OLR (1988)35 (8) aquatic organisms to oil hydrocarbons. Sarsia, 72(3-4):387-390.
A stock solution was prepared in a separate tank, diluted with clean seawater to appropriate test concentrations, and continuously transferred to the exposure aquaria. The system was cleaned every week to avoid bacterial contamination. Hydrocarbon levels of aquaria and stock solution correlated with a coefficient of 0.96. Due to evaporation, on the way from the stock solution tank to the aquaria, the oil concentrations of the aquaria were 40-60% lower than expected from the dilution ratios. The test solutions also contained traceable amounts of polar components which probably were oxidized compounds of oil hydrocarbon origin. Inst. of Mar. Res., P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5024, Bergen, Norway. 88:4974 Tedengren, Michael and Nils Kautsky, 1987. Comparative stress response to diesel oil and salinity changes of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis from the Baltic and North seas. Ophelia, 28(1):1-9. Asko Lab., Inst. of Mar. Ecol., Univ. of Stockholm, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
FA00. Books, collections (general) 88:4975 Clique, A. et al., 1987. Biochemical processes in coastal and lagoonal food web, Ocean& 13(4-
5):373-595; 23 papers. (French with English summaries, two in English with French summaries.) Trophic dynamics in coastal waters are examined in this group of papers which is divided into four topical sections followed by poster reports. The section on dissolved substances includes studies of bioactivity synchronization, organometal speciation, humic substances, N-budget, and seasonal variation; it is followed by two papers on bacteria and plankton. The third section (three papers) deals with marine organisms and includes a report on stable isotope analysis. The final eight papers deal with environment-organism interactions and include an examination of the usefulness of adenylate energy charge measurement. (gsb) 88:4976 Lllning, K. et al., 1987. Third seaweed biogeography workshop. Helgoldnder Meeresunters., 41 (3):233383; 12 papers. Seaweed distribution and the factors that influence it are the subjects of this collection. Half of the papers deal with some aspect of the role of temperature in geographic distribution, including consideration of temperature limits and the importance of photoperiod and salinity effects in conjunction with temperature. The remaining papers deal with vicariance biogeography, phylogenetic analysis, long-range dispersal, benthic algae biogeography, and biosystematics and genetics. (gsb)
F10. Apparatus, methods, mathematics (multidisciplinary) 88:4977 Alekseyev, A.V., Yu.Ye. Babanov, V.Z. Drapkin, A.S. Pasynkov, A.S. Serdyuk and R.Z. Sharipov, 1987. Electron paramagnetie resonance in biogeochemical ocean research. Oceanology (a translation of Okeanologiia), 27(1): 110-113. The use of spectroscopy as a physical method of studying the condensed state of matter in biogeochemical studies of the ocean is examined. A shipboard model EPR radiospectrometer is de-
scribed, along with its use to determine paramagnetic ions in seawater and hydrobionts, to detect hydrocarbon traces, and to investigate seawater isotopic composition. Future prospective applications are discussed. Pacific Oceanol. Inst., Far East Sci. Center, Acad. of Sci., Vladivostok, USSR. 88:4978 Canepa, Andrea and Paolo Serracca, 1987. An integrated system for the collection of navigation and marine data. Boll. OceanoL teor. appL, 5(3):183-194. (In Italian, English abstract.) C.N.R., Istituto di Automazione Navale, Genoa, Italy.
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88:4979 Klauder, J.R., 1988. New asymptotics for old wave equations. Science, 239(4841):760-762. For wavelengths much smaller than all other length scales in the system the wave equation solution is generally expressed as a superposition of waveforms, each of which is determined by properties of the rays of geometrical acoustics or optics. Typically such solutions are accurate except in the vicinity of one or another caustic surface such as those defined as a surface across which a jump in the number of rays tracing through each point occurs. When numerous caustic surfaces exist, which is the generic situation, standard asymptotic solutions prove unsuitable. In this report a new asymptotic expression that overcomes deficiencies in previous approximations is introduced and characterized in an elementary way. ©1988 by AAAS. AT&T Bell Lab., Murray Hill, NJ 07974, USA.
88:4980 Su, Yusong, 1987. A study on method for empirical orthogonal field prediction considering influence factors. Acta oceanol, sin. (English version), 6(Suppl. I): 130-134. While regression analysis considers external factors, the predictive equations drawn from empirical orthogonal functions do not. Here, external factors are introduced into EOF methods so that optimal prediction equations can be formulated by weighting the correlation coefficients. Shandong Coll. of Oceanol., Qingdao, People's Republic of China. (fcs)
88:4981 Thacker, W.C. and R.B. Long, 1988. Fitting dynamics to data. J. geophys. Res., 93(C2):1227-1240. A formalism that allows an oceanic model to be fit to both oceanographic and meteorological data is presented. The question of whether an asynoptic data set contains sufficient information to determine the model state completely and unambiguously is discussed. For the data to be sufficient to determine the model state, they must show every feature of the flow at some time. This requires heavy reliance on satellite data collection. The formalism is illustrated, using a truncated model of the wind-driven equatorial ocean, and computational examples demonstrate how surface elevation and wind stress observations might be used to recover the model state. AOML, NOAA, Miami, FL 33149, USA.
88:4982 Venetsanopoulos, A.N. (guest editor), 1987. Special issue on digital image wocessing and applications. I E E E Trans. Circuits, Syst., CAS-34(11):12611439; 13 papers.
Image processing refers to the procedure by which an input image is transformed into an enhanced or modified output image. Computer graphics refers to transforming input data (descriptive or algorithmic) into an output image. Image analysis refers to transforming an input image into descriptive or tabular output data. More than a thousand papers are published yearly in this burgeoning field, which is driven by demand and enabled by computational advances. 'The goal of this special issue is to expose the reader to the main and emerging methods and techniques of digital image processing and/or analysis.' Papers are divided into five sections: image filtering, image coding, image analysis and vision, algorithms and architectures, and applications. Basically, all the papers concern a more fundamental level than that imposed by any given sensor or scanning technology. (fcs)
F40. Area studies, surveys (multidisciplinary) 88:4983 Bradford, J.M., F.H. Chang, Ruth Baldwin, Bruce Chapman, Malcolm Downes and Paul Woods, 1987. Hydrology, plankton, and nutrients in Pelorus Sound, New Zealand, July 1981 and May 1982. N.Z. Jl mar. Freshwat. Res., 21(2):223-233. Div. of Mar. and Freshwater Sci., Dept. of Sci. and Industrial Res., Private Bag, Kilbirnie, Wellington, New Zealand. 88:4984 Endo, Takuo, Hiromichi Imabayashi and Osamu Matsuda, 1987. Phosphorus cycle and hydrographic conditions of Harima-nada in summer. J. Fac. appl. biol. Sci., Hiroshima Univ., 26(12):79-88. (In Japanese, English abstract.) Faculty of Appl. Biol. Sci., Hiroshima Univ., Fukuyama, Japan.
F70. Atlases, bibliographies, databases, etc. 88:4985 Defilipps, R.A., 1987. A bibliography of plant conservation in the Pacific islands: endangered species, habitat conversion, introduced biota. A toll Res. Bull., Smithson. Inst, 311:195pp. The Pacific islands contain an isolated, unique, and fragile flora with high endemism and a high proportion of endangered species. Threats include
introduced plants and animals and loss of habitats to human use. An annotated bibliography of the relevant literature up to May 1987 is presented, encompassing Micronesia, Polynesia, and Melanesia, but excluding New Zealand and several islands which are relatively close to mainland areas (Japan, the Philippines, Borneo, New Guinea). Includes subject index and about 1000 references. Dept. of Botany, Natl. Mus. of Nat. Hist., Washington, DC 20560, USA. (gsb)
FI30. Institutions and services 88:4989 White, W.B., S.E. Pazan, G.W. Withee and Christopher Noe, 1988. The Oceanography Report. Joint Environmental Data Analysis (JEDA) Center for the scientific quality control of upper ocean thermal data in support of TOGA and WOCE. Eos, 69(9):122-123, 131.
88:4986 Lampe, R., 1987. Coastal research in the GDR, bibliography 198.3-1985 1160 entries]. Acta hydrophys., 31(3-4):153-163. Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ., Sekt. Geogr., Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Str. 16, Freifswald, DDR-2200, DRG.
The initial objective of NOAA's JEDA Center is to maintain quality-controlled and uniformly formatted data (acquired any number of ways) on the subsurface thermal state of the tropical Pacific. The database will support the Tropical Ocean/Global Atmosphere (TOGA) experiment as well as other oceanographic, meteorological and climatological projects. The JEDA Center's organization and plans are outlined. (fcs)
FIO0. Expeditions, research programs, etc.
F160. Applied oceanography
88:4987 Hempel, G., 1988. Antarctic marine research in winter: the Winter Weddell Sea Project 1986. Polar Rec., 24(148):43-48.
The research vessel Polarstern, its three consecutive forays into the Southern Ocean during the austral autumn-spring of 1986, and the research conducted during the Winter Weddell Sea Project (cruises 2 and 3) are described here. No attempt is made to present all the results of this international, multidisciplinary project, but some examples are given covering marine ice formation, heat transport and ocean circulation, water clarity, ice-associated biota, under-ice krill, and penguins and seals. Alfred Wegener Inst. fur Polar und Meeresforschung, Postfach 120161, D-2850, Bremerhaven, FRG. (gsb)
88:4988 Joyce, T.M., 1988. The WOCE hydrographic program. Eos, 69(5):68-70.
A planning committee for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program (WHP) held three meetings in 1987. Their recommendations deal with the need for maintaining uniformity in the quality and accuracy of the data (starting with instrument selection). Other topics range from ship requirements (temperature controlled labs) to future considerations for WHP and the four working groups (Calibration, In-Situ Measurements, Standard Methods and Algorithms, and Underway Measurements). WHOI, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.
88:4990 Stefanick, Tom, 1988. The nonaconstic detection of submarines. Scient. Am., 258(3):41-47.
Active and passive sonars are presently the most reliable means of detecting submarines, but countermeasures and counter-strategies have reduced their effectiveness. This article looks briefly at other signals of a submarine's presence. In shallow waters, e.g., passive thermal and magnetic anomaly detectors and active blue-green laser scanners may have a role. Most promising however, is the detection by synthetic aperture microwave radars of surface traces induced by the passage below of internal waves and other disturbances. Still, all these techniques are dauntingly plagued by bad S/N ratios and the problems of false targets. Breakthroughs 'do not appear imminent.' Arms Control and Natl. Security, Armed Serv. Comm., U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC, USA. (fcs)
F170. Engineering and industry 88:4991 Dias, F.L. and P.L. Monkmeyer, 1988. Waveinduced pressure under gravity structure. J. WatWay Port coast. Ocean Engng, Am. Soc. civ. Engrs, 114(2):259-261. Dept. of Ocean Engng, WHOI, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. 88:4992 Fay, H., 1987. Dynamic positioning: main applications. Revue Inst. ft. P~trole, 42(1):77-105. (In French, English abstract.)
OLR (1988) 35 (8)
F190. Navigation, cartography, etc.
off Geodetic Survey nets, and hyperbolic radio positioning with Lorac and Raydist augmented with Loran C and Shoran. But now, with the second generation of satellite positioning (GPS) nearly installed, further advances in radio positioning with Argo and Syledis, and the commercial satellitecontrolled positioning system called Starfix, the precise positioner can often locate his rig within a meter or so. This article briefly recaps these developments. John E. Chance and Assoc., Lafayette, LA, USA. (fcs)
88:4993 Bortoluzzi, Giovanni and Marco Ligi, 1987. Acquisition and display of geographical data in conformal cartography: on-line and off-line applications. Boll. Oceanol. teor. appl., 5(3):173-182. (In Italian, English abstract.) C.N.R., Istituto per la Geol. Mar., Bologna, Italy.
88:4997 Taguchi, Kazuo, Kazuo Sao and Michiko Yamashita, 1987. Position determination at sea using low-frequency radio waves--the effect of a nearby mountain. IEEE Jl ocean. Engng, OE- 12(3): 518523. Faculty of Fish., Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima-shi, 890, Japan.
This paper consists of extracts from the book
Ancrage dynamique. Technique et applications, published by Editions Technip, which surveys the past, present and future of dynamic positioning for ships and semi-submersible platforms. 1 et 4, av. de Bois-Preau, BP 311, 92506 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex, France. (fcs)
88:4994 Johannessen, Rolf, 1987/88. International future navigation needs: options and concerns. Navigation, Washington D.C., 34(4):279-289.
The foreseeable needs of civilian users are examined and the need for full international discussion is stressed. The U.S. Navstar Global Positioning System and Federal Radionavigation Plan (which combines the status, capability and plans for navigation covering air, sea and land) are discussed and compared to European requirements. STC Tech. Ltd., Harlow, Essex, UK. 88:4995 Keeler, N.H., 1987/88. Maritime future navigation needs and plans. Navigation, Washington D.C., 34(4):290-296.
The U.S. Global Positioning System is expected to be fully operational by 1996, which will diminish dependence on the present generation of short-range aids. The Navy's present-day transit satellite system will be phased out; radio beacons will be mainly used for homing. Still, there is international sentiment to retain a terrestrial system to complement the emerging satellite systems. As far as the sextant, it may never be discarded, but 'it's becoming harder and harder to find mariners competent with one.' U.S. Coast Guard HQ, Washington, DC, USA. (fcs) 88:4996 Stutes, Phil, 1987. Navigation and positioning changes in the Gulf of Mexico. Offshore, 47(9):46-48.
In the mid-1960s offshore positioning could hardly be called primitive, but procedures were timeconsuming and far from shore accuracies deteriorated to _+30 m. Methods involved triangulation
F250. Waste disposal and pollution (see also B 3 5 0 - A t m o s p h e r i c pollution, C 2 1 0 Water pollution, E300-Effects of pollution) 88:4998 Conner, D.K. and Robert O'Dell, 1988. Strategies for intervention. The tightening net of marine plastics pollution. Environment, 30(1):16-20, 3336.
The oceans are littered with plastic debris that is deadly to marine life, a great deal of which is purposely dumped by commercial fishermen. Steps to solve the problem are given here in order of the difficulty required in their implementation. They include passage of regulations requiring (1) a tracking and bounty system for plastic nets, (2) places for plastics disposal in ports with incentives to use them, and (3) mandatory bio/photodegradability standards for plastic consumer items. If further government intervention is required, controls should be placed on the manufacture of disposable plastics either indirectly, through taxes, or directly, through regulation. (wbg) 88:4999 Cormack, D., 1988. Response to hazardous materials lost to the sea: the current position. Oil chem. Pollut., 4(1):21-38.
Hazardous materials may be lost to the sea through damage to bulk chemical tank ships; when cargo is spilled free into the marine environment; when intact packages of such materials are lost to the sea from ships; or when such packages remain aboard sunken ships. This paper compares and contrasts
bulk oil and chemical spillage, identifies the salient features controlling the fate of spilled chemicals which in turn define the nature of the response requirements and describes responses now available and under consideration. Criteria are proposed for allocation of packaged hazardous materials into three search and recovery categories as a basis for deciding on choice of response at sea in specific cases. Warren Spring Lab., Gunnels Wood Rd., Stevenage, Hertfordshire, SG1 2BX, UK. 88:5000 Hundahl, H. and N.K. H~jerslev, 1988. Optical methods in oceanography with special reference to oil fluorometry. Oil chem. Pollut., 4(1):71-85. A single channel in-situ fluorometer has been constructed and tested. Its performance range for oil was shown to lie between 5 ppb and 100 ppm assuming the presence of no fluorescent contaminants such as dissolved organic, inorganic and planktonic material. The fluorescent contaminants are generally of importance in coastal waters like the Baltic, the North Sea and the Norwegian Coastal Current. Steps taken to correct the total fluorescent signal for these contaminants in order to obtain the fluorescent signal due to oil are described and discussed. Dept. of Phys. Oceanogr., Haraldsgade 6, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. 88:5001 Smith, Ronald, 1988. Minimizing shoreline pollution in rivers with tributaries. J. Fluid Mech., 187: 589-597. If an unpolluted tributary joins a river less than about thirty channel breadth downstream of an effluent outlet, then the additional dilution can reduce the peak pollution level experienced at the shoreline. This paper identifies the optimal sites for steady discharges to take full advantage of the extra dilution. Dept. of AppL Math. and Theoretical Phys., Univ. of Cambridge, Silver St., Cambridge CB3 9EW, UK. 88:5002 Spaulding, M.L., 1988. A state-of-the-art review of oil spill trajectory and fate modeling. Oil chem. Pollut., 4(1):39-55. A state-of-the-art review of numerical oil spill trajectory and fate modeling is presented to include advection, spreading, evaporation, dissolution, dispersion, emulsification, biodegradation and sedimentation. Particular attention is focused on oil dispersion from the surface and its influence on spreading, the role of environmental data used as input to the model, and the interaction of oil with a
OLR (1988) 35 (8)
variety of shoreline types. The review concludes with a list of research needed to advance our ability to model the trajectory and fate of oil and trends in oil spill model development. Appl. Sci., Assoc., Inc., 70 Dean Knauss Dr., Narragansett, RI 02882, USA. 88:5003 Theobald, Norbert, 1987. Results of the analysis of oil pollutions in the region of the German Bight and western Baltic Sea from the years 1983 to 1985. Dt. hydrogr. Z., 40(3):125-137. (In German, English abstract.) Deutsches Hydrographisches Inst., Bernhard Nocht Strasse 78, 2000 Hamburg 4, FRG. 88:5004 Weisskopf, Michael, 1988. Plastic reaps a grim harvest in the oceans of the world. Smithsonian, 18(12):58-67. While humans have benefited greatly from the plastic revolution in terms of improved lives from the use of disposables such as plastic syringes, sutures and prosthetic devices, the cost borne by wildlife, in terms of deaths caused by plastic pollution of the ocean, has been substantial. With the 1987 U.S. ratification of Annex V of the 1973 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, it will be illegal for ships of signatory nations to dump plastics at sea starting December 31, 1988. While representing an advance, the act does not control plastics dumping by sewage treatment plants, manufacturers, or military vessels. More attention must be paid to developing degradable plastics and recycling. (wbg)
F260. Resources, management, economics 88:5005 Clark, Tom, Kathryn Clark, Sally Paterson, Donald Mackay and R.J. Norstrom, 1988. Wildlife monitoring, modeling, and fogaeity. [Indicators of chemical contamination.] Environ. Sci. Technol., 22(2): 120-127. Wildlife can be harbingers of the effects of chemical contamination, therefore observing the state of their health has become an important means of monitoring the environment and the early detection of problems. Two reasons for exploring this issue are that the public is angered when a charismatic species is placed in danger (as with the peregrine falcon) and organisms' tissues can be archived and retrospectively analyzed to detect the arrival of new contaminants. The environmental and toxicokinetic
OLR (1988)35 (8)
models discussed here, relating emissions, abiotic concentrations, concentrations in wildlife, and ecological viability, may be used to help maintain a healthy environment. Inst. for Environ. Studies, Univ. of Toronto, ON M5S 1A4, Canada. (wbg) 88:5006 Harwood, John and J.P. Croxall, 1988. The assessment of competition between seals and commercial fisheries in the North Sea and the Antarctic. Mar. mature. Sci., 4(1): 13-33.
The types of information necessary to determine the effects of competition between seals and fisheries (narrowly defined as a mutually disadvantageous interaction) are reviewed. Data on quantity and size class of fish and invertebrate species consumed by seals and removed by commercial fishing operations can be obtained and compared, and (in conjunction with fishing mortality statistics) used to estimate mortality due to seals. Certain critical types of data are just now becoming available through advances in telemetry: fish distribution and movements, seal feeding, and spatiotemporal information on the extent of fishing pressure. Assessment of economic impacts requires determination of a number of ecological interactions and responses to variation. NERC, Sea Mammal Res. Unit, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK. (gsb)
88:5007 Larkin, P.A., 1988. The future of fisheries manage"ment: managing the fisherman. Fisheries, 13(1): 3-9.
'The prime objective of a sport fishery is to make people content; of an artisanal fishery, to keep people employed; of a commercial fishery, to make money.' In a multi-user environment the fisheries manager is faced with the task 'of putting a monetary value on contentment and employment (the economist's approach) or a contentment value on employment and money-making (the politician's approach).' In this address before the 1987 AFS Meeting, it is concluded that, however much has changed or will, 'fishermen haven't changed much over the past 50 years, and won't change much for the next 500 either.' Inst. of Animal Resour. Ecol., Univ. of British Columbia, 2204 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5, Canada. (fcs)
88:5008 Stifling, Ian, 1988. Attraction of polar hears Ursus maritimus to offshore drilling sites in the eastern Beaufort Sea. Polar Rec., 24(148): 1-8.
Observations of wildlife around a number of offshore rigs in the Beaufort Sea support the hypothesis that polar bears concentrate at these oil exploration sites, resulting in a perceived threat to humans. Bears appear to be attracted to the rig sites in mid-late winter when westward movement of compacted annual ice past the structure gives rise to downstream openings in the ice where seals are more abundant and accessible. Although some bears have been shot, the population does not presently appear to be in danger. Canadian Wildlife Serv., 5320 122 St, Edmonton, AB T6H 3S5, Canada. (gsb)
Sullivan, T.J., C.T. Driscoll, J.M. Eilers Landers, 1988. Evaluation of the role inputs in the long-term acidification New England lakes. Environ. Sci. 22(2): 185-190.
88:5009 and D.H. of sea salt of coastal Technol.,
Input of NaC1 from sea spray, followed by N a + - H + exchange within the soil exchange complex, has been proposed as an important factor in coastal surface water acidification. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the Na:C1 ratio of lake water with that of precipitation for coastal lakes included in the U.S. EPA Eastern Lake Survey-I in New England. Sodium contribution from, rather than retention by, watershed soils was suggested by the data. Although episodic acidification of runoff due to NaC1 deposition may occur, there is little support for the neutral salt effect as an important long-term acidifying process in northeastern lakes. Northrop Services, Inc., 200 S.W. 35th St., Corvallis, OR 97333, USA. 88:5010 Vielvoye, Roger, 1987. Kittiwake saved by compact platform design. Marginal field in the North Sea becomes viable again through economic study and careful engineering program. Offshore, 47(9):25-27.
The Kittiwake field, with recoverable reserves of 70 million bbl, is the largest of the Gannet cluster and will be the first major oil development project begun in the U.K. North Sea since the slump in crude oil prices began in January, 1986. The operator, a Shell/Esso consortium, has made the stand-alone project commercially feasible through the use of a slimline platform design. The production system features an exposed location single buoy mooring for tanker loading; gas will be diverted to a pipeline from the nearby Fulmar field leading to a processing plant. A compact, integrated deck design is made possible by keeping back-up systems to a minimum. (wbg)
OLR (1988) 35 (8)
F310. Contemporary development of science (especially o c e a n o g r a p h y )
F330. History of science (especially ocean-
88:5011 Chui, Glennda, 1988. Activists beset UC, Stanford labs. Science, 239(4845): 1229-1232.
88:5014 Hodgson, Gordon (ed.), 1987. Fortieth anniversary special issue. Arctic, 40(4):239-345; 12 papers.
Coalitions of neighborhood activists, animal rights advocates, and environmentalists have attacked plans by three California universities to build biological research facilities. The protests are fueled by such factors as questions about the safety of genetic engineering (fears that genetically engineered creatures will spread disease); chemicals and radiation (because of the accidents at Bhopal and Chernobyl); a deep-seated mistrust of state institutions which, because of immunity to local ordinances, seem to be bad neighbors; and the increasing political savvy of the animal rights movement. The solution to 'not in my backyard politics' is to raise the public's level of scientific understanding. (wbg)
Forty years ago the northern peoples were often treated like the ice, rocks and wildlife of their habitat: things to be cataloged and described, or as it was sarcastically put by the professionals of the time: 'the native northern family consists of a father, mother, three children and an anthropologist.' Now the cataloging is largely completed. The next forty years of research documented in Arctic is likely to be put in a framework 'more comprehensively perceptive and meaningful.' In this issue invited reminiscences and reviews look at the past four decades of Arctic research: geography, natural science, natural resources; the history of the institute and the journal; and of northern culture, politics, and military activity. (fcs)
88:5012 Gerking, S.D., 1988. Fishery biology: past, present and future. Fisheries, 13(1):13-17.
F370. Multidisciplinary scientific studies
The history of fishery biology is traced from the first observation in 1685 linking scale markings to age, through the turn of the century beginnings of 'age and growth' determinations, and the theoretical explosion of the 1940s (Fry's paradigm, Lindeman's conception, and the application of mathematics and statistics to fish populations), to the technological advances of recent years. The concepts of growth and reproduction, and how they are studied and interpreted, are discussed in detail and some thoughts about future directions in fishery biology are presented. Dept. of Zoo1., Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. (gsb) 88:5013 Norman, Colin, 1988. Science advice: back to the future? Science, 239(4844): 1082-1083. The nature of the science advice available to the federal government and the channels through which it flows were the subjects of a U.S. congressional hearing, an all-day session at the AAAS annual meeting, and a collection of essays by William T. Golden. Some think there should be a return to the President's Science Advisory Committee (abolished in 1973), while others disagree. There is broad agreement, however, that the science advisor needs greater resources (e.g., a professional staff of 25-35 full-timers). There is also agreement that the science advisor should function as a member of the President's staff, not as a representative of or spokesperson for the scientific community. (wbg)
(general interest) 88:5015 Dagg, M.J., 1988. Physical and biological responses to the passage of a winter storm in the coastal and inner shelf waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Continent. Shelf Res., 8(2):167-178. In the three-day period following passage of a maritime Polar cold front, upwelling of inner shelf water (high salinity, low nitrate and chlorophyll) and consequent offshore surface transport of coastal water (low salinity, high nitrate and chlorophyll) were observed. By day three, isopleths which had sloped from surface to bottom over ~ 10 km on day one, were approximately horizontal, with coastal water at the surface. Egg production in two neritic copepods increased rapidly after experimental increase in food availability, simulating conditions in inner shelf waters during upwelling. Possible impacts of these storm-induced hydrographic and biological changes are discussed. Louisiana Univ. Mar. Consortium, Chauvin, LA 70344, USA. (gsb) 88:5016 Lange, C.B. et al., 1987. El Nifio in Santa Barbara Basin: diatom, radiolarian and foraminlferan responses to the '1983 El Nifio' event. Mar. Geol., 78(1-2): 153-160. Microfossil evidence for the 1983 E1 Nifio was gathered from Santa Barbara Basin box cores. The event is marked by several changes relative to the
OLR (1988)35 (8)
non-El Nifio background on either side: increased diversity, the presence of warm water taxa for both diatoms and planktonic forams, increased polycystine radiolarian flux, and the presence of an eastern tropical Pacific species. Some evidence for basin oxygenation is presented and a new onboard procedure for box core sampling and subcore freezing is described. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. (gsb) 88:5017
Melack, J.M. (guest editor), 1988. Saline lakes. [Third International Symposium, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 28-31 August, 1985.] Hydrobiologia, 158:316pp; 23 papers. Results from saline lakes in North America, Africa, Europe, and Australia are reported. Research topics include primary production, nutrients, trophic dynamics, benthic communities (effects of salinity and lake level), species diversity, biogeography, thermal stratification and stability, ice deposits and paleolimnology. Several papers focus on Artemia (abundance, distribution, hatching, and adaptation). (gsb)
F380. Advances in science, reviews (general interest) 88:5018
Berkovsky, Boris, 1987. [Overview.] Ocean thermal energy. Impact Sci. Soc., 37(4):387-392. Ocean thermal energy conversion exploits the temperature difference occurring between warm surface waters of the sea and the cold depths. Research and development programmes are relatively new but moving rapidly. If associated legal, institutional and financial questions can be answered, the full-scale demonstration of the technique could quickly be brought about, and certain coastal and island regions of the world be offered a convenient and appropriate source of energy. Div. Tech. Res. and Higher Education, Unesco, 7 place de Fontenoy, 75700, Paris, France. 88:5019
Cherfas, Jeremy, 1988. The ocean in a box. New Scient., 117(1602):46-50. The unimpressive coral reef display at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History is in reality very impressive if you examine the pieces hidden from view. Operated continuously since 1979 by the Smithsonian's Marine Systems Laboratory, this coral reef is actually a living, fully functioning ecosystem. Developed 'heuristically' by
its designer (Walter Adey), it has become a prototype for a scaled-down model of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. These experiences have led to the lab's participation in Biosphere II, an enclosed ecosystem of more than 6 hectares in Arizona, which it is hoped will support 8 people as well. Adey's group will design the 2-million gallon hydrologic system with both fresh and salt water phases. All this work has potential payoffs. Algal turf grown on fibreglass screens to scrub the artificial reef waters of animal waste is immediately adaptable to sewage treatment, for example. 'We are at the same point, ecologically, that we were in an engineering sense at the beginning of the industrial revolution,' says Adey. (fcs) 88:5020
Kerr, R.A., 1988. Is the greenhouse here? Science, 239(4840):559-561. Everyone knows that the rising concentration of atmospheric CO 2 is expected to cause climatic warming. And in fact, a warming trend in surface temperatures has been well-documented. But is that trend a signal of CO2-induced warming or is it simply background climatological variation? Any warming induced by CO 2 will carry a more complex 'fingerprint.' For example, the stratosphere should simultaneously cool; the overall hydrologic cycle should run faster; the daily temperature range should decrease. It is these secondary signals for which the climatologists now hunt, but the ambiguity of the data and the imprecision of the numerical models have so far prevented anyone from 'claiming a certain identification of the greenhouse signal.' (fcs) 88:5021
Kerr, R.A., 1988. Making mountains with lithospheric drips. Science, 239(4843):978-979. A new mechanism has been proposed by Eugene Humphreys (1984, 1987) to explain the 2-kin rise of peaks in the Sierra Nevada over the past 10 m.y. It is suggested that, in the absence of evidence for mountain building in conjunction with plate convergence, it is the replacement of low temperature rock (which has 'dripped' away into the mantle) by hot mantle material that has produced the buoyant forces that elevated the High Sierra. Evidence from tomographic images and seismic anomalies are cited in support of the theory. Additional geological and seismological investigations are needed to test this hypothesis. (hbf) 88:5022
Klemperer, Simon and Richard Fifield, 1988. Sound waves reflect Britain's deep geology. New Scient., 117(1598):73-78.
In November 1981, Great Britain's Natural Environment Research Council formally established BIRPS (British Institutions' Reflection Profiling Syndicate) for the purpose of using seismic profiling to investigate the deep structural geology of the offshore, gaining information on dynamics affecting the Earth's crust and mantle, and improving reflection profiling techniques. The majority of the profiles made to date reach depths of 50 kin; a few penetrate to 110 km. Among the notable results obtained are the discoveries that below the relatively blank record for the upper crust (12-15 km) there is a zone of many bright, almost horizontal reflectors which end with the Moho, and that there is a bright, dipping reflector beneath the Moho in the upper mantle which runs almost parallel to the Outer Isles fault. Dept. of Geol., Univ. of Cambridge, UK. (hbf) 88:5023 Lewin, Roger, 1988. Sea urchin massacre is a natural experiment. Science, 239(4842):p.867. This report describes observations made in the aftermath of a 'Caribbean-wide natural experiment' in which a 95-99% mortality occurred in Diadema antillarum populations. The effects of urchin removal were rapidly evident in the algal turf upon which they normally feed: canopy height increased from 1-2 mm to 20-30 mm and short, turf species decreased while macrophytes increased from almost zero to 40% of the community. Grazing by herbivorous fish (now freed from competition with the sea urchins) increased, but did not affect the algal turf to the extent that Diadema normally does. A further effect of Diadema absence was a drop in algal production attributed to increased shading and loss of an important nutrient supply (urchin excreta).
(gsb) 88:5024 Marshall, Eliot, 1988. Using forests to counter the 'greenhouse effect.' Science, 239(4843):p.973. Rapid reforestation of the globe was proposed by biologist Gregg Marland at a recent AAAS meeting as one at least temporary counter balance to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. By his calculations, a doubling of yearly forest growth would suffice to delay the impending greenhouse effect for a decade or two, allowing for a more permanent shift in energy use patterns. While the physical and economic commitments involved would seem prohibitively large, no more favorable alternatives presently exist. (emm) 88:5025 McCave, Nick, 1988. Stirrings in the abyss. [Report.] Nature, Lond., 331 (6156): p.484.
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Gross et al. (1988), investigating the effects of abyssal storms as part of the high-energy benthic boundary layer experiment, have documented the presence of variable, swift currents at depths greater than 4000 m in the western North Atlantic and were able to show a correlation between the location of high abyssal eddy kinetic energy and the high surface kinetic energy in the Gulf Stream, suggesting a causal relationship between the two. In addition, Gross and his fellow workers were able to obtain a nearly continuous year-long record of turbulence and turbidity for five levels above the deep ocean bed. Other recent information linking the action of high-speed bottom currents with the passage of surface warm-core rings and sediment bedforms comes from current meter measurements made in the east Australian Tasman Sea (Mulhearn, 1986; Jenkins, 1986). Dept. of Earth Sci., Univ. of Cambridge, CB2 3EQ, UK. (hbf)
88:5026 Ridley, lan and Kathy Dominic, 1988. Gas hydrates keep energy on ice. New Scient., 117(1601):53-58, During the 1970s George Bryan, at Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, suggested that the curious 'bottom-simulating reflector' which followed the surface topographic trace on seismic reflection profiles over the Blake Outer Ridge, registered a phase-change associated with the presence of solid methane gas hydrates. His suggestion has since been confirmed, and it is now known that vast areas of the continental shelf, as well as high-latitude terrestrial horizons beneath the permafrost, contain gas hydrates, because of their unique temperature-pressure configurations. Furthermore, the icy hydrates trap free gas (at higher temperatures) beneath them. This gas can be released (the Soviets have been doing so) and represents an enormous and valuable energy source 'on ice' for future generations. USGS, Denver, CO, USA. (fcs)
88:5027 Schmitt, W.R., 1987. Salinity energy. Impact Sci. Soc., 37(4):393-402. It is clear that energy derived from the Earth's natural reserves of salt will be more costly to recover than that from conventional and most other nonconventional sources. The technology is little developed and many fundamental problems remain unresolved. Nevertheless, when fossil fuel supplies become depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to be a crucial argument for its exploitation. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
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88:5028 Staff, 1987. [Overview.] Tidal energy. Reprinted from Renewable sources of energy, March 1987, ©International Energy Agency. Impact Sci. Soc., 37(4):375-385. Tidal power projects are feasible in a relatively limited number of locations around the world, yet together they could theoretically produce energy the equivalent of more than a billion barrels of oil a year. With the notable exception of the La Rance power station in France, existing plants are of the nature of pilot projects. They do, however, demonstrate the economic feasibility of the technology. If capital cost and environmental problems can be overcome, several countries will be in a favourable position to exploit their tidal resource. 88:5029 Waldrop, M.M., 1988. After the fall [chemical fallout from the Cretaceous-Tertiary impact]. Science, 239(4843):p.977. Computer modelling of the aftereffects of a small asteroid or large comet collision with the earth may help explain some of the unusual features of the K - T extinction event. Model results of Prinn and Fegley (1987), show that an impact would result not only in the physical effects of dust, smoke, and reduced temperatures, but in drastic chemical effects: heatinduced atmospheric nitrogen oxidation (a threat to air-breathing animals like the dinosaurs); extremely corrosive acid rain (especially threatening to calcareous organisms in shallow coastal waters and open ocean surface layers (e.g. ammonites) while sparing more acid-resistant silica-shelled organisms and lacustrine organisms protected by limestone buffering); and leaching of toxic trace metals by acid rain (causing further extinction, and accounting for the 87Sr anomaly found at the K / T boundary). According to this scenario, plants may have survived in the form of seeds and spores and small mammals may have escaped extinction by nesting in underground burrows. (gsb)
F390. Educational literature 88:5030 Clapham, Phil, 1987/88. The dolphins next door: often seen but poorly understood. Cape Naturalist, 16(3):48-53. 'With the dolphin's large, developed brain, its flawless grace, its apparently unquenchable spirit...which seems to betray some glimmerings of soul...the human mind has found a perfect creature around which to weave its fantasies of compan-
ionship...in an [otherwise] vast and lonely universe.' Alas, 'claims in the National Enquirer notwithstanding' the little we do know (which is briefly outlined here) can hardly be said to confirm, or even point to, intelligenic or linguistic abilities in the human sense of those terms. Somehow, this doesn't diminish the saddening thought that the handful of species known as river dolphins (whose habitats, worldwide, have been eliminated or degraded) 'now seem destined for extinction.' Clapham is director of cetacean research at the Center for Coastal Studies in Provincetown, Mass., USA. (fcs) 88:5031 Gruber, S.H., 1988. Sharks of the shallows. Nat. Hist., 97(3):50-59. The field observations on the lemon sharks of Bimini Lagoon, carried out by the author and his students over several years, are described for the layperson. The lemon shark is strongly 'K-selected,' the actual birth rate being only 2.5 pups per adult, of which only 60% survive the first year. Like other K-selected species, including the whales, the population cannot readily rebound from decimation. But the lemon shark, like other predators, is essential to the health of the whole ecosystem. (fcs) 88:5032 Huyghe, Patrick, 1987. [Biolumineseence] Wheels of light, sea of fire. Oceans, 20(6):21-25. Large-scale marine phosphorescence, involving extensive areas around ships and presenting a light show of rotating wheels, concentric rings, and parallel bands are described from a number of observational accounts, and proposed explanations are discussed. These phenomena, unlike the common, small-scale bioluminescence often encountered at sea, are largely confined to the shallow seas of the Indian and Pacific oceans, and often appear to be occurring above the water surface. A number of factors, either alone or in combination, have been proposed to explain these events: temperature, nutrition, shear force or seismic wave stimulation of bioluminescent organisms, optical illusion, and low-level atmospheric phenomena; but the mystery remains. The navy's interest in using luminescence for vessel tracking is briefly outlined. (gsb) 88:5033 Swann, Christopher, 1987. Offshore outpost [North Seal. Oceans, 20(6):42-47. An underwater photographer takes a summer assignment with the North Sea saturation divers who service the platforms and rigs. Eighty mile-per-hour storms and 50 foot waves further crimp the short
summer diving season1. During this time the divers, with 30 days on-duty for every 10 off (provided all's on schedule), live in pressurized chambers for 12 hours a day and in the ocean's frigid waters at 400 + feet for the other 12. Provided their surface supply of air and heat is not seriously interrupted they can do this again and again for $450 per day--not bad pay for a family of one: the divorce rate for all North Sea offshore workers is 80%, higher for the divers, perhaps related to reports of their 'bumbling about in a fashion suggesting a sort of creeping cerebral rot.' (fcs)
F420. Miscellaneous 88:5034 Chance, Britton Jr., 1987. The design and performance of twelve meter yachts. Proc. Am. phil. Soc., 131(4):378-396.
From the beginning, the America's Cup challenge races were meant to push technology. Emerging America sent the America, with its challenge, to the first World's Fair (held in England in 1851) specifically to demonstrate the New World's prowess. With the passing of the age of sail, one might think that today's Cup races, while respectful of engineering, would not be at its cutting edge. Not true. The chief designer for the Stars and Stripes (the U.S.' triumphant challenger for the Cup in Freemantle, Australia) explains the 12 meter rule and how the design problem is attacked, starting with a good statistical picture of conditions: wind vectors, wave parameters, even ambient turbulence levels. First comes selection of sailing length, then of sail area, all with state-of-the-art numerical modelling, including simulations involving variation due to the proximity of the competition. In fact, such modelling is 'causing a revolution in naval architecture.' Inside the cockpit the story is the same. On-board computers track times to start and lay lines; wind data; competition's range, bearing and relative speed; then they suggest action. Kookaburra 111 incorporated a video-based pattern recognition system that examined sail shape and trim. However, for all the high tech, the process is still 'an art, a pleasure, a pride of creation' that forges lasting friendships with the
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designers, technologists, builders, sailmakers, sailo r s - e v e n with rivals. Chance is chief naval architect, Chance and Co., Inc. (fcs) 88:5035 Maher, K.A. and D.J. Stevenson, 1988. Impact frustration of the origin of life. Nature, Lond., 331(6157):612-614.
One possible definition for the origin of life on Earth is the time at which the interval between devastating environmental insults by impact exceeded the timescale for establishing self-replicating proto-organisms. A quantitative relationship for the Hadean and Early Archean impact flux can be derived from lunar and terrestrial impact records. The effects of impact-related processes on the various environments proposed for abiogenesis can be estimated. Using a range of plausible timescale values, the interval in time when life might first have bootstrapped itself into existence can be found for each environment. If the deep marine hydrothermal setting provided a suitable site, abiogenesis could have happened as early as 4000 to 4200 mya, whereas at the surface abiogenesis could have occurred between 3700 and 4000 mya. Div. of Geol. and Planetary Sci., Calif. Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. 88:5036 Scotto, Joseph, Gerald Cotton, Frederick Urbach, Daniel Berger and Thomas Fears, 1988. Biologically effective ultraviolet radiation: surface measurements in the United States, 1974 to 1985. Science, 239(4841):762-764.
Recent reports of stratospheric ozone depletion have prompted concerns about the levels of solar ultraviolet radiation that reach the earth's surface. Since 1974 a network of ground-level monitoring stations in the U.S. has tracked measurements of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 290 to 330 nm). The fact that no increases of UVB have been detected at ground levels since 1974 suggests that meteorological, climatic, and environmental factors in the troposphere may play a greater role in attenuating UVB radiation than was previously suspected. ©1988 by AAAS. Biostatistics Branch, National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD 20892.