80:1954 Higdon, J. J. L., 1979. The hydrodynamics of flagellar propulsion: helical waves. J. Fluid Mech., 94(2): 331-351. D e p a r t m e n t of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Calif. 94305, U.S.A.
80:1955 Okihana, Hiroyuki and Fujio Egami, 1979. Polymers produced by heating an amino
acid mixture in seawater enriched with transition elements. Orig. Life, 9(3): 171-180. Small dialyzable and undialyzable polymers together with spherical granules were obtained by heating 18 protein amino acids in a seawater medium enriched with transition metal ions. Acid hydrolyses and IR absorption spectra suggest a complex chemical nature for the polymers. St. Marianna University, School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, 2095 Sugao, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki-shi 213, Japan. (izs)
1. Applied oceanography 80:1956 Harleman, D. R. F., 1972. Exchange of water through the proposed sea-level canal at Panama. Bull. biol. Soc. Wash., 2: 41-47. Magnitudes and directions of' tidal currents for several proposed routes of a sea-level canal across the Isthmus of Panama are determined with the model of Harleman and Lee (1969). Department of Civil Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. (izs) 80:1957 Olsson, Mark, G. L. Wick and J. D. Isaacs, 1979. Salinity gradient power: utilizing vapor pressure differences. Science, 206(4417): 452454. A reverse vapor compression desalination scheme is shown to be more efficient at extracting energy from salinity gradients than conventional flowthrough membrane techniques. Institute of Marine Resources, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif. 92093, U.S.A. (izs)
2. Navigation, mapping
80:1958 Gomez, R. A., 1976. La carta nautica. [The nautical chart: construction, revision and printing.] (Special issue.) Boln Serv. Hidrogr. Nay. Argent., 13(1/2): 52 pp.
3. Interdisciplinary apparatus, methods, mathematical and statistical techniques 80:1959 Huang, N. E., 1979. New developments in s a t e l l i t e o c e a n o g r a p h y and c u r r e n t measurements. Revs Geophys. Space Phys., 17(7): 1558-1568. Remote sensing instrumentation will continue to improve, with emphasis in the future on active microwave sensors. In theory, the limitation im-
posed by remote sensing--of detecting surface features only--is not as serious a detriment as it seems: most oceanic processes begin at the surface boundary layer. Suitable modelling and appropriate algorithms should then be able to yield a more general picture of oceanic processes; not, however, without much more work linking oceanic parameters to their surficial electromagnetic signatures. Ca. 100 references. NASA Wallops Flight Center, Wallops Island, Va. 23337, U.S.A. (fcs) 80:1960 Parsons, C. L., 1979. On the remote detection of swell by satellite radar altimeter. Mon. Weath. Rev., 107(9): 1210-1218. Utilizing an empirical model developed during JONSWAP, a parameter is derived that is related to the percentage swell present as reported by National Weather Service hindcasters. Only data presently available from existing satellite radar altimeters are needed to map those areas of the oceans dominated by swell. NASA Wallops Flight Center, Wallops Island, Va. 23337, U.S.A.
7. Institutions, services and education 80:1961 Abram, R. J. and K. H. Hughes, 1979. Improved access to ocean data services. Mar. Policy, 3(4): 315-317. The history of the U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) is briefly sketched detailing its d a t a bases, products, referral services, publications, cosmopolitan and multidisciplinary coverage, and its newly instituted 'after hours message center' which affords ocean data users better access for making service requests. National Oceanographic Data Center, Environmental Data and Information Service, NOAA, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. (izs)
SEAFDEC Library, the program will provide current awareness services, a union list of serials and input to the Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) in Rome. (izs)
9. Area studies (multidisciplinary) 80:1963 Aagaard, Knut, 1979. Polar oceanography I: Arctic Ocean. Revs Geophys. Space Phys., 17(7); 1576-1578.
Research (1974-1978) in Arctic seas concentrated on planetary boundary layer dynamics, meso-scale events, regional problems, and the North Atlantic connection. This review of polar oceanography briefly discusses the AIDJEX and OCSEAP efforts and cites the need for 'synoptic mappings of the hydrographic fields during various seasons and at v a r i o u s s p a t i a l s c a l e s . ' D e p a r t m e n t of Oceanography WB-10, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 98195, U.S.A. (izs) 80:1964 Baker, D. J. Jr., 1979. Polar oceanography II: Southern Ocean. Revs Geophys. Space Phys., 17(7): 1578-1585.
Southern Ocean research (1975-1978) is reviewed and problems still requiring solutions are specified. The paper is divided into global studies, regional investigations and coupled ocean-atmosphere models. Ca. 120 references. Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory/NOAA, 3711 15th Avenue N.E., Seattle, Wash. 98105, U.S.A. (izs) 80:1965 Indonesia, Institute of Marine Research, 1976. Hydrological, plankton and biosystematic observations in the Banda Sea, Piru Bay, Tuhaha Bay and Saparua Strait [Indonesia]. (Data report.)Inst, mar. Res. oceanogr. Cruise Rept, Jakarta, 19:38 pp. Includes species lists.
80:1962 Anon, 1979. Launch aquaculture scientific literature service for Asia. Asian Aquacult., 2(5): 1-2, 7.
80:1966 Indonesia, Institute of Marine Research, 1976. Hydrological, plankton and pigment observations in the Gulf of Bone [Indonesia] and in the Flores Sea. (Data report.) Inst. mar. Res. oceanogr. Cruise Rept, Jakarta, 21:65 pp.
Seeking to accelerate the dissemination of aquacultural data and information in the scientific, research, and technological communities of the Philippines and Asia, an outreach project, Aquaculture Scientific Literature Service (ASLS), has been initiated by the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC). Based in the
80:1967 Indonesia, Institute of Marine Research, 1977. Hydrological, plankton and pigment observations in the Sulawesi and Maluku seas. (Data report.) Inst. mar. Res. oceanogr. Cruise Rept, Jakarta, 23:69 pp.
80:1968 Indonesia, Institute of Marine Research, 1978. Hydrological, biological and geological observations in the Malaka Strait. (Data report.) Inst. mar. Res. oceanogr. Cruise Rept., Jakarta, 24:44 pp.
tent estimates of COs uptake by the oceans. There is no compelling evidence supporting the hypothesis that terrestrial biomass has decreased over the past two decades at a rate comparable to that of fossil fuel combustion. Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, N.Y. 10964, U.S.A. (bwt)
80:1969 Jacob, P. G., M. A. Zarba and V. Anderlini, 1979. Hydrography, chlorophyll and plankton of Kuwaiti coastal waters. Indian J. mar. Sci., 8(3): 150-154.
80:1972 Haney, R. L., 1979. Numerical models of ocean circulation and climate interaction. Revs Geophys. Space Phys.. 17(7): 1494-1507.
Spatial and temporal variations in chlorophyll concentrations, standing stocks and species compositions are discussed in terms of physicochemical conditions. Regional averages and ranges are compared in an attempt to assess the effects of industrial and domestic waste inputs. The ratio of phytoplankton to zooplankton standing stocks is found to be 1.06. Marine Pollution Programme, Environmental & Earth Sciences Division, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 12009, Safat, Kuwait. (rlo) 80:1970 John, V. C., P. S. Srivastava and A. K. Malhotra, 1979. Oceanographic studies off Narara Bet, Gulf of Kutch [western India]. Indian J. mar. Sci., 8(1): 20-26. Data on currents, tidal ranges, temperature, salinity, conductivity, optical properties, sulphate, nitrate, oxygen and suspensions have been gathered in-situ along the proposed submarine pipeline route from the shore to the crude oil mooring facility 5 km offshore of Narara Bet. Engineers India Limited, New Delhi 110 001, India. (izs)
10. S t u d i e s interest
or r e v i e w s of g e n e r a l
80:1971 Broecker, W. S., T. Takahashi, H. J. Simpson and T.-H. Peng, 1979. Fate of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and the global carbon budget. Science, 206(4417): 409-418. The fate of fossil fuel carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere depends on the exchange rates of carbon between the atmosphere and three major reservoirs: the oceans, shallow-water sediments and the terrestrial biosphere. Various assumptions and models used to estimate the global carbon budget are reviewed and evaluated. Several recent atmosphere-ocean models give reasonably consis-
The present review covers advances made in the last several years in understanding the connection between sea surface temperature anomalies and atmospheric variability, and numerical experimentation and modelling enabled by advanced statistical methods. Topics given special mention include El Nino and its generation by equatorial Kelvin waves, global seasonal heat transport from the summer to the winter hemisphere, and the role and place of mid-ocean eddies. Ca. 250 references. D e p a r t m e n t of Meteorology, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Calif. 93940, U.S.A. (fcs) 80:1973 Marland, Gregg and R. M. Rotty, 1979. Carbon dioxide and climate. Revs Geophys. Space Phys., 17(7): 1813-1824. 'It is hard to avoid the conclusion that the atmosphere will reach twice its 1958 [CO2] concentration sometime in the mid-twenty-first century.' This review covers the natural carbon cycle, anthropogenic modes and impacts on it, climatic consequences of changes in the carbon cycle, and possible social responses to a problem whose ultimate consequences and their time-scales are only barely understood. Ca. 150 references. Institute for Energy Analysis, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A. (fcs) 80:1974 O'Brien, J. J., 1979. Equatorial oceanography. Revs Geophys. Space Phys,, 17(7): 1569-1575. Papers published 1975-1978 on equatorial oceanography are reviewed as a 'background primer for experiments being contemplated.' Organization of the review is by ocean with a separate section on general theoretical papers. Departments of Meteorology & Oceanography, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Fla. 32306, U.S.A. (izs) 80:1975 Palmer, H. D., 1979. Man's activities on the continental slope. Spec. Pubts Soc. econ. Paleont. Miner~, Tulsa, 27: 17-24.
Exploration and development strategies for beyond-the-shelfbreak mining, drilling and fishing activities are discussed with emphasis on the hazards of operating in a dynamic environment. Dames & Moore, Washington, D. C., U.S.A. (izs)
sonnel and U.S. and Canadian inspection-testing companies. R. Frank Busby Associates, 576 S. 23rd Street, Arlington, Va. 22202, U.S.A. (smf)
11. Bibliographies, atlases, saries, encyclopedias, etc.
80:1976 Namias, Jerome, 1979. Northern Hemisphere seasonal 700 mb height and anomaly charts, 1947-1978, and associated North Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies. Calif. coop. ocean. Fish. Invest., (Ser, Atlas)27:275 pp. Marine Life Research Program, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., U.S.A.
The influences of liquid motions in storage tanks on the natural frequencies and damping of fixed offshore structures are quantitatively analyzed, with emphasis on the first-order end-on and flexural modes. A design method for reducing dynamic responses and increasing damping effects is presented. Full-scale field studies are used to check the results. Includes appendix: An alternative method for computing the effect of storage tanks on structural natural frequencies. SPEAIME, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. (rlo)
80:1977 Wilkins, G. A., 1979. Guide for the presentation in the primary literature of numerical data derived from observations in t h e geosciences. Codata Bull., 32:6 pp.
15. History and contemporary development of oceanography and related sciences
Constituting a reference tool for authors, referees and editors, these general recommendations on the reporting of numerical data are intended to facilitate use and evaluation of the data. Description of observational procedures, treatment of derived data, and presentation of quantitative results are covered; some specialized guides appear in the bibliography. (izs)
80:1979 Vandiver, J. K. and Shuhei Mitome, 1979. The effect of liquid storage tanks on the dynamic response of offshore platforms. J. Petrol. Technol., 31(10): 1231-1240.
80:1980 Gordon, B. L., 1979. The legacy of Louis Agassiz. Aquasphere, 13(2): 28-35. Northeastern University, Department of Earth Sciences, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.
14. Engineering and industry
80:1981 Keynes, R. D., 1979. Darwin and the Beagle [reflections on the origins of the voyage of the Beagle and its influence on the development of Darwin as a scientist]. Proc. Am. phil. Soc., 123(5): 323-335. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
80:1978 Busby, R. F., 1979. Underwater inspection/ testing/monitoring of offshore structures. Ocean Engng, 6(4): 355-491.
80:1982 Pratt, J. M., 1979. The dearth of scientists: a South African view. Chem. Br., 15(10): 523528.
Requirements for underwater inspection of offshore s t r u c t u r e s (which are being i n s t a l l e d in progressively deeper and more hostile waters) vary widely among countries and among operators. An intensive literature review and personal interviews form the basis for this report on underwater inspection requirements for fixed structures; the state-ofthe-art in testing/monitoring procedures; capability of servicing and hardware producers to meet ins p e c t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s ; and priorities for technology development. Includes appendixes on U.S. Congressional, state and federal contact per-
The decline in the number of science graduates and science teachers is a matter of concern overseas, as well as in Britain. South Africa is no exception but the underlying reasons are probably different and provide an interesting contrast to those of highly developed countries such as the U.K. Inorganic Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, So. Africa. 80:1983 Valdez, A. J. and B. R. Aguirre, eds., 1976. La oceanografia en la Republica Argentina 1952-
F. General 1975. [Argentinian oceanography 1952-75.] 395 pp. A r m a d a A r g e n t i n a , Servicio de H i d r o g r a f i a N a v a l . I n c l u d e s a 15-page bibliography of Argentine oceanographic institutions' publications.
Specific data are presented on the known toxicity levels of 27 elements and 13 rare earth elements which could reach potentially dangerous concentrations in the environment; 8 additional elements which could possibly pose a hazard are included. Acquisition through absorption, ingestion or inhalation is emphasized and toxicities are classified as natural or anthropogenic. Includes ca. 325 references. (izs)
17. Marine policy and law, leases, treaties, etc. 80:1984 Goncalves, M. E., 1979. Concepts of m a r i n e region and the n e w l a w of the sea. Mar. Policy, 3(4): 255-263. M a r i n e ' r e g i o n s ' , a l t h o u g h m e n t i o n e d in UNCLOS' ICNT, are not therein defined; definition may indeed be left to individual states, which tend to make regional boundary decisions on the basis of purposes to be achieved. The role of regionalism is considered for three law of the sea issues: ocean management, extended jurisdiction, and access of land-locked and geographically disadvantaged states. R. Bulhao Pato, 14/2/D, 1700 Lisboa, Portugal. (smf) 80:1985 Jacovides, A. J., 1979. Three aspects of the l a w of the sea: islands, delimitation and dispute settlement. Mar. Policy, 3(4): 278-288. F u n d a m e n t a l propositions for the regulation of islands' legal regimes, delimitation between opposite or adjacent states, and the arbitration of disputes are put forth and considered as they relate to UNCLOS III's ICNT. Development of substantive law governing these concerns is of growing interest because of the high stakes involved in areas of extended jurisdiction (e.g., continental shelf zones as areas of 'natural prolongation'). Embassy of Cyprus, 2211 R Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20008, U.S.A. (smf)
18. Waste disposal and pollution 80:1986 Gough, L. P., H. T. Shacklette and A. A. Case, 1979. E l e m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s t o x i c to plants, animals, and man: an appraisal of the toxicity hazard to plants, a n i m a l s , and m a n from natural and m a n m a d e e l e m e n t concentrations of e n v i r o n m e n t a l concern. Bull. U.S. geol. Surv., 1466:80 pp.
19. Resources, resource management and economics 80:1987 King, D. M., 1979. International m a n a g e m e n t of highly m i g r a t o r y species: centralized versus decentralized e c o n o m i c decision m a k i n g . Mar. Policy, 3(4): 264-277. A decentralized market system (quota certificate, or QC) is described in detail and advocated as a solution to the management problems of the eastern tropical Pacific tuna fishery. An alternative solution, (partially allocated quota, or PAQ) is shown to be a variation of the existing centrally controlled marketing scheme. The problem lies in production and allocation of the harvest rather than in harvest size; the concept of replacing competitive fishing with competitive bidding (allowing transfer of national allocations on the open market, e.g., the market mechanism as a resource management tool) is non-traditional and will meet strong industry resistance. Center for Marine Studies, San Diego State University, San Diego, Calif. 92182, U.S.A. (smf)
80:1988 Laist, David and John Epting, 1979. T h e g r o w i n g n e e d for f e d e r a l - s t a t e c o o p e r a t i o n in m a n a g i n g the sea. (Editorial.) Coast. Zone Mgmt J., 6(1): 1-7. Increasing federal legislative activity, proliferation of piecemeal or overlapping programs, and continued pressure on marine resources indicate a need for a more comprehensive and integrated n a t i o n a l ocean policy. Coastal m a n a g e m e n t programs, which allow considerable state determination of overall objectives, appear to provide the most practical means for meeting this need. Ecologist, Marine M a m m a l Commission, 1625 Eye St., N.W., Washington, D.C., U.S.A. (smf)
80:1989 MacFarland, J. W. and R. S. Weinstein, 1979. The National Estuarine Sanctuary Program [U.S.]. Coast. Zone Mgmt J., 6(1): 89-97.
Establishment and operation of the Estuarine Sanctuary Program (part of the 1972 Coastal Zone Management Act) are described; five sanctuaries exist, and others are planned. Includes appendix on sanctuaries established since 9/30/78. Office of Coastal Zone Management, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C., U.S.A. (smf) 80:1990 Stone, J. H., L. M. Bahr Jr., J. W. Day Jr., R. E. Turner and P. H. Templet, 1979. Developing management guidelines for oil and gas activities: the Louisiana experience. Coast. Zone Mgmt J., 6(1): 9-35.
Pre-1978 collaborative efforts by the state and industry to establish management guidelines so that 'economic activities.., complement natural function' were abortive. Mandate of guidelines development as part of a coastal zone management act passed by the Louisiana legislature in 1978 has considerably enhanced the possibility of establishing successful guidelines. Department of
Marine Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La. 70803, U.S.A. (smf)
20. Educational releases, etc.
80:1991 Allan, T. D., 1979. Seasat's short-lived mission. Nature, Lond., 281(5731): 431-432.
Seasat's sensor algorithms have been refined and modified; it is hoped that the assessment of the sensors' performances by comparison with JASIN data will satisfy Seasat's first objective--'to prove the concept of reliable remote sensing of the seas from satellites.' (smf) 80:1992 Sigurdsson, Haraldur and Stephen Sparks, 1979. An active submarine volcano: 'Kiek'emJenny' in the Lesser Antilles Voleanic Are, is growing larger year by year and may someday emerge above sea level as an island. Nat. Hist., 88(8): 38-45.