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332 OLR (1984) 31 (5) 84:2391 Fontaine, Maurice, 1980. From the physiology of marine organisms to oceanographic physiology or physiological oceanogr...

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OLR (1984) 31 (5)

84:2391 Fontaine, Maurice, 1980. From the physiology of marine organisms to oceanographic physiology or physiological oceanography. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 353-359. Historical examples of studies of the physiology of marine animals are presented, and the role of physiology in the development of several fields of oceanography is outlined. Some of the luminaries: William Harvey, Paul Bert, Raphael Dubois. (mjj) 84:2392 Herman, Alex and Trevor Platt, 1980. Meso-scale spatial distribution of plankton: co-evolution of concepts and instrmnentation. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 204-225. Described is the historical evolution of research on the patchiness of plankton distributions, which of necessity occurred simultaneously with the development of new instruments and techniques of plankton sampling. Figures include data plots as well as diagrams of plankton samplers. (re.U) 84:2393 Melkonian, Michael, 1982. Systematics and evolution of the algae. (Review.) Prog. Bot., 44:315-344.

Includes 6 pages of references. Bot. Inst. der Westfalischen Wilhelms Univ., Schlossgarten 3, D-4400 Munster, FRG.

84:2394 Mills, E.L., 1980. Alexander Agassiz, Carl Chun and the problem of the intermediate fauna. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 360-372. Described is the controversy between Alexander Agassiz (1835-1910) and Carl Chun (1852-1914) concerning the existence of mid-water plankton (the 'intermediate fauna') which might serve as a food source for benthic, deep-water animals. Chun found mid-water plankton wherever he looked whereas Agassiz found none. Unfortunately, we now know that the equipment Agassiz used and the areas he chose to sample, which had a well-developed oxygen minimum layer at mid-water depths, resulted in his failure to find mid-water plankton. (mjj) 84:2395 Taylor, F.J.R., 1980. Phytoplankton ecology before 1900: supplementary notes to the "Depths of the Ocean." In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 509-521.

F. GENERAL F I0. Apparatus, methods, mathematics (multidisciplinary) 84:2396 de Loor, G.P., 1983. Tower-mounted radar backscatter measurements in the North Sea. J. geophys. Res., 88(C14):9785-9791. For grazing angles under 50°, the dependency of backscatter on wind speed was highly sensitive to

polarization and look direction. An unexplained difference between ground-based and airborne measurements was observed. Physics Lab. TNO, The Hague, Netherlands. 84:2397 Gupta, Amar and H.-M.D. Toong, 1983. Microprocessors: the first twelve years. Proc, 1EEE, 71(11): 1236-1256.

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A technical explanation of key microprocessor specifications is presented. Four generations of microprocessors are considered along with case studies of popular chip famihes. Special-purpose processors, software issues, performance evaluation techniques, and overall industry trends are discussed. Includes 121 references. Sloan Sch. of Management, MIT, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA. 84:2398 Gy, Pierre, 1983. Sampling errors may deprive analytical results of any meaning. Review. Analusis, 11(9):413-440. (In French, English abstract.) Ingenieur-Conseil, 14, Ave. Jeande-Noailles, 06400 Cannes, France. 84:2399 Joyce, Chris, 1983. Sonar reveals wreck details. New Scient., 100(1383):436-437. The British Navy's new sonar Hydrosearch has proved highly successful in delineating sunken ships and promises to produce seafloor maps and charts of unparalleled accuracy. Hydrosearch comprises an array of 180-270 kHz transducers emitting 4 acoustic pulses/sec to 120 hydrophone receivers. The resultant record depicts a segment of sea and bottom 60 ° wide and 6 ° deep. At a range of 200 m, an image similar to a TV picture is produced. (hbf) 84:2400 Keith, L.H. (Chairman, ACS Committee on Environmental Improvement), 1983. Principles of environmental analysis. Analyt. Chem., 55(14): 2210-2218. The Subcommittee on Environmental Monitoring and Analysis has revised its earlier 'Guidelines for Data Acquisition and Data Quality Evaluation in Environmental Chemistry' (Anal. Chem., 1980, 52, 2242-49). The document is not intended as a 'recipe' for conducting specific environmental determinations, but as a guide in identifying important elements in an analytical protocol necessary to meet the requirements of a specific need. 84:2401 Lampitt, R.S. and M.P. Burnham, 1983. A free-fall time lapse camera and current meter system 'bathysnap' with notes on the foraging behaviour of a bathyal decapod shrimp. Deep-Sea Res., 30(9A): 1009-1017. The system is described and data from a deployment at 2664 m are presented. Observations of a shrimp, Glyphoerangon sculpta, moving with the current whilst touching the seabed suggest that this passive foraging strategy may not only be a means of

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increasing net energy gain but also a means of reducing predation mortality. Inst. of Oceanogr. Sci., Brook Rd., Wormley, Godalming, Surrey GU8 5UB, UK. 84:2402 Shemdin, O.H. and K. Hasselmann (eds.), 1983. MARSEN [Marine Remote Sensing Experiment]. Special issue. J. geophys. Res., 88(C14): 9745-9882; 14 papers. Conducted in the North Sea July-October 1979, MARSEN's objectives were (1) to investigate oceanographic applications of remote sensing, and (2) to investigate oceanographic processes using dual in-situ and remotely sensed observations. Among the topics of the papers collected here are analyses and applications of SAR and other radar images of the ocean surface; attenuation of signals (and of waves) by monomolecular surface slicks; wave measurement by wave followers and surface jump meters; surface measurements of wind velocity and pressure; water mass analysis; and SST patterns and air-sea fluxes. One paper presents a numerical model for nonstationary shallow-water wave spectral transformations. (sl0 84:2403 Sturges, W., 1983. On interpolating gappy records for time-series analysis. J. geophys. Res., 88(C14): 9736-9740. For a known data series, a Monte Carlo technique is used to estimate how well a cubic spline method reconstructs the original data when gaps are put in randomly (to allow the use of standard spectral analysis methods). Adverse effects of the gaps increase most rapidly for the smallest percentages of data lost. Results depend very strongly on amount of power in the frequency band of interest relative to the power at other frequencies. Errors associated with data loss are estimated as a function of strength of the signal, size of the gaps, and amount of data lost. Dept. of Oceanogr., Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, Fla., USA.

F40. Area studies, surveys (multidisciplinary) 84:2404 Coste, Bernard and M.-C. Bonin (eds.), 1983. [Upwelling off Portugal. Campaign RCAI, 28 August-19 September 1981: Groupe M~diprod.]

Pubis Cent. hath. Exploit. Oceans, CNEXO, Rdsult. Campgn. Mer, 25:115pp; 13 papers. (In French, English abstract.)

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The investigation was conducted to obtain a detailed description of the hydrological and chemical fields and to study biological characteristics of the pelagic ecosystem (primary productivity, zooplankton biomass). Data and results of experimental research are presented. 84:2405 Dence, M.R. (chairman), 1982. Symposium: science in the Canadian Arctic. Centenary volume. Trans. R. Soc. Can. (M~m. Soc. r. Can.), (Ser. 4)20:369-439; 8 papers.

To mark the Royal Society of Canada's centennial and the first International Polar Year, scientists from diverse fields have pooled their knowledge to prepare an update on Canadian Arctic research. An historical perspective on Arctic exploration and the search for the north magnetic pole is presented along with seafloor, magnetic, and tectonic studies of the Arctic Basin; descriptions of biological (including human) adaptations to Arctic habitats; and a discussion of present and future Arctic climate. (hbf) 84:2406 Levasseur, M., J.-C. Therriault and L. Legendre, 1983. Tidal currents, winds and morphology of phytoplankton spatial structures ISt. Lawrence Estuaryl. J. mar. Res., 41(4):655-672.

Spatial heterogeneity in chlorophyll a, nutrients and salinity was investigated. Most chlorophyll patches were _<0.5 km long, most nutrient patches were either _<0.5 km or >2.0 km. Currents elongated patch dimensions; high winds tended to break up patches into smaller units and eventually eliminate them. Sampling strategy could affect results obtained. Centre Champlain des Sci. de la Mer, C.P. 15 500, 901 Cap Diamant, Quebec G I K 7Y7, Canada. (mjj) 84:2407 McLain, D.R. and D.H. Thomas, 1983. Year-to-year fluctuations of the California Countercurrent and effects on marine organisms. Calif. coop. ocean. Fish. Invest., (Set. Repts)24:165-181.

Hydrographic data from Monterey Bay reveal anomalous depressions of the 8-12°C isotherms of up to 100 m in some years. 'The depressions are associated with anomalous elevations of dynamic height and sea level...[and result from] a remote forcing caused by propagation of coastal trapped waves poleward from El Nifio conditions in the tropics and a local forcing caused by anomalously strong onshore Ekman transport.' Sea surface elevations are associated with an increase in northward alongshore currents; these currents affect the range

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of plankton and shift the migratory routes of sockeye salmon. NMFS, P.O. Box 831, Monterey, Calif. 93942, USA. (msg)

F70. Atlases, bibliographies, databases, etc. 84:2408 Levitus, Sydney, 1983. Information report. Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean. Eos, 64(49): 962-963.

The atlas (NOAA Professional Paper No. 13) comprises historical salinity, temperature, oxygen and percent oxygen saturation data from XBT, mechanical bathythermograph and station data files (updated through 1978) at the NODC. Included are data processing details, spatial and temporal distributions of the data, contour horizontal maps, zonal averages of fields, maps of derived quantities, basin means, etc. Seventeen accompanying microfiche provide additional maps and statistics. Copies of the atlas are available for $11 from the Supt. of Documents, U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C. 20235, USA. Magnetic tapes also are available. (ihz) 84:2409 Munro, I.S.R., 1983. Atlas of operational, environmental, and biological data from the Gulf of Carpentaria Prawn Survey, 1963-65. 1. Introduction. CSIRO mar. Labs Rept, 151:21pp. This survey led to an important resource discovery which resulted in the development of a major fishery and also established a baseline for environmental conditions. Discussed are the survey's background, operational arrangements, facilities and personnel; penaeid prawn resources; and the biological and physical environment. CSIRO Marine Labs., P.O. Box 21, Cronulla, NSW 2230, Australia. (ahm)

F100. Expeditions, research programs, etc. 84:2410 Bell, P.M., 1983. News. Operation Deep Sweep. Eos, 64(44): p.617. Co-sponsored by USGS and AAPG's CircumPacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources, Deep Sweep's objective is to explore the Pacific for its energy potential from the Arctic Circle to McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. The '64,000 km odyssey' will take 1 yr; involve American, French,

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German, New Zealand and Australian scientists; include hydrocarbon surveys and seismic studies; investigate thermal energy feasibility; and assess the potential for strategic minerals. (ihz) 84:2411 Drake, C.L., 1983. International genscience: past and future. Eos, 64(49):961, 963-964. A brief history of the International Geophysical Year is given; described are its progeny: the Upper Mantle Project in the 1960's, the Geodynamics Project in the 1970's, and the recently-begun Lithosphere Project. A case is made for continued international collaboration on solid Earth problems 'focusing on a limited number of principal objectives and marshaling...the proper human and physical resources.' Dept. of Earth Sci., Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH 03755, USA. (ihz) 84:2412 Garrett, John, 1983. The Oceanography Report. FGGE buoys: 5 years later. Eos, 64(49):p.962. The FGGE drifting buoy program in the Southern Ocean (late 1978-early 1979) is considered a technical success, yet the wealth of data collected and archived remains largely unexploited. The author briefly describes the project's history, organizational framework, equipment, deployment plan, and products (temperature maps and a report on buoy performance). The data set identifies some oceanographic problems needing solutions. Garrett urges the planners of future large-scale data gathering efforts to consider the data's secondary users. Inst. of Ocean Sci., Dept. of Fish. and Oceans, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, B.C. V8L 4B2, Canada. (ihz) 84:2413 Johnson, G.L., 1983. The FRAM expeditions: Arctic Ocean studies from floating ice, 1979-82. Polar Rec., 21(135):583-589. The successful completion of FRAM IV marked the end of the FRAM expeditions; presented here is a summary of the geophysical, hydroacoustic, oceanographic and marine biological research conducted during the program. Future expeditions are planned for later in the decade. Office of Naval Res., Arlington, Va. 22217, USA. (msg) 84:2414 Kohnen, Heinz (compiler), 1983. [Antarctic expedition of the MS Polarbjc~rn, 1982--83: Atka Bay and the Kraul Mountains in summer.] Repts polar Res. (Bet. Polarforsch.), 13:78pp. (In German, English summary.)

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Expedition studies comprised geology, geophysics, glaciology, heavy metals in tim, ozone and trace species in the atmosphere, and the thermodynamics of over-ice inversions. SST distributions between Cape Town and the Bay of Biscay were reported. (ihz) 84:2415 Valenzuela, G.R., D.T. Chen, W.D. Garrett and J.A.C. Kaiser, 1983. The oceanography report. NRL Remote Sensing Exlmriment. Eos, 64(44): 618-619. The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory's Remote Sensing Program (RSP) evolved from SEBEX (Surface Expression of Bathymetry Experiment). RSP's objectives are to 'delineate and quantify the processes responsible for surface expressions of bathymetry in the wave field, radar, and other imagery of shallow water.' Wavetank, field and theoretical studies will be performed; 3 remote sensing experiments will span the years 1982-86. Preliminary results from the summer 1982 pilot exercise at Phelps Bank, Nantucket Shoals, Massachusetts, have exceeded the 'original expectations in quality and scope.' Naval Res. Lab., Washington, DC 20375, USA. (ihz)

F130. Institutions and services 84:2416 Cartwright, D.E., 1980, The historical development of tidal science, and the Liverpool Tidal Institute. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 240-251. Summarized is the history of tidal research from 1670 to the 1960's. The creation of the Liverpool Tidal Institute in 1919 by Proudman and Doodson, research contributions of the institute, and the incorporation of tide studies into physical oceanography are reviewed in historical context. (m.ij) 84:2417 Colin, P.L., 1980. A brief history of the Tortugas Marine Laboratory and the Department of Maline Biology, Carnegie Institution of Washington. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 138-147.

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84:2418 Dexter, R.W., 1980. The Annisquam sea-side laboratory of Alpheus Hyatt, predecessor of the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, 1880-1886. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 94-100.

drilling is proceeding apace and prospects for finding major fields appear good. There are fewer environmental concerns than a decade ago. Monitoring on Georges Bank has revealed no biological changes attributed to drilling activity and discharges. Experience gained from DSDP drilling has provided a valuable model for offshore exploration; new tests have been developed to measure the effectiveness of safety measures. (hbf)

84:2419 Fye, P.M. et al., 1980. [An historical overview of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.] In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 1-31, 49-82; 6 papers.

84:2424 Bertrand, A.R.V. and P. Willm, 1983. [Underwater operations: now and in the future. Based on the international symposium in Paris on 'Underwater Operations and Techniques' 6-9 December 1982.] Revue Inst. fr. P~trole, 38(5):555-574. (In French, English abstract.) 1 et 4 Ave. de Bois-Preau, BP311, 92506 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex, France.

84:2420 Oppenheimer, J.M., 1980. Some historical backgrounds for the establishment of the Stazione Zoologica at Naples. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 179-187.

84:2425 Grubbs, B.R., 1983. Design considerations for offshore pipelines. Ocean Sci. Engng, 8(2):207-244. Terra-Mar, Inc., 11777 Katy Freeway, Houston, Tex. 77079, USA.

F190. Navigation, cartography, etc. FI70. Engineering and industry 84:2421 Barik, K.C. and Velu Paramasivam, 1983. Response analysis of offshore structures. J. WatWay Port coast. Ocean Engng, Am. Soc. cir. Engrs, 109(4): 363-379. A method is suggested for finding the dynamic displacement response of a four-legged offshore tower under the action of waves. System response is computed as the linear combination of its responses to the individual Fourier components. Experimental results support the present theory. Civ. Engrg. Dept., Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras, India. 84:2422 Bea, R.G. and R.P. Aurora, 1983. Design of pipelines in mudslide areas. J. Petrol. Technol., 3502): 1985-1995. 84:2423 Bell, P.M., 1983. News. Offshore oil prospects improve. Eos, 64(47):p.945. Although the failure of the Law of the Sea Treaty to define the limits of international waters will restrict exploration of the continental margin, offshore

84:2426 Brown, D.L., 1983. The case for an international large- and medium-scale nautical chart series in East Asia. lnt. hydrogr. Rev., 60(2):97-104. Defense Mapping Agency Hydrographic/Topographic Center, Washington, DC 20315, USA. 84:2427 Haskins, G.L., 1983. Future of hydrography: the problems ahead. Int. hydrogr. Rev., 60(2): 19-31. Shell U.K. Expl. & Prod. Ltd., Shell-Mex House, Strand, London WC2, UK. 84:2428 Stenborg, Erik, 1983. Sea surveying: a probability model. Int. hydrogr. Rev., 60(2):47-53. Hydrogr. Dept., Natl. Swedish Admin. of Shipping and Navigation, S-601 78 Norrkoping, Sweden.

F200. Diving, underwater habitats, etc. 84:2429 Earle, Sylvia, Phil Nuytten, Bruce Robison, John Rawlins and G.S. Hawkes, 1982/83. Atmospheric diving systems symposium. (Held in

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Washington, D.C., September 1982.) Special issue. Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 17(3):3-60; 5 papers. We shall not be left ashore while mechanical robots investigate the oceans' wonders, if these symposium presentations are any indication. OMADS (One Man Atmospheric Diving Systems) continue to improve in comfort, safety, cost effectiveness, and technological capability. Deep Rover, the most advanced OMADS currently available, is discussed in one paper. Other topics covered include research applications, safety issues, and the history and future of atmospheric diving systems. (ihz) 84:2430 Hawkes, G.S., 1983. The future of atmospheric diving systems and associated manipulator technology, with special reference to a new microsubmersible, Deep Rover. Mar. Teehnol. Soc. J., 17(3):51-60.

Necessary improvements to submersibles are discussed considering greater power, depth range, visibility, safety and comfort, longer dives, better manipulators, improved launch/recovery procedares, and possible tetherless operation. Deep Rover appears to fulfill many of these criteria; its design is summarized. Coas)

F250. Waste disposal and pollution (see also B350-Atmospheric pollution, C210Water pollution, E300-Effects of pollution) 84:2431 Ketchum, B.H., Arne Jernel0v and W.L. Templeton, 1980. [An historical overview of marine pollution with special attention to arfifidal radionuclides and chlorinated hydrocarbons.] In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springerr Verlag; pp. 397-437; 3 papers.

F260. Resources, management, economics 84:2432 Beardsley, Tim, 1983. Aldabra's new status [as a World Heritage Site]. Nature, Lond, 306(5942): p.419. 84:2433 Brown, W.Y., 1983. The conservation of Antarctic marine living resources. Environ. Conserv., 10(3): 187-196.

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Interpretation of the principles set forth in the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (entered into force on 7 April 1982), specifically Article II, is given. The first principle 'set[s] limits on the degree to which populations may be altered by human exploitation; the second principle sets a rate at which such alterations must be reversible. The overall goal is to approximate the natural ecosystem as evolved while allowing some degree of exploitation.' The third principle, as interpreted, 'would simply extend to the sea the well-established recognition that pristine areas should be maintained in Antarctica.' Recommendations include subdividing the Convention area, identifying indicator and depleted species, periodic sampling, establishing 'protected areas' where harvesting is banned, differentially regulating harvest efforts, setting a limit on the anthropogenic 'allowable annual rate of increase of krill harvest,' and enhancing basic research on marine ecosystems. Environ. Defense Fund, 1525 18th St., NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA. (dgs) 84:2434 Cockrell, W.A., 1983. Archaeology, sports diving & shipwrecks. Search J. undersea Archaeol., 7(2):315.

Recent government proposals concerning diving on shipwrecks are not intended as a ban on diving. The Federal Antiquities Act of 1906 has been amended to protect "shipwrecks and other significant archaeological sites...from depredations...and to more specifically define the...word 'antiquities'." Complaints from the sports diving community are unfounded as it would be the first to benefit from the legislation. (dgs) 84:2435 Hong, S.-Y., 1983. Multi-attribute decision analysis for the Korean deep seabed mlnlnooprogram. Bull. Korea Ocean Res. Dev. Inst., 5(1):41-45. Ocean Policy Dept., KORDI, Korea. 84:2436 Pollack, A.K., W.G. Hunter and G.J. Apple (eds.), 1982/83. Proceedings of the Seventh Symposinm on Statistics and the Environment. Washington, D.C., 4-5 October 1982. Am. Statistn, 37(4)(2): 359-487; 15 papers.

This 7th Symposium on Statistics and the Environment, as before, was meant through invited papers and subsequent discussions to continue a multidisciplinary forum for the examination of the procedures involved in data gathering, analysis, policy making and enforcement as they bear on environmental law and policy. Its multidisciplinary

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nature is reflected in the symposium's sponsorship which includes the American Economic Association, the American Public Health Association, and the American Bar Association in addition to the American Statistical Association. The five major sessions of the symposium were devoted to (1) the use of scientific evidence in litigation, (2) acid rain, (3) cotton dust and lung disease, (4) environmental carcinogenesis, and (5) the use of statistical methods in environmental research. (fcs) 84:2437 Sarma, Vimala, 1983. Great Barrier Reef. Marine park complete (almost). News. Nature, Lond., 306(5942):p.419. Most of the Great Barrier Reef is now a marine park, under the jurisdiction of the GBR Marine Park Authority. There are fears that the abrupt increase in the size of the park, due to a change in government, from 14% of the total area to 98.5% will create administrative problems in monitoring and zoning the park. (dgs) 84:2438 Schmied, R.L. et al., 1983. [Marine recreational fisheries: their development in the Caribhean.] Proe. Gulf Carib. Fish. Inst., (35th a. vol., 1982):136-203; 9 papers + a summary report. 84:2439 Turner, M.G. and W.P. Gregg Jr., 1983. The status of scientific activities in United States Biosphere Reserves. Environ. Conserv., 10(3):231-237. The 38 Biosphere Reserve sites in the U.S. are classified as experimental or observational (conservation-oriented) and evaluated for data base adequacy, educational and research programs, anthropogenic threats, and funding. Baseline scientific data are available for most reserves; environmental monitoring research is more extensive than ecological studies. Experimental reserves are valued more highly and receive more funding than observational reserves. Most reserves are used for professional training and have field facilities. A number of recommendations for improvement are advanced. Inst. of Ecol., Univ. of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 30602, USA. (msg) 84:2440 YeUin, Joel, 1983. Who shall make environmental decisions? Am. Statistn, 37(4)(2):362-366. How can environmental decisions be made democratically, while still making the best use of expert opinion? Can scientific aspects of environmental issues be separated from legal and ethical issues?

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These questions are at the heart of a movement which is demanding new patterns of decision making; there are proposals to establish 'science courts' in which the technical is separated from the legal. The author disagrees with these 'separatists' but respects and describes their arguments. Problems arising from the old 'New Deal' model of decision making are pointed out. Case histories of environmental controversies are presented as examples of the limitations of the separability argument. Strategies are recommended for designing institutions for technological decision making. MIT, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA. (mjj)

F280. Policy, law, treaties 84:2441 Baltic States, 1983. [Protocol amending the Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources in the Baltic Sea and the Belts to provide for EEC membership. Done at Warsaw, November 11, 1982.] Reprinted in: Int. leg. Mater., 22(4):704-707. 84:2442 Graber, P.H.F., 1983. The Law of the Coast in a clamshell. XIII. The Hawaii approach. Shore Beach, 51(4):9-18. Hawaii, consisting of 8 major and 116 minor islands, has land laws based on ancient Hawaiian tradition and custom. Extensively regulated by state and county agencies, its coastal zone uplands are privately owned whereas its tidelands and a 3-mile belt of submerged land around each island are stateowned. Potential uses of the state's marine resources include mariculture, OTEC, and 'fish-aggregation devices.' Office of the Attorney General, State of California, San Francisco, Calif., USA. (mwf) 84:2443 Haggin, Joseph, 1983. New IU.S.] administration policy boosts ocean mining prospects. Chem. Engng News, 61(49):47-52. An improved world economy, resolution of some legal problems associated with the Law of the Sea deliberations, and the potential for improving U.S. position in mineral imports are among the reasons that some government and industry officials enthusiastically welcomed the U.S, declaration of an expanded Exclusive Economic Zone. Other industrialists and some bankers remain skeptical in light of the uncertain value of the deep-sea minerals, the lack of adequate technology to mine and recover

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minerals, the tremendous financial risks and the unresolved legal problems. (msg) 84:2444

MacDonald, Roderick, 1983. Maritime order and the new Law of the Sea. Int. hydrogr. Rev., 60(2): 121-125. The provisions of the Convention of the Law of the Sea are discussed briefly, including fishery rights, EEZ, and traditional freedoms; some enforcement problems are highlighted. A conference was called for autumn 1983 by the Council of the Nautical Institute because 'the mariner is frequently the last person to be consulted on the way his ship is to be protected.' Ollach, Braes, Portree, Isle of Skye, UK. (mwf)

F290. International concerns and organizations 84:2445 Freeman, M.M.R., 1983. An international network for cooperation in northern science. Polar Rec.,

21(135):603-605. A network established in 1982 by UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme focuses on the problems 'peculiar to circumpolar north.' Involving both scientists and local residents, the objectives of the network are 'to strengthen scientific activities by exchanges of information and education, and to facilitate interdisciplinary syntheses.' Three initial themes will deal with: ecology and land use of sub-Arctic birch forests; development of, and monitoring and research in Biosphere Reserves and other protected areas; and land use and grazing animals--socio-economic, biological and environmental effects. Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta, T6G 2H4, Canada. (dgs)

F310. Contemporary development of science (especially o c e a n o g r a p h y ) 84:2446

Friedl, Ernestine, 1983. Bypassing peer review for scientific facilities. (Editorial.) Science, 222(4628):p.1079. 'Members of Congress have been encouraged to consider scientific facilities as appropriate objects for pork barrel politics...in their quest for money, some [universities] have hired professional lobbyists.' These recent, often successful, efforts to recapitalize

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scientific facilities bypass peer review and, however desperately motivated, do further damage to science's (and academia's) already slipping integrity and eroding credibility. Trinity College, Duke Univ., Durham, N.C. 27706, USA. (fcs) 84:2447

Greenberg, Dan, 1983. Forum. Piety in the trough laeademic influence and affluence in the U.S.]. New Scient., 100(1386):685-686. The Association of American Universities, outraged at recent successes in acquiring federal research monies by political means which bypass peer review, issued a statement decrying such practices. This statement 'exceeds the norm for reverential gushing about the wisdom and inviolability' of a system so well-financed and well-connected politically that-while it coyly disavows politics--its only fifty members receive well over half of all government money for university research. (fcs) 84:2448 Holden, Constance, 1983. Historians deplore classification rules [re U.S. government documents]. Science, 222(4629): 1215, 1218. Historians are finding President Reagan's Executive Order 12356 of 1982 concerning declassification of government material frustrating. The order 'eliminates automatic declassification of any documents, puts low priority on the systematic review of documents that would ordinarily be declassified after 30 years, and permits reclassification of some material.' The American Historical Association would like a declassification policy to be 'stabilized by means of legislation that would establish some baseline standards,' rather than relying on presidents to set it. (dgs) 84:2449

Hutchinson, G.E., 1983. Marginalia. What is science for? Am. Scient., 71(6):639-644. G.E. Hutchinson, eminent zoologist and one of the founders of population ecology, muses on the future contributions of science and the ethical problems arising from our scientific progress. Particular issues addressed include nuclear war, abortion, femininism, overpopulation, the 'nature-nurture controversy,' sexual bases for aggression, and recent attacks on evolutionary theory. Osborne Memorial Lab., Yale Univ., New Haven, Conn. 06520, USA. (mjj) 84:2450

Keatley, Anne, 1983. Knowledge as real estate. (Editorial.) Science, 222(4625):p.717.

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'The value of open scientific communication among nations is not self-evident to those outside the scientific community....It is of real concern that [international science] may be considered as contrary to [national] interests....' Scientists must use their increasing status to influence such policy decisions both in the U.S. and elsewhere. Natl. Res. Council, Washington, D.C. 20418, USA. (fcs)

F320. Literature of science 84:2451 Siebers, H.H. and M.W. de Jong-Hofman, 1983. Experiences with automated information retrieval. War. Res., 17(12):1715-1719. On-line searching to retrieve publications in the field of water supply, wastewater treatment and surface water was investigated. To execute a complete search, online searching in several data bases is required. From the results of the searches and from reading the original literature, it is concluded that manual searching produces more references than online searching. Afdeling der Civiele Tech., Kamar 368, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, Netherlands.

F330. History of science (especially oceanography) 84:2452 Aleem, A.A., 1980. On the history of Arab navigation. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 582-595. 84:2453 Bascom, Willard, 1980. The first deep ocean drilling. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 316-324. The history of the Mohole project is described. Conceived in 1958 by geologists and geophysicists and funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, this project succeeded in 1961 in drilling through the Mohorovi~id seismic discontinuity into the earth's crust in water 12,000 feet deep. Previously the deepest water in which drilling had been done was only 360 feet. (mjj)

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84:2454 Carpine-Lancre, Jacqueline, 1980. The plan for an International Oceanographic Congress proposed by H.S.H. the Prince Albert 1st of Monaco. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 157-167. 84:2455 Deacon, Margaret, 1980. Some aspects of AngloAmerican cooperation in marine science, 16601914. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 101-113. Recounted here are several episodes in the long history of British-American cooperation in marine science, based on British sources. Some examples: the development of apparatus and methods in 1660; charting of the Gulf Stream by De Brahm, Franklin and Pownall (1700's); Maury's charts of wind and currents (1840's); and the Challenger expedition. (mjj) 84:2456 Egerton, F.N., 1983. The history of ecology: achievements and opportunities. Part one. J. Hist. Biol., 16(2): 259-310. This supplement to an earlier, more general essay deals only with the 19th and 20th centuries, and includes the general history of ecology as well as terrestrial plant ecology, marine ecology, limnology, population ecology, ethology and entomology. The difficulty of defining 'ecology' is discussed. The merits of earlier works dealing with the history of ecology are evaluated; contributions of numerous ecologists are summarized briefly. Includes 12 pages of references. Div. of Social Sci., Univ. of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, Wisc. 53141, USA. (mjj) 84:2457 Emery, W.J., 1980. The Meteor expedition, an ocean survey. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 690-702. The history and scientific importance of the 19251927 German Meteor expedition are reviewed. This expedition concentrated on studying the surface and subsurface circulation of the Atlantic--the first major effort in physical oceanography. We owe

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much of our present understanding of Atlantic circulation to this often overlooked study. Photographs and the cruise plan are presented. (mjj) 84:2458

Fedoseyev, I.A., 1980. Development of knowledge of the correlation between land and sea in historical times. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 386-392. 84:2459

Guill, J.H., 1980. Vila do Infante (Prince-Town), the first school of oceanography in the modern era: an essay. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 596-605. 84:2460

Gunter, Gordon, 1980. Studies on estuarine-marine dependency. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 474-487. Historical development of our knowledge of the interdependency, or unity, of the sea with bays and estuaries is summarized. Studies of the role of estuaries as nursery areas for blue crabs, shrimp and fish are discussed, along with the ramifications of these studies. (mjj) 84:2461

Heberlein, Hermann, 1980. Switzerland's contribulions to the aquatic sciences over the centuries. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 562-571. 84:2462

Hendershott, M.C., 1980. The role of instnnnents in the development of physical oceanography. In:

Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 195-203.

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84:2463

Houvenaghel, G.T., 1980. Belgium and the early development of modern oceanography, including a note on A.F. Renard. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 667681. 84:2464

Hughes, D.W., 1983. Scientific instruments and history. (Report on The Third Scientific Instrument Symposium of the Scientific Instrument Commission of the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science held in Munich, September 26-October 1, 1983.) Nature, Lond., 306(5938):p.20. Dept. of Phys., Univ. of Sheffield, Sheffield $3 7RH, UK. 84:2465

Jones, I.S.F. and J.E. Jones, 1980. Early 19th century oceanography around Terra AustraUs. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 448-461. 84:2466

Laudan, Rachel, 1980. Oceanography and geophysical theory in the first half of the Twentieth Century: the Dutch school. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 656-666. 84:2467

Markanday, Sucharit and P.S. Srivastava, 1980. Physical oceanography in India: an historical sketch. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 551-561. 84:2468

McConnell, Anita, 1980. Six's thermometer: a century of use in oceanography. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 252-265.

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84:2469 Parsons, T.R., 1980. The development of biological studies in the ocean environment. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 540-550. Research on fisheries resources and on the environment of fish had begun to diverge by the 1900's, despite earlier recognition of their interrelatedness. Only in the 1960's were ecological investigations again connected with fishery studies. Chronicled are the separate developments of fisheries and biological oceanographic science with hindsight evaluations of ideas 'fruitfully pursued' or 'unfortunately neglected.' (mjj) 84:2470 Richardson, P.L., 1980. The Benjamin Franklin and Timothy Foiger charts of the Gulf Stream. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 703-717. 84:2471 Ritchie, G.S., 1980. Some aspects of the history of oceanography as seen through the publications of the International Hydrographic Bureau 19191939. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 148-156. 84:2472 Saldanha, Luiz, 1980. King Carlos of Portugal, a pioneer in European oceanography. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 606-613. 84:2473 Sears, M. and D. Merriman (eds.), 1980. Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the Third International Congress on the History of Oceanography held September 22-26, 1980, at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Springer-Vedag, New York, N.Y.; 812pp; 69 papers. As befitting the celebration of its 50th anniversary in 1980, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

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hosted the Third International Congress on the History of Oceanography. Contributions ranged broadly in topic and are interspersed throughout this issue of OLR. Many of the papers concerned specific research facilities such as WHOI, the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, the Tortugas Marine Laboratory, and the Stazione Zootogica at Naples. There were numerous presentations on luminaries in oceanography, e.g., Prince Albert 1st of Monaco, Alexander Agassiz, Carl Chun, Benjamin Franklin, and King Carlos of Portugal. The development of oceanography in Belgium, Poland, the Netherlands, Peru, Portugal, Switzerland and the U.S. was covered. There were several talks on expeditions and instrumentation. Additionally, such topics as plate tectonics, currents, plankton, tides, deep-ocean drilling, marine pollution, and E1 Niho were considered in historical context. Some of the papers have extensive bibliographies and there is a 22-page index. (ihz) 84:2474 Shor, E.N., 1980. The role of T. Wayland Vaughan in American oceanography. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 127137. Vaughan was the second director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography during the period 1924-1936. Formerly a biological institution, under Vaughan's direction Scripps became wholly oceanographic, of the 'foremost rank,' and internationally known. Vaughan's scientific career, programs at Scripps, and role in national and international oceanographic study are described. (mjj) 84:2475 Siudzinski, K.W., 1980. History of Polish biological oceanographic research. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 488495. 84:2476 Spiess, F.N., 1980. Some origins and perspectives in deep-ocean instrumentation development. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 226-239.

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Presented as examples of how deep-ocean instruments came into being are case histories of the development of the fluxgate total field magnetometer, the submersible Alvin, the Scripps deep tow system, and multichannel Doppler sonar. Our future ability to create new instrumentation is considered. (mjj) 84:2477 Tikhomirov, V.V., 1980. The first geologicai-oceanological studies of the Black Sea. (N.F. Andrusoy, A.D. Arkhangel'sky, N.M. Strakhov). In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., SpringerVerlag; pp. 306-315.

Study of the Black Sea began in the 1870's. Contributions of this research to geological-oceanological study, particularly of marine sedimentation, are explained. (mjj) 84:2478 Tomczak, Matthias Jr., 1980. A review of Wiist's classificntion of the major deep-sea expeditions 1873-1960 and its extension to recent oceanographic research programs. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 188-194. 84:2479 Yonge, C.M., 1980. The Royal Society and the study of coral reefs. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 438-447. 84:2480 Zinn, D.J., 1980. Alexander Agassiz (1835-1910) and the financial support of oceanography in the United States. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 83-93.

The role of Alexander Agassiz as an intellectual and financial catalyst for the development of oceanography in the United States during the period 1875-1910 is related. Agassiz spent more than $1,000,000 of his own funds on oceanographic explorations during his lifetime. Financial support by the federal government of the various offices of

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the Federal Marine Agency and the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey is estimated based on Treasury Department reports. (mjj) 84:2481 Zuta, S. and L.A. Flores, 1980. Oceanography development in Peru. In: Oceanography: the past. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the History of Oceanography, 22-26 September 1980, in Woods Hole. M. Sears and D. Merriman, eds., Springer-Verlag; pp. 642655.

F340. Biographies, obituaries, etc. 84:2482 Judson, H.F., 1983. Reweaving the web of discovery. Why are really first-rate biographies of scientists so rare? Sciences, N.Y., 23(6):44-52.

Historians of contemporary science are missing a golden opportunity in the form of the 'interview' as a research tool. Interviews elicit the 'language, the wit, the tempo, the style of the particular field in the particular era' and can 'regenerate the web of interactions [in a subject's life] as nothing else can.' Judson offers some caveats to the would-be interviewer: do your homework, address the issue of distrust (is the respondent recalling what had transpired or how he/she recounted the event previously), confront the interviewee with the recollections of others, be ethical, and [above all] eschew bias. Writing Seminars, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md., USA. (ihz)

F360. Science education 84:2483 Anonymous, 1983. Editorial. Who knows science? The Royal Society Committee studying public understanding should not blame the press. Nature, Lond., 306(5940):p.212.

The Royal Society is about to address the question of what can be done to improve public understanding of science. The answer, according to this editorial, is self-evident: improve the school curricula, especially at the secondary level (and quit somehow blaming the problem on the newspapers, of all things). (fcs) 84:2484 Herman, Ros, 1983. Science starts at age five. New Scient., 100(1386):652-653.

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As a result of a cooperative undertaking by Dr. Jim Hudson, science adviser for the West Sussex Council, and a group of British primary teachers, 24 units of a course entitled Science Horizons have been put into use in local primary schools since 1978. Course materials have been tailored to the background knowledge of local teachers. The aim is to acquaint children with scientific processes and skills, to provide a body of scientific knowledge and concepts, and to produce an appreciation of the influence of science on people and their environment. (hbf) 84:2485 Herron, J.D., F. Reif, M.B. Rowe and J.A. Kulik, 1982/83. Symposium: What can science educators teach chemists about teaching chemistry? Las Vegas, March 1982. J. chem. Educ., 60(I I):947959; 3 papers. Symposium topics include suggestions for teaching problem-solving from studies of cognitive processes; the effective use of educational technology in chemistry courses; and 'getting chemistry off the killer course list.' The introductory paper summarizes the symposium's final presentation which was published elsewhere ('Two competing theories of Learning: one we believe in and one we use.' J.W. Rennet, Chem. Tech.) in which the author advocates a theory based 'on the internal construction of knowledge by the learner rather than the passive reception of knowledge as it exists externally.' (msg)

F370. Muitidisciplinary scientific studies (general interest)

84:2486 Barber, R.T. and F.P. Chavez, 1983. Biological consequences of El Nifio. Science, 222(4629): 1203-1210. Unusually warm water off the coasts of Peru and Ecuador defined the 1982-1983 El Nifio event. Changes in winds, currents, upwelling and thermocline depth associated with the El Nifio are described and related to decreased transport of nutrients to the surface and decreased light availability for plankton. Thus, primary productivity is reduced, and the simultaneous decline in the Peruvian anchovy appears a likely result. Although the evidence is less clear, other fish, shrimp, seabirds and marine mammals also appear to be adversely affected. Dept. of Botany, Duke Univ., Beaufort, NC 28516, USA. (mjj)

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84:2487 Birks, J.W. and P.J. Crutzen, 1983. Atmospheric effects of a nuclear war. Chem. Br., 19(1 I):927930. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences recently studied the long term atmospheric effects of a nuclear war. The scenario is based on the United States and the Soviet Union using half their nuclear arsenals with 30% directed against cities. Unextinguishable fires resulting from the explosions would create the 'most serious atmospheric effects,' and smoke clouds would limit the sun's penetration to the Earth over most of the land in the 300-60 ° latitude belt. Subfreezing temperatures, sunlight reduction, photochemical smog and ozone shield depletion would mean heavy damage to crops and entire ecosystems. CIRES, Campus Box 449, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80309, USA. (dgs) 84:2488 Blattner, F.R. et al., 1983. Biological frontiers. Theme issue. Science, 222(4625):719-821; 16 papers. Revolutionary advances in molecular genetics are the focus of this collection of papers, with emphasis on basic research rather than techniques or applications. In addition to the cornerstone technique of gene cloning, topics covered include D N A sequencing, monoclonal antibodies, recombinant DNA, regulatory functions of DNA 'sites,' 'jumping genes," protein identification, and introduction of genetic material into plants and animals. (mjj) 84:2489 Cane, M.A., 1983. Oceanographic events during El Nifio. Science, 222(4629): 1189-1195. The "canonical El Nifio' is described as to prelude, onset, event, maturity and theoretical basis. Departures of the maverick 1982/83 E1 Niho from normal include: commencing of wind anomalies in spring; substantial warming of the eastern Pacific SST by August with 'winds highly anomalous, [and] westerlies replacing easterlies over much of the equatorial Pacific'; no lag of the 'mid-ocean warming...behind the major South American coastal anomalies'; a continuous drop in western Pacific sea level (up to 18 cm in places) in the fall; a 25 cm rise in sea level at Christmas Island between June and September; depression of the November-December thermocline to 80 m depth; and disappearance of the eastwardflowing Equatorial Undercurrent. The 1982/83 event exhibited spring changes reminiscent of the typical E1 Niho but 'missed the first phase.' Conditions (as of October 1983) appear to be returning to normal.

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Center for Meteorol. and Phys. Oceanogr., MIT, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA. (ihz) 84:2490 Pollack, J.B. and O.B. Toon (eds.), 1983. Climatic effects of the eruption of El Chichon. Special issue. Geophys. Res. Letts, 10(11):989-1060; 18 papers. This collection comprises studies of E1 Chichon's (April 1982) volcanic cloud, one of the most massive of the century; optical depth values exceeded those of Mount St. Helens' eruption cloud by more than an order of magnitude. 'Such optical depths are large enough to cause non-trivial perturbations' in the global radiation budget and possibly climate. Papers here present data collected during the cloud's first l0 months of existence: aerosols' size distribution; morphology, size distribution and mass concentration of ash particles; key optical properties; and S compound mixing rates and photochemistry. Spatiotemporal evolution of the cloud is discussed and modelled, and its impact on the Northern Hemisphere's radiation budget is investigated. (slr) 84:2491 Rasmusson, E.M. and J.M. Wallace, 1983. Meteorological aspects of the El Nifio/Southern Oscillation. Science, 222(4629):1195-1202. The time history of the 1982-1983 ENSO event is summarized meteorologically and compared with a composite derived from 6 events occurring between 1950 and 1975, 'bringing into sharper focus...questions concerning the nature of [tropical] atmosphere-ocean interactions.' The recent event raises questions about the relationship of large regional climate anomalies with ENSO phenomena. Much was made of California's wet stormy winter and the eastern United States' abnormally cold weather; however, correlations with ENSO events 'are not very impressive' when the entire (documented) historical record is examined. Impact of the new data on theoretical interpretations is discussed. Climate Analysis Center, Natl. Meteorol. Center, Washington, DC 20233, USA. (sir) 84:2492 Trenberth, K.E., 1983. What are the seasons? Bull. Am. met. Soc., 64(11):1276-1282. The relative utility of astronomical definitions of seasons (based upon the timing of the equinox and solstice) and the meteorological definition (simple 3-month subdivisions) are compared. Global temperature data on the amplitude, phases, and percent variance for the top of the atmosphere and at the surface are analyzed. For the continental U.S.,

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definitions of seasons based on mean temperatures differ by only 3-4 days from the meteorological definition. Dept. of Atmos. Sci., Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, Ili. 61801, USA. 0abf) 84:2493 Woodwell, G.M. et al., 1983. Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Science, 222(4628):1081-1086. That the biosphere has been a source of atmospheric CO 2 over the past century is no longer disputed, but estimates of just how much it has contributed vary widely. Here, previously published and new analyses are studied, amalgamated and interpreted in terms of the global carbon cycle. Results suggest that nearly 80% of the 1.8-4.7 × 10~Sg of carbon calculated to have been released in 1980 by terrestrial ecosystems was due to deforestation (mostly tropical), and that prior to ~ 1960 terrestrial biota contributed more CO 2 annually to the atmosphere than did the burning of fossil fuels. There is no evidence that this has been offset by increased carbon storage in vegetation or soils. While continuing deforestation trends portend an 'inexorable warming,' the potential for limiting the problem via forest management and reduced fossil fuel consumption 'may be greater than is commonly assumed.' Ecosystems Center, MBL, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, USA. (slr)

F380. Advances in science, reviews (general interest) 84:2494 Anonymous, 1983. Monitor. Manatees stay cool about their temperatures. New Scient., 100(1386):p.654. Manatees respire at only a third of the rate expected for their size and maintain a body temperature of ~36°C. In cold waters (22-23°C) manatees become more active and alter their peripheral circulation to maintain body heat. Elaborate thermal regulation mechanisms are probably unnecessary because of the stable water temperature in their environment; a low metabolic rate may enable manatees to survive the dry season when food is limited. (msg) 84:2495 Bell, P.M., 1983. News. Boninites and island arcs. Eos, 64(49):p.964. In a recent Earth and Planetary Science Letters (65, 75-89, 1983) paper, Cameron, McCulloch and Walther proposed a new model for boninite generation wherein depleted mantle lherzolite and a

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hydrous, incompatible element-enriched fluid phase (probably derived from subducted crust) react in the subduction zone beneath the island arc. Their proposal is supported by analyses of boninites from the Bonin islands, Cyprus and many western Pacific arcs. (ecs)

84:2496 Kerr, R.A., 1983. Isotopes iosmium]add support for asteroid impact [but cannot exclude a huge volcanic eruption]. Science, 222(4624):603-604. Osmium isotope analyses of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments support the occurrence of a catastrophic event; i.e., they argue against a geochemical mechanism for concentrating exotic elements at the boundary. While the asteroid impact hypothesis looks stronger than ever, the possibility that a truly gigantic volcanic eruption brought the rare metals up from the mantle cannot be ruled out entirely. The case has been strengthened, but the jury is still out. (sir) 84:2497 Kerr, R.A., 1983. The carbon cycle and climate warming. Research news. Science, 222(4628): ! 107-1108. At an October 1983 meeting in Tennessee, researchers gathered to discuss the global carbon cycle and implications of anthropogenic alterations of it. Agreement is general that climate warming will result from atmospheric CO 2 increases due to fossil fuel combustion; the questions are when and by how much? Large uncertainties remain in our knowledge of the carbon cycle itself, preindustrial CO 2 levels (latest estimate, ~ 2 7 0 ppm), contributions of the biosphere (especially as a source of CO 2, but also as a sink for it), and, perhaps most significant, the reaction of the oceans to such changes (aside from the warming effect and its ramifications, evidence suggests that sediments may cease to be an effective sink for CO 2 if its concentration is significantly increased). (sir) 84:2498 Lewin, Roger, 1983. Origin of species in stressed environments. Science, 222(4628):p.112. Lewin comments upon the counterintuitive findings of Jablonski et al. (reported in this same issue of Science), namely that the rate of evolutionary innovation was much higher in stressed, species-poor nearshore communities than in more diverse offshore communities. Similar findings by others in the Arctic and the Southern Hemisphere are cited. (mjj)

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84:2499 Maddox, John, 1983. Great greenhouse in the sky? (Report.) Nature, Lond., 306(5940):p.221. While the NRC's report on CO 2 and climate adds nothing conclusive to the question of whether or not we face a calamity, it does contain some provocative reading. Among the findings highlighted in this news article: a third or more of the annual CO: load disappears from the atmosphere, presumably into oceans and vegetation; CO 2 blocks out IR transmission around the 15 #m wavelength; and the amplitude of seasonal CO 2 fluctuations has been increasing ~ 10% per decade. Some destabilizing mechanisms, related to decreasing CO 2 solubility in the oceans and potential oceanic methane releases with increasing ocean temperatures, are mentioned; priorities for climatic monitoring are noted. (sir) 84:2500 Maddox, John, 1983. Is biology now part of physics? (Report.) Nature, Lond., 306(5941):p.311. Microscopic explanations work for macroscopic phenomena in physics, but not yet in biology. The sheer complexity of living systems still prevents us from understanding the functions and properties of DNA, proteins, and life itself, despite our growing acquaintance with molecular structures. Prudence suggests a course designed to examine some larger correlations 'in the present rush to compile what might be called the natural history of the gene.' (mjj) 84:2501 McLaren, Digby, 1983. Impacts that changed the course of evolution. New Scient., 100(1385):588596. Examination of the evidence leads the author to concur that the impact of a large extraterrestrial body on Earth may well have contributed to 2 of the 5 Phanerozoic mass extinctions: Late Frasnian (Devonian) and Late Cretaceous. Evidence of such an impact is less conclusive for the Late Ordovician and Late Triassic extinctions. It is least likely that the Late Permian extinctions were related to a meteoritic event. Dept. of Geol., Univ. of Ottawa, Canada. (mwf) 84:2502 Ridley, Mark, 1983. Can classification do without evolution? New Scient., 100(1386):647-651. A group of biologists recently proposed an approach to classification called 'transformed cladism.' They use the cladistic techniques of Hennig in clustering species by shared derived characters while rejecting the evolutionary philosophy upon which cladism is based. Ridley explains the philosophic bases of

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taxonomic schools and the techniques they use, and criticizes the inferred philosophies underlying 'transformed cladism.' He sees evolution as the only defensible basis for classification. Dept. of Zool., Univ. of Oxford, UK. (mjj) 84:2503

Simon, Cheryl, 1983. E! Nifio's long good-bye. Sci. News, Washington, D.C, 124(19):298-299, 301. Although the 1982-83 E1 Nifto has subsided, residual effects on sea surface temperatures and on some birds, fish and marine mammals linger. While abundant data from satellite observations and ongoing research projects render this E1 Niho the most well-studied ever, questions concerning origins, effects, and predictability of such events continue to puT~.le scientists. According to George Philander (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton), the most significant outcome of this event was that it provided 'the best evidence that the [active] interaction between the ocean and atmosphere is the hub of the E1 Nifio.' (msg) 84:2504

Sparks, R.S.J., 1983. Mixed-up magmas. (Report.) Nature, Lond, 306(5941):315-316. This report comments on 2 papers (Fitton et al.; Bell) in this same issue of Nature which advance geochemical and petrologic arguments for magma mixing. Why 'magma mixing traditionally has been unpopular as an explanation for compositional diversity' is discussed as well as why 'it is no longer safe to ignore' magma mixing. Dept. of Earth Sci., Univ. of Cambridge, Downing St., Cambridge CB2 3EQ, UK. (ihz) 84:7,505

Sun, Marjorie, 1983. Lots of talk about L D ~ Science, 222(4628):p. 1106. Animal rights groups protest the killing of millions of animals a year to meet federal requirements for LDs0 acute toxicity tests. The LDs0 test is outdated and of limited value. Federal agencies (FDA, EPA) already have recognized this problem, however, and have modified or scaled down test requirements. Therefore, the controversy is largely 'much ado about nothing.' (mjj) 84:2506

Tnnnicliffe, Verena, 1983. News. New hot vents in the NE Pacific. Eos, 64(47):p.945. Several warm-water (to 35°C) vents were found in a 300 m fissure in the floor of a seamount caldera on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Biota were prolific; no sulfide deposits were seen; but outside the fissure, 2

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isolated chimneys containing sulfates, iron and zinc sulfides, and remains of pogonophorans were found. Univ. of Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada. (mwf) 84:2507

Whaler, K.A., 1983. Geomagnetic impulses and deep mantle conductivity. (Report.) Nature, Lond, 306(5939):p. 117. 'Around 1969 a spectacular change took place in the geomagnetic field. It was almost synchronous over the whole of the Earth's surface, tooL_less than two years and...cousisted of a "jerk": a step change in secular acceleration of the magnetic field that has its origin inside the Earth.' A paper by G.E. Backus (Geophys. Jl R. astr. Soc, v. 74, 1983) provides a rigorous mathematical framework for extracting information about the mantle's electrical conductivity profile from jerk data. Dept. of Earth Sci., The Univ., Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. (ecs) 84:2508

Zoback, M.D., 1983. A new data source for in-situ stress field orientations. (Report.) Nature, Lond, 306(5938): p. 18. Using data from '4-arm oriented calipers and acoustic borehole televiewers,' the direction of stress-induced wellbore spalling is determined. The spalling occurs 'preferentially around the wellbore at the azimuth of the least horizontal stress.' Problems with the caliper measurements and with previous methods of measuring in-situ stress are discussed. USGS, 345 Middlefield Rd., Menlo Park, Calif. 94025, USA. (bas)

F390. Educational literature 84:2509

Fasching, J.L. and R.W. Heaton, 1983. SEAREX: sampling the air at the sea surface and on the land. Maritimes, 27(4):3-6. Chem. Dept., GSO, Univ. of RI, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. 84:2510

Fay, J.A., 1983. Harnessing the tides. Technol. Rev., 86(5):51, 56-61. 'Large tidal-power projects proposed for the Bay of Fundy pose major social and environmental threats. Small-scale alternatives look more promising.' Dept. of Mech. Engrg., MIT, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA. 84:2511

Harman, Alan, 1983. Ice station CESAR: the Alpha Ridge enignm. Sea Front, 29(6):342-349.

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F. General

The Canadian Expedition to Study the Alpha Ridge (CESAR) comprises 40 researchers camping on the slowly drifting Arctic ice cap to obtain data on seawater chemistry, biota, and the composition and structure of the underlying seafloor. Under the Law of the Sea Treaty, if the Alpha Ridge can be shown to be structurally a part of the North American continent, Canada can claim rights to the ridge and any oil and mineral deposits located there. (hbf) 84:2512 Loeffelbein, Bob, 1983. Law of the Sea Treaty: what does it mean to nonsigners (llke the United States)? Sea Front., 29(6):358-366.

OLR (1984) 31 (5)

The 1982 explosive eruption of Mexico's El Chichon injected sulfur-rich material into the atmosphere, forming a cloud 100 times denser than that of the 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption. Origin of the sulfur and the processes producing the volcanic surges and propelling the aerosols are matters of speculation. Breakdown of anhydrite may have freed the sulfur. It is predicted that the stratospheric cloud, although warming the upper atmosphere by 4--6C °, may lower Northern Hemisphere ground temperature by 0.5C °. GSO, Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, R.I. 02881, USA. (hbf) 84:2518

84:2513 Mitchell, J.M. et al., 1983. Using computers to model

the atmosphere. Special section. Weatherwise, 36(5):224-239; 6 papers. Computers are central to the study, analysis, and forecasting of the weather. Here, some leading researchers share their work with computer modelling of climate and weather. 84:2514

Newman, J.N., 1983. Power from ocean waves. Waves are a vast potential source of energy, but no technology so far can economically and efficiently reap it. Technol. Rev., 86(5):50-55, 62-69. Dept. of Ocean Engng., MIT, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA. 84:2515

Semtner, A.J. Jr., 1983. An ocean model: the climate effects of diverting river water away from the Arctic. Weatherwise, 36(5):238-239. A numerical model was developed to determine if the extent of Arctic sea ice would be affected by the Soviet Union's proposal to divert up to 1/3 of the flow of 4 major rivers that empty into the Arctic Ocean. The model predicts no change in overall sea ice extent; local changes in salinity and the development of thicker ice in the Barents and Kara seas are predicted. (msg) 84:2516

Sheppard, Charles, 1983. A surfeit of turtles [Cheloma mytlss on the Queensland coast]. Sea Front., 29(6):329-334. 84:2517 Sigurdsson, Haraldur and Steven Carey, 1983. The E! Chiehon eruptions pose many questions.

Maritimes, 27(4):7-9.

Simon, C., 1983. How haft of Molokai slipped and slid. Sci. News, Washington, D.C., 124(21):p.327. Robin Holcomb of the USGS has found considerable support for the theory that ~400,000 years ago some 500 km 3 of material slid away from Molokai, leaving behind the steep, 3300 ft north face of the island. Landslides appear to be a dominant process associated with oceanic volcanoes, such as the Hawaiian Islands, built on 'old' crust. Some examples of landslides triggering volcanic eruptions are cited. (hbf)

84:2519

von Ziegesar, Olga and Dan McSweeney (photographer), 1983. At ease in their enviromnent: mysterious and elusive, the pygmy killer whale. Oceans, 16(6):36-41. 84:2520

Wells, Martin, 1983. Cephalopods do it differently. New Scient., 100(1382):332-338. Cephalopod physiology has not been well studied because of the difficulties inherent in capturing them and in deploying facilities and personnel to study them; there is also a lack of present economic value, at least in the western world. Reproduction and growth (an octopus converts 'prey into octopus' at rates over 50%~a protein conversion rate 10% better than that of broiler chickens) as well as circulation, vision and intelligence are detailed; sidebars consider Japan's use of squid and the potential of 'farming' cephalopods. Dept. of Zool., Univ. of Cambridge, UK. (ahm)

84:2521 Wood, Larry, 1983. Plight of the jackass penguin. Sea Front., 29(6):350-358.

OLR (1984)31 (5)

F. General

F420. Miscellaneous 84:2522 Campbell, I.H. and S.R. Taylor, 1983. No water, no granites---no oceans, no continents. Geophys. Res. Letts, 10(11):1061-1064. Water is essential for granite formation and granite, in turn, is essential for continent formation. Earth, the only inner planet with abundant water, is the only planet with granite and continents. The Moon and the other inner planets have little or no water and no granites or continents. Earth and Plan. Sci., Erindale College, Univ. of Toronto, Mississauga, Ont., LSL 1C6, Canada.

84:2523 Holden, Constance, 1983. Scientists describe 'nuclear winter.' News. Science, 222(4625):822-823. The central figures at the recent 2-day conference 'The World After Nuclear War' were Carl Sagan (reporting on climatological effects) and Paul Erlich (reporting on biological effects). But more than 100 scientists participated in this symposium, and there was substantial agreement that even a preemptive first strike would be suicidal to the nation launching it, and that the effects would be devasting and irreversible in both hemispheres. Findings reported are consistent with work done by Russian scientists (four of whom communicated via satellite hook-up during the conference), and they are reportedly consistent with a National Academy of Sciences study yet to be released. Science interviewed government officials whose responses ranged from 'We already know that,' (State Department), to the assertion that the problems of cold and dark are for

349

long-term planners--thus not part of the charter of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (which otherwise seemed to think it was pretty wellprepared). (fcs)

84:2524 Moran, P.J., 1983. Forensic marine biology: determining the submergence age of a weapon. Search, 14(7/8):217-219. 'Diagnostic features' of fouling communities were used to establish minimum and maximum submergence times for a gun retrieved from Kembla Harbour ( ~ 6 0 km south of Sydney). Physicochemical analyses are not as accurate when an object has deteriorated; the method described herein presents a useful alternative when submergence time is not likely to have exceeded ~ 4 yrs (the time required for a stable fouling community to develop). Inst. of Mar. Sci., Cape Fergnson, PMB No. 3, Townsville MSO Q 4810, Australia. (ahm)

84:2525 Zapffe, C.A., 1983. Continental geomorphology in relation to submarine vulcanism. Speculations Sci. Technol., 6(3):287-305. Traditional paleoclimate models assume an essentially constant endogenous source of heat from lithospheric thermal diffusion, but the episodicity of magmatic activity, particularly at spreading ridges, suggests that effusive heat transfer from such sites could well affect climate as well as global hydrology and geology. This paper introduces a global geohydrothermodynamical model to explore, e.g., the concurrency of glaciation and pluviation. 6410 Murray Hill Rd., Baltimore, Md. 21212, USA. (fcs)