handlist of printed sources. Ann. Sci., 40(4):317-389. Scientific biographers (and historians) obviously want to know what it was that their subjects read. In an earlier era the private library had greater significance, and many private collections have been catalogued by estate auctioneers, antiquarian book dealers, and beneficiaries (particularly libraries) of bequests. Here 1200 catalogues, relating to the collections of 880 scientists, are cited and documented. The earliest surviving catalogue of a scientist's collection may be the one to Jean Riolan's library; this catalogue was sold in 1654. The earliest surviving catalogue of an American scientist may be the one of the mathematician Samuel Lee; this catalogue was sold in 1693. Smithsonian Inst. Libraries, Washington, DC 20560, USA. (fcs)
F360. Science education 84:0942 Slaughter, J.B., 1983. Interdisciplinary science education for the future. Comment. Interdiscipl. Sci. Rev., 8(2): 105-107. Future scientists need more multidisciplinary exposure and better understanding of the social context of their activities. The non-scientists need better understanding of science and technology. Given the gravity of these problems, the 'prognosis is hardly ideal.' Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Md., USA. (fcs) 84:0943 Walsh, John, 1983. Briefing. Survey documents life after the Ph.D. Science, 221(4615):p.1033. Summarized are the results from a questionnaire distributed by the U.S. National Research Council to holders of the 31,048 doctorates granted from mid-1981 to mid-1982. Employment plans are dominated still by the sluggish economy and tight academic job market; more Ph.D.'s are planning to work for industry and more are taking post-doctoral appointments ( ~ 7 0 % in the biosciences). Other findings include a decline in doctorates granted in
the humanities and an increase in the sciences, as well as an increased percentage of doctorates granted to women and non-U.S, citizens. (mjj)
F370. Multidisciplinary scientific studies (general interest) 84:0944 Ackley, S.F., R.M.W. Frederking, B. Salm, J. Schwarz and P. Schwerdtfeger (eds.), 1982/83. Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Applied Glaciology. New Hampshire, 23-27 August 1982. Ann. Glaciol., 4:314pp; 49 papers + 18 abstracts + 1 special lecture. Selected topics from this collection include: an ice accretion model; yield functions for saline ice; crystal orientation in saline ice: forecasting mesoscale ice-dynamics; an in-situ method for determining ice loads on offshore structures; fracture's role in determining ice forces on offshore structures; automatic collection of tilt and strain data from tabular icebergs; modelling ice floes and bergs in waves; air porosity of sea ice; ice in the Weddell Sea; the buckling load of floating ice sheets; and mapping ice-sheet margins from radar-altimetry data. (msg) 84:0945 Dickman, S.R., 1983. The rotation of the ocean-solid Earth system. J. geophys. Res., 88(B8):6373-6394. The effect of the oceans on the Earth's rotation is examined through several idealized models of coupling between Earth and ocean. 'The long-period highly elliptical Markowitz wobble can be viewed as a natural wobble of a coupled mantle-ocean system....For a deformable system the retrograde character of the free oceanic wobble leads to coupled motions which are at best undamped and at worst unstably damped.' Dept. of Geol. Sci., SUNY, Binghamton, N.Y., USA. (jfp)
84:0946 Doe, B.R., 1983. The past is the key to the future. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta, 47(8):1341-1354. The emerging field of geologic prediction is discussed emphasizing applications to studies of climate changes, neotectonics and element migratiori in rock-water interactions. New and challenging research areas are identified; geochemistry is pinpointed as a discipline with much to contribute to this frontier science. USGS, Reston, Va. 22092, USA. (msg)
84:0947 Wahr, J.M., 1983. The effects of the atmosphere and oceans on the Earth's wobble and on the seasonal variations in the length of day. II. Results. Geophys. Jl R. astr. Soc., 74(2):451-487, The annual wobble generally is believed to be driven by seasonal effects in the atmosphere, the oceans, and the global fresh water distribution, although good quantitative agreement has remained somewhat elusive. The primary source of the 14-month Chandler wobble excitation is uncertain. An examination of the effects of the atmosphere and oceans on wobble excitation shows that although the atmosphere and oceans had a noticeable effect on the Chandler wobble excitation 1900-1973, they were apparently not the primary excitation source. Estimates of the roles of the atmosphere and oceans in maintaining the semi-annual and annual variations in the length of day disagree with results of previous studies by ~10-20%. Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80309, USA. 84:0948 Watson, A.J. and J.E. Lovelock, 1983. Biological homeostasis of the global environment: the parable of Daisyworld lan imaginary planet]. Tellus, (B)35(4):284-289. The biota and environment may be considered as two parts of a coupled system. To investigate this close coupling, an imaginary planet was modelled having a very simple biosphere consisting of just two species of daisy (Lovelock, 1982). Growth rate of the daisies depends on only one environmental variable, temperature, which the daisies in turn modify because they absorb different amounts of radiation. The effect of the daisies is to stabilize the temperature because of the peaked shape of the growthtemperature curve; the result is independent of the mechanics by which the biota are assumed to modify the temperature. Implications for Earth modelling are discussed. Mar. Biol. Assoc., The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, PLI 2PB, U K
history. Discussed are the time scales in which plate tectonics may have influenced the terrestrial crust and biota, mantle convection, the episodic production of continental crust, the bolide impact hypothesis, and causes and effects of changes in sea level. (msg)
84:0950 Diamond, J.M., 1983. Laboratory, field and natural experiments. (Report.) Nature, /,rod 304(5927):586-587. Discussed are the advantages and disadvantages ol laboratory, field and natural experiments for studying species abundances and distributions. No one approach is seen as superior, for each has merit depending upon circumstances and species studied. Conclusions about the roles of competition and predation based on natural experiments arc defended and are claimed not to be artefacts of experimental methods. Dept. of Physiol., Univ. of Calif. Med. Sch., Los Angeles, Calif. 90024, USA.
(mjj) 84:0951 Kerr, R.A., 1983. Fading El Nifio broadening scientists' view. (Report.) Science. 221 (4614):940-941. The E1 Nifio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event of 1982-1983 was the strongest warming of the equatorial Pacific this century, with + 5 C ° anomalies m the central ocean and + 7 C ° anomalies along the South American coast. It appears at last to be retreating, but leaves confusion in its wake. fhere was no precursory intensification of the trade winds: it began in May rather than December; and its apparent effects on northern mid-latitude weather were totally different from those of the last observed E1 Nifio (1976--77). A ten year program now being planned may make the irascible child more predictable. (fcs) 84:0952 Kerr, R.A., 1983. Precisely measuring the past million years. (Report,) Science, 221(4615):p.1041
F380. Advances in science, reviews (general interest) 84:0949 Campbell, Philip, 1983. Bumps and bolides in the history of the Earth. (Report.) Nature, Lond., 304(5927):584-585. Presented are highlights of the 2-6 May 1983 Dahlem workshop in Berlin which considered possible causes for the rapid changes in the Earth's
Using oxygen isotope data and the, periodic orbital variations of Earth, the SPECMAP group appears to have established a real time scale which will enable paleoceanographers to date marine carbonate sediments as old as 800,000 yrs with a 3000-5000 yr accuracy. Their 734,000 yr tuned age for the Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic reversal is in good agreement with the 730,000 radiometric date, It is speculated that the method eventually may be applicable as far back as 15 Ma. (hbf)
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Laws, Richard, 1983. Antarctica: a convergence of life. New Scient., 99(1373):608-616. Presented is an overview of the importance of krill to the secondary consumers of the Antarctic seas. Population dynamics, life histories and feeding behavior of krill, birds, seals and whales are examined; community interactions and anthropogenic impacts on the Antarctic ecosystem are assessed. The significance of krill recently has been recognized by the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Resources, which has the specific objective of controlling krill exploitation. Sea Mammal Res. Unit, Natl. Environ. Res. Council, Cambridge, UK. (msg) 84:0954
Lewin, Roger, 1983. Santa Rosalia was a goat. (The debate over the importance of competition in community organization.) Science, 221(4611): 636-639. Discussed here is the origin of competition theory, beginning with G.E. Hutchinson's (1959) paper 'Homage to Santa Rosalia or Why are there so many kinds of animals?' The bitter and emotional arguments which have resulted from recent attacks on the theory are considered. Positions of some ecologists as expressed in symposium papers forthcoming in American Naturalist are summarized. (mjj) 84:0955
Lewin, Roger, 1983. Predators and hurricanes change ecology. Science, 221(4612):737-740. Interspecific competition once was considered the primary determinant of community structure. In recent years, interventionist experiments (both field and laboratory), rather than field observations, have been emphasized. This shift in approach has led to an intellectual shift, in which competition is seen as much less important than predation and environmental change. Summarized here are the positions of some ecologists and the history of this shift in viewpoint. (mjj) 84:0956
Lewin, Roger, 1983. Extinctions and the history of life. (Research news.) Science, 221(4614):935937. Summarized are the hypotheses, discussions and questions of the paleontologists and geologists who attended a recent meeting (Flagstaff, Arizona, 10-12 August 1983) on the dynamics of extinction. A broad view was taken in attempting to evaluate the importance of mass extinctions throughout the Phanerozoic. Identification of mass extinctions in
the fossil record, possible periodic patterns in extinction, and comparison of extinction events were discussed. (mjj) 84:0957
Moorbath, Stephen, 1983. The most ancient rocks? (Report.) Nature, Lond., 304(5927):585-586. An ion-microprobe U-Pb age study of zircon grains from Western Australia's Early Precambrian Mount Narryer quartzite has resulted in the discovery of 4 grains yielding ages 4100-4200 Ma amidst other zircon grains ~3100-3750 Ma. While this implies the contribution of >_4100 Myr-old rock detritus to the younger quartzite, the author cautions that it should not prematurely be interpreted as evidence for the early formation of calc-alkaline continental crust; further, there is still the possibility that the age may be an artefact of metamorphism. Dept. of Geol. and Mineralogy, Univ. of Oxford, 0X1 3PR, UK. (hbf) 84:0958
Philander, S.G.H., 1983. Anomalous El Nifio of 1982-83. (Report.) Nature, Lond., 305(5929): p.16. A summary of the discussions at a recent AGU meeting (Baltimore, 1 June 1983) concerning the unusual development, expansion, amplitude and persistence of the 1982-83 E1 Niflo is presented. Selected topics: rainfall estimates, trade winds' weakening, SST increases, E1 Chichon. G F D Lab., NOAA, Princeton Univ., N.J. 08540, USA. (msg) 84:0959
Sibulkin, Merwin, 1983. A note on the bathtub vortex and the Earth's rotation. Am. Scient., 71(4):352353. The rotation of a hurricane and of water draining from a bathtub is counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere; however, the direction of the flow is downward in a bathtub and upward in a hurricane. Possible explanations for these phenomena are offered. Div. of Engg., Brown Univ., Providence, R.I. 02912, USA. (msg) 84:0960
Siever, Raymond et al., 1983. The dynamic Earth. Special issue. Scient. Am., 249(3):46-189; 8 papers. This issue considers the Earth as a system of interacting fluids, including living matter. Some of the flows are fast, others slow, but overall the planet is maintained in a remarkable steady state. Indi-
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vidual articles discuss the core, mantle, crust, oceans, atmosphere and biosphere.
and to influence climate, is now known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch.
84:0961 Woolley, Alan and Clive Bishop, 1983. Krakatoa! The decapitation of a volcano. One hundred years later, new geological ideas help to explain the greatest volcanic explosion ever recorded. New Scient., 99(1372):561-567.
84:0965 Buskey, E.J., 1983. How eo0e0ods sense their environment. Maritimes, 27(3):11-12
The hot ash, noxious gases and 40 m high tsunami, which penetrated up to I I km inland, killed more than 36,000 people in 1883 when the volcano collapsed and a caldera formed; the fine dust ejected into the atmosphere produced 'dramatic meteorological effects that lasted several years and which were observed all over the world.' Krakatoa is now known to be located close to a subduction zone where descending, less dense plate material becomes heated and rises toward the surface to erupt as lava. This overview treats eyewitness accounts, the area pre- and post-eruption, deposits, etc. Dept. of Mineral., Nat. Hist. Mus., London. UK. (hbf)
F390. Educational literature 84:0962 Anonymous, 1983. Alaska offers clues to the geology of Mars. Maritimes, 27(3):1-4. Jon Boothroyd's comparative study o~~ Alaska's North Slope and Mars's Ladon Basin indicates that the areas have many analogous physiographic features. He suggests that the canyons, channel systems, and debris fans visible on Mariner-9 photo images are relicts dating from a time when the Martian atmosphere was denser and volcanic action or meteoric impact might have freed water frozen in the regolith to produce drainage features and leave behind 'chaotic terrain' collapse structures. (hbf) 84:0963 Arnold, Peter and C.A. Morgan (photographer), 1983. Come back Kemp's Ridley: scheming to save the world's rarest sea turtle. Science 83, 4(8):68-71. 84:0964 Broecker, W.S., 1983. The ocean. Scient. Am., 249(3): 146-160. The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of the air and land to support life
84:0966 Cloud, Preston, 1983. The biosphere. Scient Am,. 249(3): 176-189. The totality of microbial, animal and plant lite on the Earth not only is sustained by the lithosphere, the hydrosphere and the atmosphere but also has powerfully shaped their evolution.
84:0967 Ducklow, H.W., 1983. Production and fate of bacteria in the oceans. Bioscience, 33(8):494-501. Recent research suggests that aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria in the marine euphotic zone are not merely decomposers of detritus; the bacterial biomass in the oceans is large and productive, suggesting that bacteria are important producers of organic matter It appears that the bacterial production is removed quantitatively by small predators. Lamont-Doherty Geol. Observ., Palisades, NY 10964, U S A 84:0968 Francheteau, Jean, 1983. The oceanic crusL Sciem. Am., 249(3):114-129. It is created and destroyed in a flow outward from mid-ocean ridges to subduction zones, where it plunges back into the mantle. Currently it is being opened to view by submersibles and novel instrumentation. 84:0969 Gormley, Gerard, t983. Hungry humpbacks forever blowing bubbles. Sea Front., 29(5):258-265 84:0970 Grady, Denise and Thomas Levenson, 1983. The vanishing barrier beaches. From Maine to Texas, oceanside houses and quick-fix engineering are destroying America's most beautiful and fragile seashores. Discover, 4(9):69-74. 84:0971 Hsa, Kenneth, 1983. Lost secrets of the Mediterranean. Two thousand meters beneath the sea,
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grand canyons, death valleys, and the pillars of Atlantis. Sciences, N.Y., 23(5):44-51. The discoveries of the 1970 Glomar Challenger expedition to the Mediterranean are recounted. Basalt pebbles, gypsum sand grains, hardened oceanic oozes and fossils of coastal lagoon species from cores drilled above the hard rock M-layer, and anhydrite, stromatolite and laminated sediments from the M-layer indicate that the Mediterranean Sea had evaporated 8-10 times during the Late Miocene. Attributed to this desiccation are, e.g., a 'biological revolution' 6 mya, vigorous Late Miocene erosion by the Rh6ne, and salt domes. This overview speculates that 'history will repeat itself.' (msg) 84:0972 Iker, Sam, 1983. No place to hide. Nuclear war is the ultimate environmental disaster; scientists piecing together what it might mean see a world of darkness and cold. Int. Wildl., 13(5):44-47. 84:0973 Ingersoll, A.P., 1983. The atmosphere. Scient. Am., 249(3): 162-174.
Its dynamic activity serves to distribute the energy of solar radiation received by the Earth. Models of this activity help to explain climates of the past and predict those of the future.
84:0977 Macurda, D.B. Jr. and D.L. Meyer, 1983. Sea lilies and feather stars. Observations of living crinoids have enriched our ideas about the ecology and behavior of this ancient class of marine invertebrates. Am. Scient., 71(4):354-365. The Energists, 10260 Westheimer, Suite 110, Houston, Tex. 77042, USA. 84:0978 McKenzie, D.P., 1983. The Earth's mantle. Scient. Am., 249(3):66-78.
The great shell of silicate that lies above the metallic core is heated by the decay of radioactive isotopes. The heat energizes massive convection currents in the upper 700 kilometers of the ductile rock. 84:0979 Rasmusson, E.M, and J.M. Hall, 1983. E! Nifio: the great equatorial Pacific Ocean warming event of 1982-83. Weatherwise, 36(4):166-175.
Severe drought, inundating rains, record high temperatures, extreme lows--the story of the weather in recent months. What do they all have in common? Has a warming of the Pacific Ocean affected the world's weather?
84:0974 Jeanloz, Raymond, 1983. The Earth's core. Scient. Am., 249(3):56-65.
Indirect evidence indicates that the Earth's core is an iron alloy, solid toward the center but otherwise liquid. The turbulent flow of the liquid generates the Earth's magnetic field.
84:0980 Boulding, K.E., 1983. Ecodynamics. lnterdiscipl. Sci. Rev., 8(2):108-113.
84:0975 Jones, D.S., 1983. Sclerochronology: reading the record of the molluscan shell. Annual growth increments in the shells of bivalve molluscs record marine climatic changes and reveal surprising longevity. Am. Scient., 71(4):384-391. Dept. of Geol., Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 32611, USA. 84:0976 Larson, R.L., 1983. Unlocking closed doors in the deep sea. (Drilling and coring technology.) Maritimes, 27(3): 8-10. Marine Geophysics Dept., URI, Kingston, R.I. 02881, USA.
Boulding reviews his own book, Ecodynamics: A New Theory of Societal Evolution, apologizes for its shortcomings, addresses some criticisms with which he disagrees, and touches briefly on a subsequent book, Evolutionary Economics. His main ideas (arising out of an interest in general systems) are reiterated. They include redefinitions of ecosystem, population and equilibrium; the often severely misleading difficulties associated with taxonomy; the concept of the empty niche; the consequences of the fact that the probability of filling an empty niche is never 1.0 (introducing 'profound indeterminacy in the evolutionary process'); the role of catastrophes in opening empty niches; societal evolution and its introduction of reproductive processes with an even more accelerated variegation in outcome than that brought about by sexual reproduction ('the produc-
tion of social artefacts is multiparental...the information for their reproduction scattered among hundreds or thousands of others...'); the concept and role of 'noogenetics' (learned systems); and the utility of ecodynamic theory for understanding economic, political and social structures. Inst. of Behavioral Sci., Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80309, USA. (fcs) 84:0981
Rubinstein, Ellis (ed.), 1983. Space 25. Special issue. IEEE Spectrum, 20(9):26-95; 26 reports,
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On NASA's twenty-fifth anniversary, Spectrum 'examines the profound changes that have taken place in man's use of space and considers their implications for the next quarter century.' Topics include the 'humanization, militarization, internationalization and commercialization' of space; the advancing technologies of rocket engines, computers, telecommunications, remote sensing, materials, ergonomics and project systems management; the state of space politics and law; and the scientific, technological and political agendas for the next twenty-five years. (fcs)