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E260. Macrophytes (algae, grasses, etc.) 92:6504
Pacheco-Ruiz, Isai et al., 1992. Growth responses and seasonal biomass variation of Gigartina pectinata Dawson (Rhodophyta) in the Gulf of California. J. expl mar. Bioi. Ecol; 157(2):263-274. Inst. de Invest. Oceanol., Univ. Auton. de Baja California, Apdo. Postal 453, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico.
E300. Effects of pollution (also uptake,
92:6506 Goutier, Gilles et aI., 1992. The contribution of Mytilus sp. in radionuclide transfer between water column and sediments in the estuarine and delta systems of the Rhtme River. Estuar. coast. Shelf Sci; 34(6):593-601. Servo d'Etudes et de Rech. sur l'Environ., IPSN-SERM, BP 330, 83507 La Seyne sur mer Cedex, France. 92:6507 Je, l.-G. et al., 1991. Effects of stranded oils and dispersant clean-up on intertidal gastropods. J. oceanol. Soc. Korea, 26(4):350-357. (In Korean, English abstract.) KORDI, P.O. Box 29, Ansan 425-600, Korea.
trace accumulations, etc.; see also B350Atmospheric pollution, C210-Chemicai pollution, F250-Waste disposal)
92:6508 Madsen, K.N., 1992. Effects of arsenic on survival and metabolism of Crangon crangon. Mar. Biol; 113(1):37-44. Water Quality Inst., DK-2970 Horsholm, Denmark.
92:6505 Focardi, Silvano, L. Lari and L. Marsili, 1992. PCB congeners, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene in Antarctic fish from Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea). Antarct, s«. 4(2):151-154. Dipt. di BioI. Ambientale, Univ. di Siena, Via delle Cerchia 3, 53100 Siena, Italy.
92:6509 Zhuang, Dongfa and Yu Lin, 1991. The effects of nutrients and heavy metals on the plankton in marine enclosed ecosystems. Acta oceanol. sin. (English version), 10(4):637-640. Third Inst. of Oceanogr., State Oceanic Admin., Xiamen 361005, People's Republic of China.
F. GENERAL FlO. Apparatus, methods, mathematics (multidisciplinary) 92:6510 Danaher, S., E. O'Mongain and J. Walsh, 1992. A new cross-correlation algorithm and the detection of rbodamine-B dye in seawater. Int. J. Remote Sens; 13(9):1743-1755. Engng Div., Leeds Polytechnic, Leeds LSI 3HE, UK.
F40. Area studies, surveys (multidisciplinary) 92:6511 Brambati, Antonio et al., 1991. Special issue. Strait of Magellan Project: oceanography and sedimentology. Boll. Oceanol. teor. appl., 9(2-3):83302; 17 papers.
The first oceanographic cruise to the Strait of Magellan in 1988-89 to investigate the structure of water bodies and sediments in the strait was followed by a second the following summer to complete the surveys, examine channel systems, and carry out a seismic survey. The contents of this volume are based largely on observations dating from the first cruise, but take into account subsequent discoveries. The reports treat the plant landscape; seismic survey results, hydrological characteristics, paraffinic hydrocarbons in the water; phytoplankton, microzooplankton, copepod assemblages, suspended particulate matter; bottom sediments, magnetic susceptibility and geochemistry of surficial sediments, sedimentological processes; distribution of heavy and light sands; and the morphology, sediments, and thermohaline features of the channels. A sedimentological chart provides a summary of the data and their preliminary interpretation. (hbf)
F70. Atlases, bibliographies, databases, etc. 92:6512 Hayes, D.E. (ed.), J99I. Marine geological and geophysical atlas of the circum-Antarctic to JOoS. Antarct, Res. Ser; Am. geophys. Un; 54:56pp. plus maps and microfiche data.
This atlas and explanatory text were compiled under the sponsorship of the Division of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation. Relatively little interpretation has been incorporated into the synthesis beyond that implicit in the publications used, that inherent in the various analyses procedures required, or that required to reconcile apparently discrepant data or interpretations. This series of maps does, however, represent considerably more than a compilation of published results. The maps incorporate extensive new and unpublished geological and geophysical data as well as many invaluable data that have appeared previously only in the gray literature. The atlas includes maps of bathymetry, gravity, magnetic anomalies, sediment thickness, and type and crustal structure, tectonics and age.
F130. Institutions and services 92:6513 Clancy, R.M. and W.D. Sadler, 1992. 'The Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center suite of oceanographic models and products. Weather Forecasting, 7(2) :307-327.
Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center provides operational oceanographic services to U.S. and allied naval forces, other components of the Department of Defense, and a wide variety of civilian interests, with output from sophisticated, highly automated ocean models, most of which are linked to atmospheric models. Thermal structure and circulation models, ocean feature models, sea-ice models, and wave models are some of the products. This article gives an overview of the center's ocean-modeling capabilities and identifies future goals. Ocean Models Div., Fleet Numerical Oceanogr. Center, Monterey, CA 93943, USA. 92:6514 Nelson, C.A. and W.T. Aldinger, J992. An overview of Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center operations and products. Weather Forecasting, 7(2):204-219.
As the navy's primary operational processing center for global oceanographic and atmospheric analyses
OLR (1992)39 (12)
and predictions, the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center provides numerical environmental products to meet the naval and Department of Defense needs. The products are based on the center's extensive global atmospheric and oceanographic database, sophisticated long-range forecast models, and tailored tactical decision aids in support of specific weapons and sensor systems. The center's data sources, computer systems, atmospheric and oceanographic models, applied products, and distribution systems are briefly described. Offiee of the Fed. Coord. for Meteorol. Servo and Supporting Res., 6010 Executive Blvd., Rm 900, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.
F250. Waste disposal and pollution
(see also B3SQ-Atmospheric pollution, C21QWater pollution, E300-Effects of pollution)
92:6515 Drange, Helge, P.M . Haugan, J .J. Colis (comments) and Miroslav Radojevie (reply), 1992. Scientific correspondence. Disposal of S02 in sea water. Nature, Lond., 357(6379):547-548.
The proposal of Radojevic and Tressider (1992) to dispose of flue gases (especially sulphur dioxide) in the ocean is objected to on the grounds that it would release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere (as the sulphur dioxide oxidizes to sulphate); and, in a separate comment, on economic grounds. Radojevic admits there are problems to work out, but still feels that seawater is a suitable receptacle for sulphur dioxide. (fes) 92:6516 Korotenko, K.A., J99O. On the spreading of a contaminant jet in the ocean surface layer. Oceanology (a translation of Okeanologiioy; 30(4):399-401. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanol., USSR Acad, of Sci., Moscow, USSR.
F260. Resources, management, economics 92:6517 Durant, S.M. and John Harwood, 1992. Assessment of monitoring and management strategies for local populations of the Mediterranean monk seal MODacbus mODacbus. Bioi. Conserv; 61(2) :81-92. Dept. of Zool., Univ. of Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK .
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F280. Policy, law, treaties 92:6518
Culliton, B.l., 1992. News and views. Save the beaches, Dot the buildings. Nature, Land; 357(6379):p.535.
The evidence is that destructive building habits, especially the miles of high-rise buildings that mar the East coast from New Jersey to Florida, were fostered in the first place by 1968 laws that made federally subsidized insurance possible. Today, the owner of beachfront property valued at about $200,000 pays a mere $950 a year for flood insurance. On the open market, a similar policy would cost more than $18,000, assuming that private insurers would be willing to take the risk at all. New development would essentially come to a dead halt; nature would be the real beneficiary. But it may be too much to hope for the repeal of this foolhardy law. The political influence of the real estate lobby, not to mention that of home owners, is not to be underestimated.
F290. International concerns and organizations 92:6519
Butterworth, D.S., 1992. Commentary. Science and sentimentality. International Whaling Commission is about to put forward a sound method for setting catch limits for whaling. But will other considerations undermine the science? Nature, Lond., 357(6379) :532-534. 'The real debate in the IWC has been between some countries wishing to preserve industries, employment and a food source based on whales, and others wanting these animals classed as sacrosanct. The terms of the convention have required that this debate be conducted in a scientific guise.' But now the IWC's Scientific Committee is ready to present a 'Revised Management Procedure' that will permit (with catch limits) resumed commercial whaling of minkes in the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Will the IWC accept the recommendations; and, if not, will those nations that whale quit the IWC? Dept. of Appl. Math., Univ . of Cape Town , Rondebosch 7700, South Africa. (fcs) 92:6520
Newhouse , John, 1992. The diplomatic round. Earth summit. New Yorker, June 1992:64-78. 'America, Europe and Japan are groping for a redefinition of their roles in the post-Cold War era.
Actually, Japan hasn't had a role and requires one. Europe is uncertain of its new role, because it hasn't defined itself. America continues to possess the wherewithal for solving yesterday's problems...but lacks the rigor and coherence for dealing with the problems of today and tomorrow.' These would be three of the main actors at UNCED, which partly explains why 'key governments have kept a fine fuzz over their intentions in Rio.' Their pre-UNCED maneuvering and posturing, and that of others, are described. (res)
F370. Multidisciplinary scientific studies (general interest) 92:6521
Adams, J.M. and F.I . Woodward, 1992. The past as a key to the future: the use of palaeoenvironmental unde.-standing to predict the effects of man on the biospbere. Adv. ecol. Res; 22:257-314. This paper examines the significance of paleoclimate studies in forward-modeling of climate change. The relationships among atmospheric composition, climate and biological communities gleaned from the geological record are examined in terms of their relevance to human-induced environmental change. The most valuable information comes from the Quaternary record of change due to the similarities in geography, general climate and biota. Topics covered include greenhouse gases and climate warming, water-balance changes, feedbacks involving sinks and sources and biological community effects. In general it is thought that significant understanding of the global response to anthropogenic perturbations can be obtained by increasing our present understanding of Quaternary climate shifts. Includes ca. 80 references. Dept. of Bota., Univ. Cambridge, Downing St., Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK . (Ijw) 92:6522
Springer-Young, M., S.R. Piotrowica and G.R. Harvey, 1992. Impact of an episodic event on copper and zinc concentrations and speciation In surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Deep-Sea Res., 39(6A) :953-964. In the course of a hydrographic a nd atmo spheric event which occurred during an 8-day station, changes in copper and zinc concentrations and speciation coincided with physical ch anges and biological productivity stimulation. In normally oligotrophic water masses it is possible that episodic events, such as inputs from beneath the mixed layer or aeolian transport, may impact the interaction of
trace metals and marine biological processes. NOAA, AOML, 4301 Rickenbacker Cswy, Miami, FL 33149, USA. 92:6523
Takeda, Shigenobu, Yoshihachiro Nimura and Reijiro Hirano, 1991. Optical, biological, and cbemical properties of 8.oshio, hypoxic milky blue-green water, observed at the bead of Tokyo Bay. J. oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 47(4):126-137. Optical properties and the biological--ehemical composition of suspended matter in the aoshio water were investigated using nearby 'normal' coastal water as a reference. Suspended matter in the aoshio water contributed to the large beam-attenuation coefficient and also to the strong upward radiance. No significant difference in bacterial density was observed between aoshio and coastal water. Suspended particles in aoshio water samples had much higher content of Sand Mn and a lower Si content than those in coastal water samples. It may be concluded that there is a high probability that elemental Sand Mn-rich particles are responsible for the color and turbidity in aoshio. Abiko Res. Lab., Central Res. Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba 270-1 I, Japan. 92:6524
Verlaan, P.A., 1992. Benthic recruitment and manganese ernst formation on seamounts. Mar. Biol; 113(1): 171-174.
Hydrogenous ferromanganese crusts are a common feature of oceanic seamounts, forming slowly through precipitation from seawater, by a process producing crusts of thicknesses up to 240 mm. The present study of recruitment by sessile invertebrates to ferromanganese crusts and basalt on Cross Seamount, North Pacific Ocean, July 1988 to February 1990 supports the view that hydrogenesis alone may not adequately account for crust formation. Here, mediation of crust growth by benthic Foraminifera and inhibition of ferromanganese oxide precipitation by high abundances of sessile macrofauna are suggested as two interactive biological processes relevant to crust accretion. Rockefeller Foundation, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, NY, NY 10036, USA. 92:6525
Woodward, F.I. (ed.), 1992. The ecological consequences or global climate change. Adv. ecol. Res., 22:337pp; 8 chapters. Eight chapters by different authors with varied scientific specializations and approaches describe
OLR (1992) 39 (12)
current research on climate change. Included are climatic response to greenhouse gases; treating general circulation models for future world-scale climatic projections; development of regional climate scenarios covering the ecological impact of greenhouse warming on a lesser scale; potential effect of change on agricultural land use; modeling the potential response of vegetation to global climate change; and effects on population dynamics of crop pests. The response of soils to climate change-their capacity to sequester carbon and their feedback potential-responses of the coastal zone; and using paleoenvironmental understanding to predict effects of man on the biosphere are also covered. (hbf)
F380. Advances in science, reviews
eral interest) 92:6526
Bell, D.R., 1992. Water in mantle minerals. [Report.] Nature, Lond., 357(6380):646-647. New experiments by Bai and Kohlstedt (1992) indicate that the hydrous component of olivine, which is a major mineral constituent of the Earth to depths of 400 km, remains stable to temperatures of 1300°C at the relatively low pressures of uppermost crust, and hence shows considerably greater thermal stability than most hydrous magnesium silicates. Other researchers at Caltech have found small, but widespread, quantities of hydrogen bound in the hydroxyl groups in common anhydrous mantle minerals, which could prove to be important reservoirs of hydrogen in the Earth's interior. Before these findings can be applied to models for the evolution of the Earth's interior and reactions within the mantle, data is needed to establish the effects of higher pressures on the solubility of H in olivine and other mantle sources. Div. of Geo!' and Planetary Sci., California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. (hbf) 92:6527
Keir, Robin, 1992. Climate change. Packing away carbon isotopes. [Report.] Nature, Lond., 357(6378):445-446. This article discusses new data relating to ice-age carbon budget. Recent analysis on buried desert shrubbery and ice-trapped gases indicate that glacial atmospheric 8 1JC values were 0.3-0.7 ppt lower than modem preindustrial values. This implies that the 8 1JC of the glacial surface ocean was 0.1-0.5 ppt lower than the modem preindustrial ocean. These
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F. Genera l
find ings present an 'accounting problem' when ice-age CO2 values are reduced by either biological pumping mechanisms or ocean circulation changes. If ice-age air-sea exchange fractionization was much more effective (e.g., by a combination of increased low-latitude pumping and decreased high latitude productivity) then predicted CO 2 and 813C values are closer to those found in the proxy records. It is hard to expla in low ice-age CO 2 solely in terms of carbon-fractionating mechanisms. OEOMAR, Christian Albrechts Univ., 2300 Kiel 14, FRO. (Ijw)
92:6528 Ramanathan, V. and W. Collins, 1992. Scientific correspondence. Thermostat and global warming. Nature, Lond., 357(6380):p.649 .
Two competing hypotheses on the limiting of SST in the western tropical Pacific are examined. One theory , the 'thermostat' hypothesis, contends that surface heating is limited by the formation and shading effect of anvil clouds. The other hypothesis contends that evaporative cooling limits SST with or without cloud formation. The authors conclude that available observational data are at variance with the 'hot patch' hypothesis and indicate just the opposite-warming of surface waters in the central equatorial Pacific is apparently accompanied by decreased evaporation. Although it is premature to extrapolate the regional cloud 'thermostat' hypothesis to global warming, the radiative-convective link established in this hypothesis may be an important clue in the global climate puzzle. Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate, Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. (rjw)
92:6529 Ramaswamy, V. and Ravindernath Nair, 1992. Measuring the monsoon. New Scient; 134(1826):31-35.
For the past six years an Indian-German team has been monitoring the effect of variations in the monsoon season on water column (and sedimentary) particulates (flux, composition, isotopic ratios, etc.) in the Arabian Sea. The idea is that, having established these effects at present, the sediment column can be used to assess the strength and variability of the monsoon in the geological past. Oeo!. Oceanogr. Div., Natl. Inst. of Oceanogr., Goa, India. (Ics)
F390. Educational literature 92:6530 Farrington, J.W. et al., 1992. Marine chemistry. Oceanus, 35(1):11-85; 10 papers.
This issue is devoted to a discussion of some aspects of modern marine chemistry. The articles discuss the effects of the excessive carbon dioxide produced by human activ ity; natural products from the ocean and their use in biomedical research; photooxidation in the ocean; organic geochemistry and biogeochemical processes-studies which range from the global carbon cycle to the historical climate record within sediments to EI Nifio and global climate change; the use of chemicals as tracers of oceanic processes; definition of physical and biological processes through particle studies; and deep-sea hydrothermal activity and associated mineral deposits. (lIt)