General

General

808 OLR(1983)30(10) 83:5978 Vidakovic, Jasna, 1983. The influence of raw domestic sewage on density and distribution of meiofauna [Rovinj, Yugoslav...

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808

OLR(1983)30(10)

83:5978 Vidakovic, Jasna, 1983. The influence

of raw domestic sewage on density and distribution of meiofauna [Rovinj, Yugoslavia]. Mar. Pollut. Bull.,

14(3):84-88. Inst. Rudjer Boskovic, Center for Mar. Res., 52210 Rovinj, Yugoslavia.

83:5979 Walsh, G.E., 1983. Cell death population pesticides.

growth of marine Aquat. Toxicol.,

and inhibition of unicellular algae by

3(3):209-214. U.S. EPA, Environ. Res. Lab., Gulf Breeze, Fla. 32561, USA.

F. GENERAL FlO. Apparatus, methods, mathematics (multidisciplinary)

transported easily: quantitative analyses are facilitated. Calif. State Univ., Los Angeles, Calif. 90032, USA. (jch)

83:5980 Markert, B.E., M.G. Tesmer and P.E. Parker, 1983. An in-situ sediment oxygen demand sampler. Wat. Res., 17(6):603-605. Inst. of Paper Chem.,

Appleton, Wise. 54912, USA.

plinary)

KS:5981 depth mapping from passive remote sensing data under a generalized ratio assumption. Appl. Opt., 22(8):

Paredes, J.M. and R.E. Spero, 1983. Water

1134-l 135. W.W. Gaertner Res., Inc., 205 Saddle Hill Rd., Stamford, Conn. 06903, USA. 83:5982 Rebillard, Philippe and Diane Evans, 1983. Analysis of coregistered Landsat, Seasat and SIR-A images of varied terrain types. Geophys. Res. Let&, 10(4):277-280. Jet Prop. Lab., Calif. Inst.

of Tech., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, Calif. 91109, USA.

83:5983 Zahary, R.G. and M.J. Hartman, 1983. Portable artificial reefs of fixed Cult., 45( 1):58-59.

geometry.

F40. Area studies, surveys (multidisci-

Progve

83:5984 Schafer, CT. and J.N. Smith, 1983. River discharge, sedimentation, and benthic environmental variations in Miramichi Inner Bay, New Brunswick. Can. /. Earth Sci., 20(3):388-398.

Sequential studies of benthic Foraminifera over a 12-year period indicate that a ‘transitional’ foraminiferal assemblage, which defines a zone of interaction between river and open bay environments, has developed in the inner bay since 1964. The regional extent of this transitional assemblage in the western part of the bay has varied considerably during the past 80-100 years with changes apparently related to total annual river discharge variations, competence of the Miramichi River system, and possibly, changes in the tidal circulation pattern. Bedford Inst. of Oceanogr., P.O. Box 1006, Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4A2, Canada.

Fish-

Artificial reefs were formed from l-m cubes of concrete containing regular groupings of ABS (resilient, industrial, inert plastic) pipes of various sizes.Each reef has a settling base, lifting eye, and 30 concrete bricks which may be removed for studies of sessile invertebrate and algal populations. This arrangement allows for a replicable reef which is

F70. Atlases, bibliographies,databases, etc. 83:5985

U.S. NOAA, National Geophysical Data Center, 1983. Deep-sea data offered. Geotimes, 28(5): p.22.

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F.General

Updated basic geologic (physiography, age, lithology, etc.) and inventory information (site, meters recovered, water depth, etc.) for DSDP Legs 1-87 is available on magnetic tape for $100 from the NGDC, NOAA, Code E/GC3, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado, 80303, USA. (ihz)

FlOO. Expeditions, research programs, etc. Kerr,

83:5986 R.A., 1983. Briefing. Texas A & M to direct Deep-Sea Drilling [Project]. Science, 220(4594): p.287.

The next phase of the DSDP has been awarded to Texas A & M University (over Scripps Institute of Oceanography, the previous manager) on the strength of funding commitment and engineering expertise. Texas A & M will provide new core storage, partial salary payments and a favorable overhead rate. Soliciting the services of a commercial drill ship will be the group’s first task. (jch)

809

Ocean Engng, 198.

Am. Sot. civ. Engrs, 109(2):180-

The heaving vertical circular cylinder and the vertical oscillating water column are studied theoretically. The design frequency is that of the peak of the wave energy spectrum in a wind-generated sea. Results show that the optimized system acts as a strong antenna, attracting significantly more wave power than is incident in its body dimension; there is a size limit for each design sea. Because of the strong antenna effect, relatively small systems can be used effectively making the optimized wave energy conversion system cost effective. Dept. of Ocean Engrg., U.S. Naval Acad., Annapolis, Md. 21402, USA.

F190. Navigation, cartography, etc. 83:5990 Koburger, C.W. Jr., 1982/83. Marine navigation in wartime: a preliminary survey. Navigation, Washington D.C., 29(4):306-3 11.

F200. Diving, underwater habitats, etc. F170. Engineering and industry 83:5987 Anonymous, 1983. Offshore industry and scientists develop drilling techniques for ultradeep waters. J. Petrol. Technol., 35(4):727-730. The technology exists for drilling in water deeper than 7000 ft, but there is a ‘large gap between drilling technology and production techniques for the same water depth.’ Extensive (and expensive) ultradeepwater technology development awaits a major discovery. Problems in deepwater site surveying remain significant. DSDP achievements relevant to gas and oil exploration include hydraulic piston coring and reliable sonar borehole re-entry systems. Deepwater drilling and production technology ‘can be accelerated...if a large enough reservoir is found.’ W) 835988 Grecco, M.G. and R.T. Hudspeth, 1983. Stochastic response of a prototype offshore structure. J. struct. Engng, Am. Sot. civ. Engrs, 109(5): 11191 138. Union Oil Co., Sci. and Tech. Div., Brea, Calif. 9262 1, USA. 83:5989 McCormick, M.E., 1983. Analysis of optimal ocean wave energy conversion. J. Wat Way Port coast.

83:5991 Biersner, R.J. and W.L. Hunter Jr., 1983. Comparison of diving experience factors between divers classified as positive and negative for bone cysts. Undersea biomed. Res, 10( 1): 63-68. Official U.S. Navy records for 93 enlisted divers (ages 35 and older) were examined. One-third of the divers were classified as positive, and two-thirds as negative, for bone cysts. Experience factors included total years of diving, frequency of dives between I5 and 31 m, frequency of dives >31 m, number of saturation dives and dives involving decompression, and cases of decompression sickness. None of these factors differed significantly between the two groups. While previous findings showed that bone cysts are twice as prevalent among divers, results here indicate that this high prevalence rate does not appear related to specific types of diving exposure. Other environmental factors may account for differences in the prevalence of the 2 groups’ bone cysts. Naval Submarine Med. Res. Lab., Groton, Conn. 06340, USA.

83:5992 Dembert, M.L., L.W. Mooney, A.M. Ostfeld and P.G. Lacroix, 1983. Multiphasic health profiles of [U.S.j Navy divers. Undersea biomed. Res.,

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10(1):45-61. Med. Res. Lab., Naval Sub. Base New London, Groton, Conn. 06349, USA. 83:5993 Hills, B.A., B. Kanani and P.B. James, 1983. Velocity of ultrasound as an indicator of bubble content [in tissues]. Undersea biomed. Res., 10(l): 17-22.

Dept. of Commun. and Occupatl. Med., Medical Sch., Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, Scotland.

F250. Waste disposaland pollution (see also B350-Atmospheric pollution, C210Water pollution, E300-Effects of pollution)

83:59% Cole, H.A., 1983. Pollution and the public. Editorial. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 14(4): 121-122.

To counter the ‘massive and obstructive demonstrations’ and ‘rent-a-mob-atmosphere’ accompanying industrial developments seen as environmental threats, governments would be well-advised to ‘vastly improve their methods of explaining the purposes and consequences of proposed developments’ to the public. EIS’s are so unwieldy that the serious concerns become obscured. Suggestions include streamlining the processesfor objection and creating a ‘truly expert task group’ to make assessments and recommendations. (ihz)

Izrael, Yu.A. and A.V. Tsiban, 1982. Ecological 83:5994 Baxter, MS., 1983. The disposal

of high-activity nuclear wastes in the oceans. Viewpoint. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 14(4): 126-132.

The potential for marine pollution from disposal of industrial nuclear waste is considered based on data previously available only in ‘grey literature.’ Natural levels of radioactivity are quantified, characterized and compared with estimated levels resulting from waste disposal. It is concluded that disposal of foreseeable waste inventories (from a global nuclear capacity of 2500 GW) would result in minor increasesin total marine radioactivity and that these increases could be reduced by solidifying waste before disposal and by allowing for short-term decay to occur in land-based, pre-disposal storage (-100 yr). Seventeen high-activity, short-lived isotopes are identified for special consideration because of the dearth of basic information on their behavior in the marine environment. Dept. of Chem., Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland. (bwt) 83:5995 Bourne, W.R.P., 1983. Shetlands [economic and pollution] problems. Editorial. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 14(3):p.77. The enormous impact of modern petroleum development in an isolated, rural area is felt first in the adjustments necessary to accommodate the new activity and later when the peak of activity has passed. This latter upset is being felt now by the Shetland Islands following the peak of North Sea oil production. Accumulated debts from the extra infrastructure, reduced employment, disrupted air transportation, and resulting political turmoil are examples of the types of problems currently facing these Scottish coastal islands. (bwt)

principles of World Ocean monitoring. Monit. Assessment, 2(4):425-433.

Environ.

Citing pollution of the World Ocean as ‘the most urgent problem of today,’ the authors detail some of the most dangerous pollutants; the ways in which both the biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystem are affected: and key aspects of monitoring ocean pollution, with emphasis on biogeochemical cycling of contaminants. The need for regional and global frameworks of pollution monitoring is stressed. Natl. Environl. and Climate Monitoring Lab., Acad. of Sci., Moscow, USSR. (slr) 8X5998 Izrael, Yu.A. (ed.), 1981182. Special issue. Integrated global

monitoring

of

environmental

pollution.

Second International symposium, Tbilisi, U.S.S.R., October 1981. Environ. Monit. Assessment, 2(4):359-446; 10 papers. Following plenary sessions on the tasks and approaches of UNEP’s Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS), separate sessions were devoted to: the scientific basis of integrated global monitoring, environmental background pollution, effects of pollution on ecosystems and climate, environmental quality assessment, and pollution modelling. Conferees recommended that a worldwide integrated monitoring effort be prioritized within the GEMS. Of the more than 50 reports presented at the symposium, only 10 appear in this special issue. Selected topics include ecological principles of World Ocean monitoring, trans-boundary atmospheric pollution, forecasting the state of the biosphere, combining biological indicators and dispersion models in air pollution studies, and eutrophication monitoring via microbial uptake kinetics of DOM. (ihz)

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F260. Resources, management, economics 835999 Bruce, J.P., 1982. Ethics and environmentalism. Unasylvu, 34( 138): 17-21. Given that ‘the important and sound ethical principles are those that give proper weight to long-run concerns, such as surviving on this planet,’ the author offers these conservation principles: ‘the economy and natural environment should provide for a flow of goods and services sufficient to meet society’s needs in perpetuity...the fundamental stability and productivity of the biosphere should not be jeopardized...the value of goods and services lies in the use that is made of them in satisfying wants and needs, not in the goods themselves...[and]environmental degradation reduces the value that people get from their lives and from the use of goods and services.’ As an example of international ethics in conservation, the author cites the U.S.-Canadian agreement concerning the water quality of the Great Lakes. Environ. Management Serv., Ottawa, Canada. (dgs) 835000 Miller, M.L. and John Van Maanen, 1983. The emerging organization of fisheries in the United States. Coast. Zone Mgmt J., 10(4):369-386. Inextricably linked to their ‘shoreside political, economic and moral environments,’ fisheries are complex organizations comprised of harvesting, processing and management sectors. Fisheries now have ‘more in common with...bureaucracy, industry and high finance than with...family-run businesses, ethnic-group competitions...or resource management in subsistence economies.’ Social ramifications of recent changes in commercial fishing, routinization of fishing, ‘fishing-out’ strategies, and career orientation of fishermen are discussed in the context of the ever-increasing organization of the U.S. fishing industry. Inst. for Mar. Studies, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Wash., USA. (ihz) 836001 Petterson, J.S., 1983. Policy and culture: the Bristol Bay [Alaska] case. Coast. Zone Mgmt J., 10(4): 313-330. Implementation of Alaska’s Limited Entry Act (1973)-designed to provide natives and residents priority access to a state-controlled fishery resource (salmon, in this case) while restricting entry in order to improve resident economic returns-actually served to exclude 30% of the population from participation in the fishery. The problem arose not in

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drafting the Act itself, but in developing an implementation policy without regard for the cultural characteristics of the natives. Inadequate communication concerning the meaning of the regulations was also a causative factor. Recommendations for policy development are made to account for the cultural characteristics of a population targeted for change. Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Calif., San Diego, Calif., USA. (jch) 83:6002 Pryde, P.R., 1983. The ‘Decade of the Environment’ in the U.S.S.R. Science, 220(4594):274-279. As in the U.S., Soviet concern for the environment increased in the past decade, and the problems have been similar; ‘environmental disruption is far more a function of levels of industrial and agricultural development than it is of a particular political or economic system.’ Both countries are faced with the same trade-off: ‘economic expediency...[versus] long-term environmental productivity.’ The result of environmental concern in the U.S.S.R. has been an ‘uneven and in some places inadequate level of environmental enhancement.’ Dept. of Geogr., San Diego State Univ., San Diego, Calif. 92182, USA. t&s) 83:6003 Smolowitz, R.J., 1983. Fisheries engineering and its role in resource management. Mar. Technol. Sot. J., 17(1):31-41. Several major fisheries are discussed in terms of gear, harvesting methods, and related technological problems. New research and developments in gear design are reviewed. LCDR NOAA Corps, NEFC, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, USA. 835004 Suykens, F., 1983. A few observations on productivity in seaports. Marit. Policy Mgmt, 10(1):17-40. Following World War ‘II, cargo-handling productivity in European seaports increased greatly. Although more cargo is handled, fewer dock workers are employed. Reasons for the greater productivity include containerization, mechanization of cargohandling techniques, and the introduction of specialized ships and berths. Productivity is related to (1) ‘the quality of the labor force and its adaptability to new methods,’ (2) the sophistication of the technical equipment, and (3) cooperation between the ‘public authority and private enterprise.’ Office of the Gen. Manager, Port of Antwerp, Belgium. (dgs)

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F280. Policy, law, treaties 83:6005 D’Amato, Anthony, 1983. An alternative to the Law of the Sea Convention. Am. J. int. Law, 77(2): 281-285. A credible alternative to the LOS Convention should contain provisions regarding non-seabed issues equivalent to the ‘desirable’ ones in the Convention and should ‘resolve the competing interests of exploiter motivation and common heritage.’ Seabed mining provisions of the alternative treaty should be ‘couched carefully so as to be generalizable.’ If a case arose whereby the complaining state cited one treaty and the responding state another, the International Court of Justice could place weight on mining practices under the treaties or on substantive provisions, especially regarding the ‘sharing’ level. (mwf) 83:6006 Feldman, M.B., 1983. The Tunisia-Libya continental shelf case: geographic justice or judicial compromise? Am. J. int. Law, 77(2):219-238. The International Court of Justice declared that ‘delimitation is to be effected in accordance with equitable principles, and taking account of all relevant circumstances.’ Although the 4 dissenting judges and some commentators found that the judgment provided ‘little guidance for the delimitation of maritime boundaries,’ the author argues that the Court took ‘a significant step toward the formulation of integrated principles’ that can be applied to disputes concerning both the continental shelf and the EEZ. (mwf) 83:6007 Japan, 1983. [Law on Interim Measures for Deep Seabed Mining, enacted July 20, 1982.1 Reprinted in: Int. leg. Mater., 22(1):102-122. B3:6008 Krueger, R.B., 1983. Bering Sea [U.S. and Soviet claimsj. Offshore, 43(4):78-80. A problem facing operators scouting prospective drilling sites in the Navarin Basin is the highly sensitive area extending into both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. portions of the Bering Sea. Significant issues of international law raised by this situation are examined. 83:6009 Luoma, R.T., 1983. A comparative study of national legislation concerning the deep sea mining of

OLR(1983)30(10)

manganese nodules. 14(2):243-268.

J. marit.

Law

Commerce,

Five industrialized nations (USA, UK, FRG, USSR, France) enacted ‘interim’ legislation during the course of UNCLOS III negotiations to encourage and protect national mining ventures in the event that the treaty failed to materialize or was not ratified. These pieces of legislation are discussed and compared re mining in general, the needs of seabed miners and the concerns of the international community. (bwt) Kk6010 Matte, N.M., 1982. The Law of the Sea and outer space: a comparative survey of specific issues. In: Ocean Yearbook 3. E.M. Borgese and N. Ginsburg, eds., University of Chicago Press, pp. 13-37. UNCLOS owes something to the U.N. Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) and to its outgrowth, the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, which barred claims of sovereignty, put exploration in the realm of the law, and recognized the common heritage concept that all states, regardless of status, should derive benefit from exploration and exploitation. That treaty did not go as far as LOS did, but a second COPUOS is in the offing and may benefit from UNCLOS III’s accomplishments. The deep seabed and outer space are compared as to their ‘legal characters.’ Inst. of Air and Space Law, McGill Univ., Montreal, Que., Canada. (fcs) 83:6011 McDorman, T.L., 1983. The new definition of ‘Canada Lands’ and the determination of the outer limit of the continental shelf. J. marit. Law Commerce, 14(2): 195-223. Controversial aspects of Canada’s new Oil and Gas Act are discussed, with emphasis on the incorporation of UNCLOS III (Article 76) wording into the act. Criteria used in Article 76 for establishing the outer limit of the continental shelf are reviewed, as are Canada’s federal/province disputes over offshore jurisdiction and Sable Island ownership. Dalhousie Ocean Studies Programme, Halifax, NS, Canada. Wt) 83:6012 Miller, M.L.. 1983. Culture, ethnography, and marine affairs. Coast. Zone Mgmt J., 10(4):301-311. ‘Marine communities are viewed holistically as networks of focused interest groups, policy-makers, professionals and publics.’ That being the case, these complex and elaborate organizational forms are studied best by applying the principles of ethnog-

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raphy, cultural anthropology and applied social research. Inst. for Mar. Studies, Univ. of Washington. Seattle, Wash., USA. (ihz) 83:6013 Miller, M.L. (ed.), 1983. Culture and marine affairs. Theme issue. Coast. Zone Mgmt J., 10(4):301441; 8 papers. Topics range broadly in this special issue: policy and culture (Bristol Bay case), success of Vietnamese fishermen in Monterey Bay, salmon seining in SE Alaska, public perceptions of resource management, Lake Michigan sport angling policies, and shifting from technical to recreational usage of Southern California harbors. One paper discusses the ‘emerging organization of fisheries in the U.S.’ (ihz) Kk6014 Parks. A.L., 1983. Recent developments in marine insurance law. The new Lloyd’s policy form and cargo clauses. J. marit. Law Commerce, 14(2): 159-193. Sch. of Law, Willamette Univ.. Willamette, Oreg., USA. 83:6015 Swing, J.T., 1983. Law of the Sea. Bull. atom. Scient., 39(5): 14-19. On the day the Law of the Sea Treaty opened for signature, 117 countries signed it. The United States did not. The Treaty met most of the important U.S. objectives regarding jurisdiction but did not meet its position on deep-sea mining. Legal uncertainty now may have ‘a chilling effect on unilateral mining by U.S. companies’ and has left U.S. marine scientists ‘vulnerable to the whims...of the very large number of coastal states.’ Council on Foreign Relations, New York, N.Y. 10021, USA. (mwf)-

F310. Contemporary development science (especially oceanography)

of

835016 Graham, L.R., 1983. Scientific exchanges with the Soviet Union. Bull. atom. Scient, 39(5):2-3. For a number of reasons, U.S.-Soviet scientific exchanges are at a low. Some U.S. scientists have advocated breaking off all relations with the Soviets but the author believes that ‘the scientific loss [would be] considerable,’ and that the U.S. would ‘have much more difficulty learning about the Soviet restrictions on academic freedom to which we object.’ Should the two countries reach an arms control agreement soon, then scientific relations

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probably will improve. If so the author suggests measures be taken to ensure that the visiting Soviet scientists are ‘appropriate...and truly qualified’ and that U.S. scientists visiting the Soviet Union ‘give moral support...to scientists enduring political oppression.’ Prog. in Sci., Tech. and Society, MIT, Cambridge. Mass. 02139. USA. (dgs) Press, Frank, (Editorial.)

1983. Maintaining scientific Science, 220(4597):p.559.

835017 primacy.

Present increases in funding for scientific research are welcome, but more than temporary support is required if the United States is to stay at the frontiers of science. We must be committed to maintaining the strength of our research institutions, establishing viable programs in science and mathematics education, ensuring long-term funding for basic research, and fostering international open communication of science. Natl. Acad. of Sci., Washington, D.C. 20418, USA. (mji) Tudge, Cohn, 1983. Forum. Hating New Scient., 98( 1352):p.37.

83:6018 science is wrong.

‘To be confronted by modern science and [for whatever reasons] to have no route into it’ can result in the construction of an alternative set of beliefs ‘that seems to challenge and in turn to trivialize the [scientific] ideas that are proving so bothersome.’ Thus the explosive growth of pseudoscience cults. Why a ‘whole slab of educated people’ hate science is a mystery. As a discipline it is certainly less arrogant than politics or even art, satisfied merely to ‘describe the world as it is.’ Perhaps the hatred lies in the very power of its success. (fcs) KM019 White, F.D., 1983. FY 1984 R&D in the [U.S.] atmospheric and oceanographic sciences. Bull. Am. met. Sot., 64(4):359-364. 83:6020 Whitehouse, David, 1983. Forum. A decade (and more!) of pseudoscience. New Scient., 98( 1352): p.38. For those who wonder how widely their last paper circulated, consider Erich Von Daniken. His Chariots of the Gods ‘has probably sold 40 million copies’ by trading on ‘society’s ignorance of science,’ ignorance sometimes even ‘paraded as a virtue.’ The popularity of pseudoscience, ‘especially at universities, sometimes rises to cult proportions,’ and is ‘a matter of grave concern.’ But scientists for the most

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part remain silent, thereby perhaps indirectly contributing to the undermining, even the contempt, of their painstaking disciplines. (fcs)

publishing 1155-16th (fcs)

F320. Literature of science

F360. Science education

83:6021 Miles, P.J.S., 1983. Obtaining English translations of Russian publications in tbe Eartb Sciences-an English view. Geol. Msg., 120(2): 183- 186.

Goolden, Sandra and D.F. Squires, 1983. Sea Grant graduates: a resource for the nation [U.S.]. Mar. Technol. Sot. J., 17(1):45-48.

The strategy outlined for obtaining English translations of Russian materials involves (I) checking appropriate reference sources (e.g., Journals in Translation, Translations Register-Index, World Transindex, Index Translationum, Consolidated Index of Translations into English, selective translations journals), (2) initiating a national/international search through the British Lending Library Division, (3) consulting a translator for a quick oral version of the text, and (4) commissioning a full translation. Further, researchers are urged to take a basic course in Russian. Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge CB2 ITA, UK. (ihz) a%022 Schweppe, J.S., 1983. Perspectives in scientific communication: past, present, and future directions. Perspect. Biol. Med., 26(3):417-432.

program. Rm. 210, Am. Chem. Sot., St., N.W., Washington, DC 20036, USA.

836024

The National Sea Grant Program was started in 1966 to educate those involved in ‘various fields relating to the development of marine resources.’ Nearly 7,000 students, mostly on the graduate level, have been trained in the program; their major fields of study have ranged from ocean engineering to landscape architecture, from veterinary science to English. Most have found employment in the private sector, although those entering the public sector were more likely to find jobs related to their training. ‘In 15 years, Sea Grant has become a major force in the extension of marine knowledge and expertise.’ New York Sea Grant Inst., SUNY, Albany, N.Y., USA. t&s) B3:6025 Hannaham, J.H., B.E. Brown and James O’Connor, 1983. Minorities in marine education. Mar. Technol. Sot. J., 17(1):49-53; 3 papers.

Scientific communication is already (and must continue to be) more than the reporting of facts. It must concern itself with incorporation of those facts consistent with the time, applications, interconnections to other disciplines, and impact of the findings on society. Reports must be integrated, interpreted, and judged (as to value and utility). In view of the exponentially increasing pool of knowledge, a separate professional class of interpreters may be required; in any event, the time has come for the scientist to become familiar with networks, databases, and two-way communication. 845 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, Ill. 60611, USA. (fcs)

A special panel of the Oceans ‘82 conference focused on minority representation in marine sciences. It was maintained that the lack of minority members in professional, managerial and policy-making sectors represents underutilization of resources and exclusion from decision-making. Although some progress has been made (e.g., marine programs have been instituted in some predominantly black colleges), much more is needed on both individual and institutional fronts. Several recommendations are made in an attempt to address the problem at both national and grass roots levels. (msg)

83:6023 Terrant, S.W., 1983. Publishing scientific information today...and tomorrow. Special report. Chem. Engng News, 61(17):51-58.

83:6026 Resnick, L.B., 1983. Mathematics and science learning: a new conception. Science, 220(4596):477478.

General trends in the information and publishing industries are reviewed, from the days when photocomposition replaced hot type to the prospects for demand-based electronic publishing (already available in limited forms). The scientific and technical publishing fields are stressed, with special emphasis on the activities of the American Chemical Society’s

‘Cognitive science’ is working its way to a new model of the learning process. One finding is that qualitative definition of a science or math problem must precede a quantitative attempt at solution, even though such holistic ill-defined procedures receive short shrift in the classroom. Another is that all learning is based on prior learning; thus students

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must construct their understanding on the basis of prior understanding, including their ‘surprisingly extensive...“ naive” theories.’ Implicit in the latter is the need to introduce simplified, but less naive, concepts as early and as often as possible. Learning Res. and Dev. Center, Univ. of Pittsburgh, Penn. 15260. USA. (fcs)

F370. Multidisciplinary (general

scientific studies

interest)

83:6027 Darlington, P.J. Jr., 1983. Evolution: questions for the modem theory. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 80(7): 1960-1963. The blind spot of the present generation of evolutionists is failure to see the consequences and limits of Darwinian natural selection-a costly process of differential elimination of individuals. The widely accepted misdefinition of natural selection as differential reproduction mistakenly hides the Darwinian process and its cost. Current theories of selfish genes, inclusive fitness, and kin selection are incompatible with Darwinian selection: implicitly they postulate genes that favor themselves but reduce organism fitness. Such genes would eliminate themselves by causing the selective elimination of their carriers. Because most biologists have forgotten what natural selection is, much current evolutionary and sociobiological theory presented by the most influential evolutionists is mistaken and dangerous. Mus. of Comp. Zool., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. 02138, USA. Silver, L.T. Geological oids and Snowbird, geol. Sot.

83:6028 and P.H. Schultz (eds.), 1981182. implications of impacts of large astercomets on the Earth. Conference, Utah, October 19-22, 1981. Spec. Pap. Am., 190:528pp; 48 papers.

The terms ‘comprehensive’ and ‘balanced’ can be used to describe these 48 papers which span the fields of climatology, astronomy, geophysics, paleontology, tectonics and cosmochemistry (to name but a few). The greatest number of papers (9) concerned the C/T boundary event with emphasis on extinctions, impact and the biological record. Six papers each were given on the dynamics of land/ ocean large body impacts; mass biological extinctions; and physical, chemical and biological models of atmospheric effects of large impacts. The geological record, terrestrial impact probabilities, signatures of dispersed impact ejecta, geochemical signatures, and searching for impact signatures also

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were treated. Presentations of special note for oceanographers include a review of mass extinctions in Phanerozoic oceans; marine plankton community responses to global atmospheric darkening; endCretaceous plankton and foram extinctions; ocean floor impactsdetection, models, mechanics; lab simulation of pelagic asteroidal impact; and shock heating and vaporization in oceanic impacts. (ihz)

F380. Advances in science, reviews eral

(gen-

interest)

Anonymous, 1983. Gulf [Arabian] compare with Amoco Cadiz. Scient., 98(1354):p.132.

83:6029 oil spill cannot (Report). New

First spotted by satellite photography in late March 1983. the slick is oozing from a war-damaged Iranian platform at an estimated rate of 2000 barrels/day. The spill. small by Amoco Cadiz standards, is of some concern because of the danger to desalination plants. the only source of water in the area. Measures to protect the plants have been set in motion but the spill continues unchecked (and periodically hidden). (bwt)

Anonymous. 1983. Marine lators. Monitor. New

835030 plants as climate reguScient., 98( 1354):p.150.

Atmospheric CO, concentrations and attendant climatic changes are explained by Harvard’s M.B. McElroy: (1) erosion due to ice sheet advances increases oceanic inputs of organic material and fixed N; (2) the resultant algal ‘population explosion’ utilizes more atmospheric CO,; and (3) by positive feedback, encourages further ice sheet development. Reversing the process would take tens of thousands of years-the typical timescale for glaciallinterglacial changes. (ihz) KM031 Corliss, J.O., 1983. Consequences of creating new kingdoms of organisms. Bioscience, 33(5):314318. The current international codes of botanical and zoological nomenclature are inadequate, especially for a kingdom Protista that embraces many groups of species conventionally considered (‘mini’) plants or animals, but which definitely are not. Should the two codes be modified, united, or replaced by separate ones for every major kingdom proposed and accepted? Also discussed is the (unnecessary)

proliferation of new names for redefined or reshuffled high-level taxa. Dept. of Zool., Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Md. 20742, USA. 836032 Green, E.J., J.M. Edmond, T.T. Packard, Albert0 Zirino, J.L. Bada and J.W. Farrington, 1983. Ocean chemistry: why is the sea salty and how does it vary? Nav. Res. Rev., 35( 1): 15-31. Some of the processes that control seawater abundances of major and trace metals, trace nutrients, and organic compounds are described. Also discussed are the mechanisms controlling nutrient concentrations in the photic zone and deep water, the ability of the racemization and serine decomposition hypotheses to explain the D/L amino acid ratios, and the effects of anthropogenic inputs to the ocean ecosystem. Environ. Sci. Direct., ONR, NORDA, Washington, DC, USA. (msg) B3:6033 Gribbin, John, 1983. El Chich6n and Britain’s weather. New Scient., 98(1353):88-89. University of East Anglia researchers, who studied Northern Hemisphere temperature records in relation to historic large volcanic eruptions, have concluded that the period of greatest climatic disturbance may occur several months after an eruption, in contrast to the prevailing hypothesis of a delay of 18-24 months preceding the major cooling effect from a volcanic dust cloud. Computer models predict the latter, while the 1982 weather record already shows an anomalously cold Northern Hemisphere June-just 2 months after El Chich6n’s eruption. The jury is still out. (slr) Kerr,

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816

83:6Q34 R.A.. 1983. Are the ocean’s deserts blooming? (Report.) Science, 220(4595):397-398.

Physical oceanographers are measuring primary production in natural ‘bottles’ that form in the central North Pacific and subtropical Atlantic when surface waters trap the cooler water below and bottle up the O2 produced there by photosynthesis. These bottles last several months or longer and extend some hundreds of kilometers. Measured rates of 0, produced or consumed suggest that productivity is 2-7 times greater than indicated by the standard C-14 method. Possible explanations for such a discrepancy are considered. (msg)

Sadler, P.M.. 1983. Is the present measure the past? (Report.) 302(591 l):p.752.

836035 long enough to Nature, Land.,

The short-term characteristics of geological processes may be poor guides to their long-term effects. Modern sedimentation rates typically appear to exceed rates assigned to ancient rock sequences, because ancient erosional periods may be undetected or underrated. Tippler’s (1983) statistical analysis utilizing the frequency distribution of short-term deposition rates (1) demonstrates that long-term deposition rates equal mean short-term rates, (2) predicts the behavior of stratigraphical completeness for a given level of precision, and (3) can be used to indicate the properties of an acceptable estimator of stratigraphical completeness. Dept. of Earth Sci., Univ. of Calif., Riverside, Calif. 92521, USA. (hbf) B3:6036 Spagni, Daniel, Glyn Ford and Jonathan Simnett, 1983. Sulphides: the next deep-sea Klondike. (Report.) New Scient., 98(1353):p.77. Massive ore deposits of polymetallic sulphides associated with spreading center axes (e.g., the East Pacific and Galapagos rises) may provide not only copper, zinc, and other metals, but insights into the process of metal formation on the seafloor. Major difficulties lie in the area of extraction technology. W)

F390. Educational literature Corliss, J.O., 1983. A puddle N.Y., 23(3):34-39.

of protists.

83:6037 Sciences,

The controversy continues over classification of unicellular organisms such as Euglena and various algae. Ernst Haeckel proposed a third kingdom, Protista, to include such organisms and his idea is being considered again. Classification is quite complex because obvious external resemblances do not always indicate an evolutionary relationship. Many examples of these enigmatic organisms are discussed-are they plant, animal, or in-between? Dept. of Zool., Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Md., USA. (ahm) 836038 Domning, D.P., 1983. Marching teeth of the manatee. Its special adaptation [tooth replacement] to an abrasive diet has enabled this aquatic mammal to outdo the dugong. Nat. Hist., 92(5):8-11. 836039 Langone, John, 1983. Drugs from the sea: scientists are finding a wealth of useful chemicals and drugs in marine life. Discover, 4(4):60-64.

F. General

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Overbye, Dennis, 4(4):86-91.

1983. The jigsaw Earth.

83:6040 Discover,

Alaska’s Wrangell Mountains are but one of approximately 200 geologically distinct terranes that have been identified along the western coast of North and Central America; both Alaska and British Columbia owe the greater part of their land masses to these disjunct, accreted bits. Geological evidence indicates that many of these terranes have migrated thousands of miles to their present location, a startling fact that has led to modifications of plate tectonic theory and to new concepts for the creation of mountain ranges. (hbf) Simon, Cheryl. Washington,

1983. Inner geography. D.C., 123( 18):280-282.

83:6041 Sci. News,

Scientists’ efforts to construct a 3-D map of the interior of the Earth from a compilation of digital earthquake data are discussed using general terminology. Work on mantle convection at Harvard, Scripps, and Caltech is summarized. The 3-D map could be applied to study the nature of continental roots and the relation between the Earth’s interior and the gravity field. (bas)

F420. Miscellaneous 83:6042 Duda, R.O. and E.H. Shortliffe, 1983. Expert systems research. Science, 220(4594): 26 l-268. Computer programs intended to ‘serve as consultants for decision-making’ are called ‘expert systems.’ This branch of artificial intelligence research has had considerable success (rivaling that of expert humans) when functions have been diagnostic or classificatory. Expert systems with synthetic functions (e.g. design) or which require de novo generation of solutions are not as well developed, but new concepts in formalizing and applying knowledge will eventually come together. MYCIN (a chemical diagnosing program) and other efforts are reviewed. Lab. for AI. Res., Fairchild Advanced Res. and Dev., Palo Alto, Calif. 94304, USA. (fcs)

817

83:6043 Gault, D.E. and C.P. Sonett, 1982. Laboratory simulation of pelagic asteroidal impact: atmospheric injection, benthic topography, and the surface wave radiation field. Spec. Pap. geol. Sot. Am., 190:69-92. Hypervelocity impact of projectiles into water overlying unconsolidated strata is studied experimentally. Variation of atmospheric pressure is an important parameter in considerations of the injection of seawater into the atmosphere, modification of benthic topography, and generation of megaamplitude surface waves. Dept. of Plan. Sci., Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 85721, USA. (jfp) 83:604l O’Keefe, J.D. and T.J. Ahrens, 1982. The interaction of the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinction bolide with the atmosphere, ocean, and solid Earth. Spec. Pap. geol. Sot. Am., 190:103-120. The impact mechanics of a large-scale (-10 km) bolide are modelled mathematically. It is concluded that high-speed ejecta transported to and above the stratosphere upon impact are compatible with C/T boundary clay bulk element anomalies and microtektites. A short, sharp heat pulse (-5C” in the on land) and longer-term dust upper ocean, -15C” and water vapor cloud effects on light and temperature are among the postulated effects of such an impact. Resultant ‘severe environmental stress...[could] give rise to the varied and massive [C/T] extinctions.’ Seismological Lab., Calif. Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, Calif. 91 125, USA. (slr) 83:6045 Wetherill, G.W. and E.M. Shoemaker, 1982. Collision of astronomically observable bodies with the Earth. Spec. Pap. geol. Sot. Am., 190:1-13. Large body collision rates, sizes and physical properties are summarized. It is proposed that bodies on the order of 10 km diameter collide with the Earth at a rate of once every 40 m.y. Therefore, it is not unreasonable that a body that size may have collided with the Earth at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Carnegie Inst.. 5241 Broad Branch Rd. NW, Washington, D.C. 20015, USA. (bas)