OLR (1991) 38 (9)
F. GENERAL FlO. Apparatus, methods, mathematics (multidisciplinary) 91:4965 Cafforio, C ., C. Prati and F. Rocca, 1991. Full resolution focusing of Seasat SAR Images in the frequency-wave number domain. Int. J. Remote Sens; 12(3):491-510.
A new technique is proposed to determine geometrical focusing parameters (sensor-target relative position and satellite position) from SAR data to improve focusing of SAR images. The technique is tested on synthetic and actual Seasat data. The achieved precision of the parameters is estimated to be better than I in 10,000. Dipt, di Elettronica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy. (ITs) 91:4966 Dirks, R.W .J. and Daniel Spitzer, 1991. Laser remote sensing of aquatic environment: . first- and second-order scattering model. Appl. Opt; 30(4): 443-452. Netherlands Inst. for Sea Res., P.O. Box 59, NL-1790 AB Den Burg-Texel, Netherlands. 91:4967 Dudelzak, A.E. et al. , 1991. Total luminescent spectroscopy for remote laser diagnostics of natural water conditions. Appl, Opt; 30(4):453458 . Estonia Acad. of SeL, Inst. of Ecol, and Sea Res. , Specialized Design Bur., Tallinn 200031, Estonia, USSR. 91:4968 Rast, M., F. Jaskolla and K. Amason, 1991. Comparative digital analysis of Seasat-8AR and Landsat-TM data for Iceland. Int. J. Remote Sens; 12(3):527-544. ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk, Netherlands.
F40. Area studies, surveys
plinary) 91:4969 Thomas, M .L.H., K.E. Eakins and Alan Logan, 1991. Physical characteristics of the anchialine ponds of Bermuda. Bull. mar. Sci; 48(1):125-136.
Bermuda has five anchialine ponds (landlocked, saline, permanently connected with the ocean)
ranging in size from >0.5 ha to 12 ha. Reported here are data on pond volumes, depths, salinities, temperatures, dissolved oxygen values, light levels, sed iment organic contents and silt-clay percentages. Shells of living molluscs and of relict species were identified in shell gravels; large population cycles at long intervals are postulated. Dept. of BioI., Univ. of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 5050, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5, Canada. (mjj)
FIOO. Expeditions, research programs, etc. 91:4970 Wadhams, P. and n.R. Crane, 1991. SPRI (Scott Polar Research Institute) participation in the Winter WeddeU Gyre Study 1989. Polar Rec ., 27(160):29-38.
The Winter Weddell Gyre Study was an international, multi-disciplinary experiment involving biologists , chemists, oceanographers and meteorologists. The SPRI involvement centred on sea-ice reasearch, involving both our own experiments and a collaboration with other research groups. The SPRI programme involved measuring ice thickness; studying the under-ice topography with an upward looking sidescan sonar; investigating the acceleration, tilt and strain of the ice; deploying Argos buoys; aerial photography ; iceberg tracking; and two acoustic experiments, one to record ambient noise and the other to acoustically measure the ice thickness. Scott Polar Res. Inst., Univ . of Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 lER, UK. 91:4971 Weller, R.A. et aI., 1991. Riding the crest: a tale of two wave experiments. Bull. Am. met. Soc; 72(2): 163-183.
The experimental goals of the Surface Wave Processes Program (SWAPP) and of the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) are different but complementary. SWAPP is focused on local processes: principally wave breaking, upper mixed layer dynamics, and microwave and acoustic signatures of wave breaking. SWADE is concerned with the evolution of the directional wave spectrum in both time and space, improved understanding of wind forcing and wave dissipation, the effect of waves on air-sea coupling mechanisms, and the radar response of the surface. SWAPP takes a closer look at wave
OLR (1991) 38 (9)
dissipation processes directly, while SWADE, with the use of fully nonlinear (third generation) wave models and carefully measured wind forcing, provides an opportunity to study the effect of dissipation on spectral evolution. Both programs involve many research platforms festooned with instruments and large teams of scientists gathering huge datasets. The programs are part of a U.S. Navy 'accelerated research initiative.' WHOI, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.
F130. Institutions and services 91:4972 Turner, M.D., J.F. Splettstoesser and J.J. McClelland Jr., 1990. Antarctic logistic support for the earth sciences. Antarct. Res. Ser; Am. geophys. Un., 51:223-235.
In pursuing its research objectives, the U.S. program uses helicopters, Hercules (LC-130) ski-equipped aircraft, motor toboggans, tracked vehicles, hovercraft, research ships, and icebreakers. Large aircraft are universally used to transport personnel to and from Antarctica. Logistic operations of this scale are extremely costly but are an inherent requirement of activities carried out in hostile and remote areas. Antarctic operations are not directly comparable to Arctic operations, because the north polar region has a much milder climate and inhabited centers are in relatively close proximity. In fact, Antarctic conditions are more closely comparable to those that will be encountered in future potential occupation and mining on the Moon and Mars. Future efforts at commercial mineral evaluation and exploitation will need to look closely at the U.S. logistics effort as a possible pattern for their Antarctic operations. Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Res., Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0450, USA.
F170. Engineering and industry 91:4973 Loupe, Diane and Greg Schneider (photographer), 1991. The food factor: spin-off industries make ocean energy profitable. Sea Frontiers, 37(2):2227.
Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, the state of Hawaii and a number of Pacific rim countries, the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii is using warm surface and cold deep ocean water to generate electricity, grow health foods, raise imported seafood (Maine lobsters), and produce po-
table freshwater, all without any identifiable pollution. Both closed-cycle (operating like a reverse refrigerator) and open-cycle (use of vaporized, warm seawater to turn a huge turbine and cold seawater to condense) systems are under study and both require large supplies of seawater. If the process is profitable (coupling the generation of electricity with aquaculture, and the production of freshwater will make it so sooner), there are many other locations in the world where the technology will be feasible. (wbg) 91:4974 Sheall, I.L., 1991. Reducing costs and improving the industry: goals of the dredging research program of the United States. J. coast. Res; 7(2):535-542. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Exp. Sta., 3909 Halls Ferry Rd., Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199, USA.
F180. Ships, submersibles, etc. 91:4975 Price, W.G. (editor) and R.E.D. Bishop (co-organizer), 1991. The dynamics of ships. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (A)334(l634): 185-389; 14 papers.
Modelling of ship dynamics, prospects for a 3-D theory of ship-wave interactions, prediction of maneuvering characteristics, wind and wave loading, and the analysis of bend and shear stresses on ships are some of the topics covered here. (fcs)
F250. Waste disposal and pollution
(see also B350-Atmospheric pollution, C2l0Water pollution, E300-Effects of pollution)
91:4976 Fernandez, P. et al., 1991. Occurrence of cationic surfactants and related products in urban coastal environments. Environ. Sci. Technol., 25(3):547550.
Surfactants have been recognized as a possible tracer of urban sewage pollution. Reported here is a new group of pollutants closely related to cationic surfactants that also could be used as a sewage tracer: the trialkylamines (TAMs). Found along with TAMs were long-chain alkylnitriles (LANs). Distribution of TAMs and LANs in surficial sediments off Barcelona is discussed and related to concentrations of cationic surfactants found in laundry detergents. Analytical methods are presented. Environ. Chern. Dept., C.I.D.·C.S.I.C., Jorge Girona Salgado, 18-26, 08034-Barcelona, Spain. (mjj)
Kennicutt, M.C. II et aI., 1991. Grounding of the Bahia Paraiso at Arthur Harbor. Antarctica. 1. Distribution and fate of oil spill related hydrocarbons. Environ. Sci. Technol; 25(3):509-518. In January to March 1989 all components of the ecosystem within a two-mile radius of Arthur Harbor were contaminated by petroleum spilled by the Bahia Paraiso . The most effective removal processes were evaporation, dilution, winds, and currents. Sedimentation, biological uptake, microbial oxidation, and photooxidation accounted for removal of only a minor portion of the spill. One year after the spill, several areas still exhibited contamination. Arthur Harbor and adjacent areas continue to be chronically exposed to low-level petroleum contamination emanating from the Bahia Paraiso. Col1ege of Geosci., Texas A&M Univ., 833 Graham Rd., Col1ege Station, TX 77845, USA.
91:4978 Kotlyakov, V.M., 1991. The Aral Sea Basin: a critical environmental zone. Environment, 33(1):4-9, 3638.
Vast irrigation schemes in several of the Asian republics of the U.S.S.R. have so reduced inflow from the Syr and Amu rivers that the Aral Sea 'is destined to become a small brine lake.' In the last 30 years sea area has declined by more than 40% and volume by 70%. Salinity has increased by a factor of 3. Furthermore, the remaining inflow is highly mineral-laden and polluted with pesticides. The vast salty flats that border what remains of the sea are now the source of great dust clouds, containing sulfates and chlorides poisonous to plants hundreds of kilometers away. Increasing river water mineralization and ill-conceived agricultural practices threaten the future of the agricultural schemes themselves. However, the gravest damage by far has been to the Aral Sea ecosystem itself, and to inhabitants that had lived off the seas's fisheries, now completely destroyed. 'Saving the Aral region and resolving its tangle of ecological, hydrological and socioeconomic problems...will require an entirely new approach' to economic planning. Inst. of Geogr., Acad. of ScL, Moscow, USSR. (fcs)
91:4979 Orient, J.P., 1990. Hydrogeologic investigation at a waste disposal site in northern New Jersey. NE environ. Sci; 9(1-2) :48-65. Dept. of Geol. and Planet. ScL, Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
91:4980 Pritchard, P.H. and C.F. Costa, 1991. ES&T series. EPA's Alaska oil spill bioremediatlon project. Environ. Sci. Technol., 25(3):372-379.
Field demonstrations support the use of bioremediation treatment strategies for the reduction of hazardous wastes. The Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound provided an opportunity for the EPA to field test the use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in a well-oxygenated environment to enhance oil biodegradation. With Exxon's financial support, two slow-release fertilizers were applied to two oil-contaminated Alaskan beach test sites. Roughly a year later, the results of the test program demonstrate that fertilizers applied to oiled beaches can increase bacterial biodegradation two-to-three fold without any measurable adverse ecological effects, and suggest that this bioremediation technique should be an integral part of oil-spill clean-up strategy. U.S. EPA, Environ. Res. Lab ., Gulf Breeze, FL 32561, USA. (hbf) 91:4981 Sheppard, Charles and Andrew Price, 1991. Will marine Ufe survive the Gulf War? New Scient; 129(1759):36-40.
The massive oil spill in the Persian Gulf, the largest on record, will certainly affect oxygen-producing plants and algae on the seabed, the desalinization plants, and the fisheries; but net long-term effects on the all-important marine habitats at the base of the food chain are less predictable. Although initial reports focused on the oil threat to dugongs, turtles, and wading birds, ultimate damage to the dominant biota-seagrasses and algae and their habitats-wil1 depend on the path of the oil. Shallow water and near surface habitats are known to be particularly susceptible to floating oil; the effect of oil in deeper muds in largely unknown. In general, little can be done to clean up contaminated gulf habitats; the ecosystem there is a highly complex one, and only the passage of time will make it possible to sort out the effects of the many variables involved. Ctr. for Tropical Coastal Mgmt. Studies, Univ. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK. (hbf)
F260. Resources, management, economics 91:4982 Behrendt, J.c., 1990. Recent geophysical and geological research in Antarctica related to the
OLR (1991) 38 (9)
assessment of petroleum resources and potential environmental hazards to their development. Antarct. Res. Ser., Am. geophys, Un., 51:163-174.
There are no known petroleum resources in Antarctica, and scientific information is lacking to adequately assess any undiscovered resources, or the possible environmental hazards to their development. Antarctica covers a vast area, and likely supergiant oil fields of the type to be exploited would be tiny in comparison. Any petroleum resources located in Antarctica will be found by applying techniques and experience gained developing oil fields in other parts of the world, and would therefore be examples of general cases; in contrast, the Antarctic environment and its associated hazards must be considered unique. USGS, Denver, CO 80225, USA. 91:4983 Kriwoken , LX., 1991. Antarctic environmental planning and management: conclusions from Casey, Australian Antarctic Territory. Polar Rec; 27(160):1-8.
Human activities at Australian Antarctic Territory stations have had serious impacts on the limited ice-free land and local flora and fauna. Casey, a re-developed station, is examined with reference to environmental planning and management under Antarctic Treaty obligations and recent Australian environmental legislation. Recommendations include the setting up of an Australian Antarctic Resources Committee responsible inter alia for environmental planning and management, including regional and station management plans and cumulative and environmental impact assessment for all Antarctic operations. Ctr. for Environ. Studies, Univ , of Tasmania, Hobart, Tas ., Australia. 91:4984 Law, Richard, 1991. Fishing in evolutionary waters. New Scient., 129(1758):35-37.
Fishing, particularly in cases where heavy exploitation of fish stock exceeds mortality by natural causes, is exerting demonstrable pressure on both size and age of sexual maturity of individual fish species. Although the matter is highly complex and there are many variables affecting changes within species, there is considerable evidence that commercial fishing has had its effect. Documented cases of various evolutionary pressures created by exploitation are presented for the pink salmon, Onchorhynchus gorbuscha , and the northeast Arctic cod, Gadus morhua. Given sufficient information, it should be possible to effect positive, as well as negative, evolutionary changes in fisheries. (hbf)
91:4985 Ovenden, J .R., 1990. Mitochondrial DNA and marine stock assessment: a review. Aust, J. mar. Freshwat. Res; 41(6):835-853.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is being analyzed in order to establish 'genetic connectedness' for purposes of assessing fisheries stocks. This review is intended for readers with a general scientific background. The use of mtDNA analysis for stock assessment is described, knowledge of the mitochondrial genome in marine species is summarized, and the usefulness of the technique in fisheries management is evaluated. Dept. of Zool., Univ. of Tasmania, G .P.O. Box 252C, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia. (mii) 91:4986 Rapaport, Moshe, 1990. IHuman] population pressure on coral atolls: trends and approaching limits. Atoll Res. Bull; Smithson. Inst., 340: 33pp. East-West Ctr., Box 1696, 1777 East-West Rd., Honolulu, HI 96848, USA. 91:4987 Rivas, V. and A. Cendrero, 1991. Use of natural and artificial accretion on the north coast of Spain: historical trends and assessment of some environmental and economic consequences. J. coast. Res; 7(2):491-507. Div, de Cienc. de la Tierra, Univ. de Cantabria, Santander, Spain. 91:4988 Wadhams , Peter, 1990. The resource potential of Antarctic icebergs. Antarct. Res. Ser., Am . geophys.
The possible use of Antarctic icebergs as a source of water and electrical power is discussed . We review the development of concepts of iceberg use and the physical properties which determine their susceptibility to decay and likely survival time under tow. The elements of an iceberg utilization scheme are discussed. An 'Icetec' scheme which combines water utilization with power generation via ocean thermal energy conversion would seem to offer the best economic prospect for iceberg use, but many technical problems remain unsolved while fundamental physical processes affecting an iceberg tow have yet to be examined experimentally. Scott Polar Res. Inst., Univ. of Cambridge, CB2 lER, UK.
F280. Policy, law, treaties 91:4989 Auburn, Francis, 1990. Convention on the Regulation
of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities. Antarct. Res. Ser; Am. geophys, Un; 51:259-271. After >5 years of negotiations, the Consultative Parties to the Antarctic Treaty reached agreement on the text of the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities in June, 1988. This Convention provides for Regulatory Committees to make crucial decisions for miners through a Management Scheme (dealing with financial obligations of Operators, performance requirements, enforcement, etc.) whenever a resource is identified for possible development. These Regulatory Committees will receive non-binding advice from the Scientific, Technical, and Environmental Advisory Committee. Since decisions about mineral resource activities must not violate principles designed to protect against serious damage to the environment, the Convention represents a major step forward in environmental protection. The Convention also includes rules about liability as well as procedures for the settlement of disputes. Law School, Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands, Perth, WA 6009, Australia. (wbg) 91:4990 Kimball, L.A., 1990. Special report on the Antarctic Minerals Convention. Antarct. Res. Ser., Am. geophys. Un., 51:273-310.
This report, reprinted with permission from a report issued by the World Resources Institute, describes the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (adopted June 2, 1988 in Wellington, New Zealand); raises key questions concerning minerals development, the adequacy of the treaty, problems of implementation and ratification, etc.; and essays on several aspects of the treaty (e.g., how it deals with the basic disagreement over who owns Antarctica). Intl, Inst. for Environ. and Development, North America, World Resources Inst., Washington, DC 20036, USA. (fcs) 91:4991 Peet, Gerard, 1991. Laws of the sea. London Dumping Convention: obsolete or effective? Mar. Pollut. Bull., 22(2):56-58.
One of the most important issues raised at the 13th Consultative Meeting of Contracting Parties to the London Dumping Convention held in London (fall, 1990), was future strategy. While there has been a good deal of concern about the effectiveness of the LDC, with many believing there is a need for changes, few agree on the specifics of such changes. The role of scientific information in decision making is of concern as is the increasing tendency for politics to intrude on discussions. The need for
OLR (/991) 38 (9)
adopting a 'precautionary approach' toward environmental damage, and for increasing the scope of the Convention-particularly whether the LDC should also cover marine internal waters-will be discussed in 1991. Further, the question of pollution from land-based sources will be referred to the UN Conference on Environment and Development with the recommendation that it be addressed by a global instrument. (wbg)
F290. International concerns and organizations 91:4992 Anderson, Christopher, Peter Coles and Tania Ewing et aI., 1991. Exploring the still unexplored. Nature, Land; 350(6316):287-308; 12 papers.
The essays here are 'first-hand accounts, by regular contributors to Nature, of visits to Antarctica...[which] provide a sense of the flavor of Antarctic research.' There are reports from U.S., French and Australian bases and from the British Antarctic Survey. They touch on scientific research and programs, logistics, living and working conditions and social psychology in the camps. (fcs) 91:4993 Parker, B.C. and E.E. Angina, 1990. Environmental impacts of exploiting mineral resources and effects of tourism in Antarctica. Antarct. Res. Ser; Am. geophys. Un; 51:237-258.
The time when Antarctica's nonrenewable resources will be exploited is near, so it is prudent to review the impact such activity may have on the environment. The complete loss of any land forms, soil types, and terrestrial biota seems remote, though the cold desert lakes may be a possible exception requiring special protection. Similarly, the complete loss of anyone species of birds and marine mammals is improbable owing to their widespread distribution, though use of the Specially Protected Areas concept would offer additional assurance. In general, present knowledge suggests there is no scientifically sound basis for banning resource development, if enough precautions are taken to minimize environmental damage. At present, there is not enough information about biologically important interactions to make the necessary management and policy decisions. But the fact that Antarctic ecosystems will recover slowly from any damage shows the need for caution. Dept. of Biol., Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. (wbg)
F. Genera l
F310. Contemporary development of science (especially oceanography) 91:4994 Hide, Raymond, 1990. Geophysical fluid dynamics and related topics [where are we going?l. Geophys. Monogr. Am. geophys. Un., 60:39-42.
Important work in geophysical fluid dynamics will in the future continue to be motivated by the realization that serious attempts to interpret observations of ocean s, atmospheres and magnetic fields, to formulate crucial field experiments, and to provide a satisfactory theoretical underpinning to practical activities such as weather forecasting, will be inseparable from progress in ba sic research on dynamic and magnetohydrodynamic processes in rapidly rotating fluids. An important area of fluid dynamics which has direct implications for research on planetary interiors is the study of convection in fluids of high and variable viscosity . The dynamics of tenuous plasmas lies at the heart of magnetospheric studies. Supercomputers will facilitate research in all these areas and their availability will be crucial to some of them. Geophys. Fluid Dynamics Lab. , Meteorol. Off., Bracknell , Berkshire, ROl2 2SZ, UK. 91:4995 Lal, D., 1990. Oceanography and geophysics [where are we going?). Geophys. Monogr, Am. geophys. Un., 60:59-62.
In all aspects of oceanography and geophysics , climatic changes , be they cause or effect , will be the principal focus of studies in the coming decade. The international global biosphere change program of ICSU is a testimony to the realization of the strong links between many branches of geophysics and oceanography, and the effects of this coupling on the global climate. There seems the possibility that realistic coupled atmosphere-ocean-continent models can be developed in the coming decades and that suitable high precision global scale data will be available to test them. It would indeed be a great achievement of science if the outer layers of the earth can be successfully parameterized as a single dynamic system. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. 91:4996 Oliver, Jack , 1991. Solid earth science during the 21st century. Eos, 72(11):121, 124-126.
'The third , or depth, dimension is a major front ier at present....We could reach [drilling] depths of 60 km by [the year) 2100.' Environmental and resources geology will clearly playa huge role in supplying and
protecting a globe with 10 billion human inhabitants. Other topics touched on: new information systems (and publishing habits), instrumentation , systems approaches, inform ing the public, and optimization of research effort. Dept. of Geo!' ScL, Cornell Univ. , Snee Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-1504, USA. (fcs) 91:4997 Stewart, R.W., 1990. Physical oceanography to the end of the twentieth century. Geophys, Monogr. Am . geophys. Un., 60:65-67 . By the year 2000, we should be in a position to undertake a serious attack on predicting the nature of the coupled ocean-atmosphere climate . system. We should have ocean-wide models with grid resolution small enough to handle ocean eddies. Our knowledge of air-sea interaction should have improved, so that the uncertainty in parameterization of heat and momentum flux will be appreciably less than it is now. The next generation of oceanographers will have the advantage of new tools not now imagined, and a pace of data gathering far beyond anything we have experienced. They will also have a stock of historical data larger by orders of magnitude than anything we now possess and commensurate techniques for dealing with these huge volumes of data. The 90s promise to be an era of great excitement in physical oceanography-with the science moving powerfully in the direction of becoming operational, predictive and global. Phys. and Astron . Dept., Univ. of Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada.
F320. Literature of science 91:4998 Gopen, G.D . and J.A. Swan, 1990. The science of scientific writing. Am. Scient ; 78(6):550-558. This article examines the quality of scientific writing using a methodology based on the concept of reader expectations. Key to the approach is the idea that information is interpreted more easily and uniformly if it is placed where most readers expect to find it. The information that begins a sentence establishes for the reader a perspective for viewing the entire sentence, yet the misplacement of 'old' and 'new' information in a sen tence (thereby disrupting flow and linkage) is the premier problem in American professional writing. The authors demonstrate a number of rhetorical principles that can provide clarity in communication without overs implification. The improvements are not merely cosmetic; improving the quality of scientific writing may improve the quality of scientific thinking. The seven structural principles: (I) follow a grammatical subject as
soon as poss ible with its verb. (2) Place the. 'new' information in the grammatical stress position. (3) Place the subject at the beginning of the sen tence. (4) Place appropriate 'old' information in the topic position for linkage backward and contextualization forward. (5) Articulate the action of every clause in its verb. (6) Provide context for the reader before introducing 'new' information, and (7) emphasize a topic in proportion to the expectations of emphasis established by the structure. Dept. of English, 307 Allen Bldg., Duke Univ. , Durham, NC 27706, USA. (rjw)
F340. Biographies, obituaries, etc. 91:4999 Ylaar, N .J., 1990. Yening Meinesz, a pioneer in earth sciences. Geophys, Monogr . Am. geophys. Un., 60:xi-xvi.
This paper deals with the geodynamic concepts which were developed by Vening Meinesz as a consequence of his observational work. The evolution of these concepts, from the possibility of a contracting earth to the hypothesis of convection currents in the earth as underlying causes of mountain building and other geodynamic processes, are presented in retrospect. Special attention is devoted to the connection between Vening Meinesz' ideas and their relevance for the plate tectonic hypothesis. Yening Meinesz stood at the threshold of modern earth science. Many of his ideas have not lost their validity. Many problems he addressed still await solution. The social and scientific environment in which he worked enabled individuals like him to pioneer pathways into the future ; these are briefly discussed as well. Yening Meinesz Lab., Univ. of Utrecht, Budapestlaan 4, 3584 CD Utrecht, Netherlands.
F370. Multidisciplinary scientific studies (general interest) 91:5000 Bonin, D.J. and H.L. Golterman (eds.), 1990. Fluxes between trophic levels and through the watersediment interface. [Papers from the Conference on Limnology and Oceanography, MarseilleLuminy, 26-29 June 1989.] Hydrobiologia, 207(1-3):342pp; 38 papers.
These papers address the two main themes of the conference: (1) transfer of energy and matter through food webs, and (2) sediment-water ex-
OLR ( 199 1)38 (9)
changes. Estuaries, lagoons, and lakes are heav ily represented in this collection, whereas fewer papers deal with the deep ocean or rivers and streams. Part One covers trophic level interactions including the role of bacteria and zooplankton, nutrient fluxes, submarine caves and transfers between eutrophic and oligotrophic ecosystems. Part Two addresses sediment-water interactions, including nutrient fluxes and bacterial distribution. The role of organisms, including fish-zooplankton interactions, phytoplankton productivity, zooplankton feeding, sediment bioturbation, metal exchanges and mussel culture, is covered in Part Three. The fourth section deals with methodology, including phosphatase activity, distinguishing the active bacterioplankton, organic phosphates in sediments, nanomolar nitrate uptake by a marine diatom, hydrocarbons as anthropogenic markers, and discrepancies in measuring nitrate utilization. (mjj) 91:5001 Harris, G.P. et al., 1991. Seasonal and interannual variability in physical processes, nutrient cycling and the structure of the food chain in Tasmanian shelf waters. J. Plankt, Res; 13(SuppI.):109-131.
Observations were made weekly over a 4-yr period encompassing the mitior La Nifta 'Cold Event' of 1988. Changes in variability in wind stress influenced the position of the subtropical convergence, so that some years were characterized by warm, nutrientdepleted subtropical waters and other years by cool, nutrient-rich subantarctic waters. These changes strongly influ enced water column stratification, nutrient uptake, phytoplankton production, zooplankton species composition, sedimentation, decomposition and resuspension. Major effects on the jack mackerel fishery resulted. CSIRO Div. of Fish., GPO Box 1538, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia. (mjj) 91:5002 Lukas, Roger, Peter Webster and Joel Picaut et al., 1991. Special issue. Papers from the Western Pacific International Meeting and Workshop on TOGAICOARE. J. geophys. Res ; 96(SuPPI.): 3123-3436; 24 papers.
Updated papers from the meeting and workshop present results of recent TOGA modeling and data analyses of western tropical Pacific water masses ; sea surface topography and circulation; EI Nino/ Southern Oscillation data (1986-1987) and related studies; and momentum-heat-moisture fluxes. The collection calls attention to coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling of interannual variability and the implied small «20 W m-2) annual average net heat flux between atmosphere and ocean in the warmpool region; the importance of the hydrological cycle
OLR (1991)38 (9)
to regional thermodynamics and dynamics; westerly wind-burst phenomena; the 30- to 6Q-day atmospheric oscillation; and Indo-Pacific oceanic throughflow. Joint Inst. for Mar. and Atmos, Res., 1000 Pope Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. (hbf)
unknown about such storms; at present no direct meteorological observations have been made within the upper structure of an active storm. Dept. of Mar., Earth and Atmos. ScL, NCSU, Box 8208, Raleigh, NC 27695-8208, USA. (Ijw)
F380. Advances in science, reviews
91:5005 Lloyd, Philippa, 1991. Ocean productivity: iron determinations. [Report.] Nature, Lond., 350(63l3):p.l9.
eral interest) 91:5003 Abelson, P.H., 1991. [Editorial.] Desalination of brackish and marine waters. Science, 251(4999): p.1289.
Effects of the huge oil spill in the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula, where most drinking water is obtained from desalination, are likened to 'the inconvenience experienced in some California cities during the region's drought.' A review of the literature on desalination reveals that 60% of the world's desalination capacity is located in Persian Gulf states, where per capita supplies comparable to those of U.S. urban areas are produced using multistage flash distillation and reverse osmosis. Measures regularly used to reduce pollution and fouling would reduce hydrocarbons remaining in the seawater after preliminary treatment. The cost of producing potable water from seawater is calculated to be $4 per 1000 gallons; additional measures to reclaim moderately polluted water using reverse osmosis techniques would add an additional 50 cents per 1000 gallons of water. (hbf) 91:5004 Businger, Steven, 1991. Arctic hurricanes. Am. Scient; 79(1): 18-33.
Observations of Arctic hurricanes, and a numerical model used to investigate similarities and differences between these storms and tropical hurricanes, are discussed. Arctic hurricanes are particularly intense, rapidly-developing cyclonic storms which form in the cold air masses north of the Polar Front. Arctic hurricanes form along Arctic fronts-air mass boundaries formed in the spring where very cold air collected over pack ice intersects warm marine air over the polar sea. The resultant baroclinic instability is the same mechanism that provides the primary energy source for midlatitude cyclones. If a pre-existing disturbance of sufficient magnitude is present, an Arctic hurricane is initiated. The storm is characterized by a cloud-free 'eye' of sinking air surrounded by a symmetric wall of convective cumulus clouds, fueled by energy flux from the sea surface. In these respects Arctic hurricanes are very similar to their tropical counterparts. Much remains
Problems with the hypothesis of J. Martin et al., that low iron levels may be the cause of low algal productivity in certain nutrient rich areas of the ocean, are discussed. Experiments suggesting alternatives to the iron limitation hypothesis are briefly summarized (upwelling effects, preferential uptake of ammonium) and problems with bottle incubation experiments are pointed out. Fertilizing the ocean with iron, thereby stimulating photosynthetic removal of CO2 from the atmosphere, does not seem to be 'even a partial cure for the greenhouse effect.' (mjj) 91:5006 Ritz, David, 1991. The benefits of a good school: [shrimps and squid do it like fish). New Scient; 129(1761):41-42.
Research has revealed that schooling is common, not only to fish, but also to some crustaceans-mysids, decapods, cladocerans, and copepods. In the past, it was believed that these schools were merely transient groups of individuals brought together by wind current or wave action, but careful observation shows that the schools are maintained under a variety of conditions, even in rough seas. Schooling has the evolutionary advantage of providing protection from predators, and the schools have developed a series of defense maneuvers for this purpose. In addition, schooling may also facilitate finding food and create social and reproductive opportunities not available to individuals traveling alone. Univ. of Tasmania, Australia. (hbf) 91:5007 Roberts, Leslie, 1991. Learning from an acid rain program. Science, 251(4999): 1302·1305.
In 1980 the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was created by the U.S. Congress to guide it on policy questions, and requirements, costs and benefits of various acid rain control strategies. But when Congress finally acted last year, it did so without much help from NAPAP. Its multimillion-dollar computer models were not completed and neither was the long-awaited 'integrated assessment.' But NAPAP had spent $500 million,
and 2000 scientists had studied the problem to death. What went wrong? The conclusion is that 'NAPAP strove for scientific perfection, but lost policy relevance in the bargain....That fundamental failing...may be repeating itself in the new federal climate change program,' coordinated by the interagency Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences. (fcs) 91:5008 Williamson, Phillip and John Gribbin, 1991. How plankton change the climate. New Scient; 129(1760):48-52.
A general, non-technical summary is presented of the findings to date of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (lGOFS), a lO-yr program within the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme. The study began in 1989 and has been concentrating on algal productivity and sedimentation rates in the North Atlantic. The ultimate goal is to use models to understand the physical and biological processes controlling carbon fluxes in the ocean utilizing data from satellite measurements combined with information on sea conditions, cloud cover, etc. Significant new findings from JGOFS include data on the unexpectedly complex nature of the spring phytoplankton bloom, and the effects of vertical migration of zooplankton. Our knowledge of the effects of marine productivity on climate during the ice ages, and our current understanding of carbon dioxide fluxes, are briefly summarized. NERC Biogeochem. Ocean Flux Study, Plymouth Mar. Lab., Plymouth,
OLR (1991) 38 (9)
also spotlights the young, gloved male scuba diver with a specific objective (lobstering, etc.) as the person having the most negative interactions with the coral. Snorkelers stir up huge clouds of sediment that settles on the corals causing them to produce a defensive mucus, adding stress that in time may exhaust them. The solution lies in more education such as that engaged in by the underwater police force at Key Largo's National Marine Sanctuary (which hands out $25 Enforcement Action Reports), the cooperation of commercial dive shops and dive boat captains who forbid the wearing of gloves. (wbg) 91:5010 Shane, S.H. et aI., 1991. The dolphin report. Sea Frontiers, 37(2):36-55; 3 papers.
'Dolphins are complex creatures, strongly social, that possess acute problem-solving skills, have long childhoods filled with many learning experiences, and are capable of a great deal of intraspecies and interspecies cooperation. Even though we can't discuss Plato with them, there is still a lot they can teach us.' These three articles discuss dolphin 'smarts'; the use of dolphins for interaction therapy with such groups as autistic children; and news items pertaining to dolphins' welfare, such as their military use by the Navy, and their entanglement in tuna nets. (fcs)
F390. Educational literature
91:5011 Wyckoff, Susan, 1991. Comets: clues to the early history of the solar system. Earth-Sci. Rev; 30(1-2):125-174.
91:5009 Fishman, D.l., 1991. Loving the reef to death. Sea Frontiers, 37(2): 14-21.
Coral reefs already suffer from disease and bleaching, sewage and agricultural runoff and a long list of other ills, now sport divers are causing extensive damage which is the cumulative effect of millions of interactions which may involve only the slightest, most casual contact. Improper buoyancy control by novice scuba divers is a major problem but research
Comets are potentially powerful indicators of conditions during early solar system history, and even pre-solar history, for a good deal of their bulk probably consists of preserved, relict interstellar matter. There have now been six spacecraft encounters with two different comets, 'vastly expanding our knowledge of comets.' The latest thoughts and researches concerning their numbers, orbital dynamics, composition and origin is reviewed. Dept. of Phys., Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ 852871504, USA. (fcs)