OIR (1984)31 (11) Italian Marine Biological Society. Naples, 20-24 September 1982.] Boil. Mus. Ist. biol. Univ. Genova, 50(Suppl. 1982):408pp; 64 papers + 28 posters. (In Italian, English abstracts.)
84:5822 Nguyen Huu Dinh et al., 1980. Collection of marine [biological] research works. Tuyen Tap Nghien Cuu Bien, 2(1):336pp; 20 papers. (Vietnamese with abstracts in English or French.) The 20 marine biology papers gathered here include: a description of a new algal species in the genus Soleria; studies of temperature and salinity effects on photosynthesis and catalase activity in Gracilaria
verrucosa; plankton in Vietnamese estuaries; primary production in Bac Bo Gulf; and aquaculture investigations (molluscs, milkfish, mullet). Inst. of Oceanogr., Natl. Center for Scientific Res. of Viet Nam, Nha Trang, Viet Nam. (msg)
84:5823 Teixeira, Lucy and Edmundo Ferraz Nonato (eds), 1980. [Proceedings of the Fifth Latin American Symposium on Biological Oceanography. Silo Paulo, 20-25 November 1978.] Bolm Inst. oceanogr., S Paulo, 29(2):1-390; 76 papers. (Portuguese or Spanish with English abstracts)
F. GENERAL F10. Apparatus, methods, mathematics
(multidisciplinary) 84:5824 Bentley, J.P., 1984. Temperature sensor characteristies and measurement system design. J. Phys., scient. Instrums, E, 17(6):430-439. The characteristics of three commonly used temperature sensors (thermistors, thermocouples, platinum resistance thermometers) are outlined. Sensor calibration and output conversion methods and applications are discussed. The integration of a microcomputer improves the accuracy of the temperature measurement system. Dept. of Elec.. Instrum. and Control Engrg., Teesside Polytechnic, Middlesbrough, Cleveland TSI 3BA, UK. (jch) 84:5825 Cavaleri, Luigi, 1984. The CNR meteo-oceanographic spar buoy. Deep-Sea Res., 31(4A):427-437. The response of a stable spar buoy to the heave, surge and pitch of waves was studied using a three-degrees-of-freedom nonlinear model. The results were compared with experimental data. Ist. per lo Studio della Dinam. delle Grandi Masse, CNR, San Polo 1364, 30125 Venezia, Italy.
84:5826 Chamberlain, S.G. (ed.), 1984. Simulation and modelling. Special issue. I E E E Jl ocean, Engng, OE-9(2):61-98; 5 papers. This special issue on simulation and modelling takes a broad definition of simulation to mean the employment of any model (even analytic ones) to a specific end. Topics include oceanic reverberation models, signal processing for wide-beam bathymetry, the use of kurtosis statistics in the frequency domain to aid random signal detection, growth of microbubbles in hydrofoil wakes, and surface projections of array beam patterns. Chamberlain is currently President of the IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society. (fcs) 84:5827 Hopkinson, C.S. Jr. and E.L. Dunn, 1984. Rapid sampling of organic matter in flooded soils and sediments. Estuaries, 7(2): 181 - ! 84. A coring system and a sediment shaking procedure are described which greatly simplify and shorten the task of macro-organic matter or root/rhizome separation from marsh soils. The methodology results in low contamination of organic matter with residual soil and does not alter tissue mineral concentrations. Univ. of Georgia Mar. Inst., Sapelo Island, Ga. 31327, USA.
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84:5828 Koepke, Peter, 1984. Effective reflectance of oceanic whitecaps. AppL Opt., 23(11):1816-1824. The effective reflectance of foam due to whitecapping is found to be about 22% in the visible spectrum. When this is combined with estimates of the fraction of the sea surface covered by foam, the effect of white-capping on sea surface albedo agrees well with satellite-measured radiances and albedo. This new estimate of effective reflectance is more than a factor of 2 less than estimates commonly used in remote sensing and radiation budget studies. Meteorol. Inst., Univ. of Munich, D-8 Munich 2, FRG. (jfp) 84:5829 Mackie, A.M. et al., 1982. [Review and discussion of biochemical techniques in the marine environment.] Pubis Cent. natn. Exploit. Oceans, CNEXO, Act. Colloq., 14:434 pp; 33 papers. (French with some English.) This volume contains a collection of papers presented at a meeting in France of marine biochemists and biologists. Topics span four main areas: dissolved and particulate matter (chemoreception, sex pheromones, primary production, humic substances, etc.); physiology of secondary and tertiary producers (zooplankton nutrition and physiology, NH 4 excretion, crab physiology, etc.); mariculture and aquaculture; and environmental contamination (organics, metals, radioactivity, oil). (mjj) 84:5830 McMiUin, L.M. and D.S. Crosby, 1984. Theory and validation of the multiple window sea surface temperature technique. J. geophys, Res., 89(C3): 3655-3661. The development of the 'split window' approach for correcting satellite measurement of radiance for atmospheric attenuation is reviewed. Ground truth for the comparisons comes from buoys; satellite measurements were screened for clouds. Using this data set, several statistical analyses showed that, when the two channels that are truly a split window (not, e.g., 3.8 gm with 10-12 #m channels) are used, the statistical model agrees with theoretical considerations. The method is capable of producing sea surface temperatures with a standard deviation of 1 K or less. Natl. Environ. Satellite, Data, and Infor. Serv., NOAA, Washington, DC 20233, USA. 84:5831 Smith, R.W. and R.S. Peterson, 1984. Dynamic and diffusive growth of microbubbles near a two-
dimensional hydrofoil. (Invited paper.) IEEE Jl ocean. Engng, OE-9(2):93-97. A technique for predicting bubble growth along a 2-D hydrofoil with traveling bubble cavitation is based on the dynamic response of ambient microbubbles to the flow field and the subsequent diffusion of dissolved air into the flow field cavities. The bubble growth model is divided into three components, including prediction of (1) hydrofoil surface pressure distribution, (2) ambient microbubble response to the pressure distribution, and (3) the diffusive mass flow rate. The effect of the relative velocity of the cavitation bubbles with respect to the surrounding water is investigated as well as the significance of the mass diffusion term in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Naval Coastal Systems Center, Panama City, Fla. 32407, USA. 84:5832 Stewart, R.H., 1984. Oceanography from space. A. Rev. Earth planet. Sci., 12:61-82. The historic lack of a global perspective in studies of the ocean and atmosphere is now being filled through the use of satellite sensing. The various instruments in use and the specific measurements (ocean currents, surface wind speed, wave height, cloud cover, etc.) they can obtain are discussed. Perhaps the most interesting and useful result of satellite oceanography is the ability to integrate large batches of data gathered from the same area by different instruments. Other important uses for satellites include providing precise navigation and quick transfer of data from shore to ship and vice versa. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La Jolla, Calif. 92093, USA. (jch)
F40. Area studies, surveys (multidisciplinary) 84:5833 Fedra, K. et al., 1983/84. Modelling in linmology. Special issue. Ecol. Model., 21(4):209-337; 7 papers. 84:5834 Hallfors, Guy, Elina Leskinen and Ake Niemi, 1983. Hydrography, chlorophyll a and nutrients in Tvga'minne Stodj~ml, Gulf of Finland, in 1979/80. W. & A. Nottbeck Fdn scient. Repts, 4:19pp. Univ. of Helsinki, Tvarminne Zool. Sta., SF10850 Tvarminne, Finland. 84:5835 Shannon, L.V. (arranger), 1984. The science of the Banguela ecosystem: the Benguela 'warm event'
F. General of 1982-3. (Symposium, Cape Town, 31 August 1983.) S. Afr. J. Sci., 80(2):50-100; 11 papers.
The symposium was convened to discuss the oceanographic and atmospheric anomalies associated with the 'warm event' and some of the effects on marine fauna. The consequences for pelagic fisheries, spawning of anchovy, intertidal and shallow-water communities, and seabird breeding were addressed in four papers. Seven contributions described temperature, salinity, wind, sea level and upwelling anomalies observed during the event. A retrospective paper summarized the highlights of the symposium. (msg) 84:5836 Woodroffe, C.D., 1983. The impact of Cyclone Isaac on the coast of Tonga. Pacif. Sci., 37(3): 181-210. The effects of Cyclone Isaac (3 March 1982) on southern Tonga are described. Little previous work had been done regarding the impact of tropical storms on the raised limestone and sand islands of the southwest Pacific. Destruction of coastal vegetation was extensive, but regrowth has been rapid. Apparently, the effects of hurricane force storms on raised reefal limestone coasts are less serious than on other isolated atolls in the Pacific. Australian Natl. Univ., North Australia Res. Unit., P.O. Box 41321, Casuarina, N.T. 5792, Australia. (jch)
F70. Atlases, bibliographies, databases, etc. 84:5837 Joint Oceanographic Institutions Inc., 1984. Ocean
Margin Drilling Program Regional ATLAS Sedes. Thirteen volumes. Marine Science International, 3 Water St., Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, U.S.A. The JOI Science Advisory Committee determined that 'baseline' regional syntheses would precede ocean margin drilling at the various sites. Some 85 scientists, representing 25 institutions, participated in the effort which resulted in this series of 13 atlases. Each regional atlas contains 20-50 spiral-bound, large format maps of bathymetry, gravity, magnetics, geology, tectonics and lithofacies; many contain reflection profiles and cross-sections. Most maps are 2-color at a scale of 1:2,000,000. Each volume also contains references. The four published so far (Vols. 2-5) cover the eastern North American margin. Still to come are atlases for western North America, Gulf of Mexico, Middle America Trench, Galapagos
OLR (1984)31 t t I )
Spreading Center, Peru-Chile Trench, Lesser Antilles, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (22°-28°N), Northwest Africa, and the South Atlantic/Antarctic margins. Base price per volume is $30.00. (fcs)
F100. Expeditions, research programs, etc. 84:5838 Anonymous, 1984. The Oceanography Report. The Pacific and its influence. Information Report. Eos, 65(18):p.338. The NOAA ship Researcher and an Orion P-3 aircraft will operate in concert this spring in the equatorial Pacific for the purpose of studying the ocean-atmosphere relationship. Acid rain, El Nifio, and the atmospheric buildup of CO 2 are among the phenomena to be investigated. The survey also will contribute data to NOAA's Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies program. (jch) 84:5839 Augstein, Ernst, Gotthilf Hempel and J0rn Thiede, 1984. [Cruise report of the R/V Polmstern, ARKTIS I: physical and biological investigations in the marginal pack ice zone and geological studies off the Lofoten Islands.] Repts polar Res. (Ber. Polarforsch.), 17:75 pp. (German with some English.)
Fll0. Meetings, seminars, committees 84:5840 Andersen, N.R. and F.L. Herr, 1984. The Oceanography Report. Symposia on chemical oceanography. Information report. Eos, 65(18):p.338. The fifth Dissertations Symposium on Chemical Oceanography (DISCO) was completed on March 9, 1984. Sponsored by the U.S. ONR, NSF and NOAA, the series was initiated to introduce new Ph.D.'s and late stage doctoral candidates to the missions and operational procedures of the sponsoring agencies and to foster professional relationships. Applications are invited for the sixth DISCO, to be held in October, 1985. Natl. Sci. Foundation, Washington, DC 20550, USA. (jch)
F130. Institutions and services 84:5841 Kerr, A.J. et al., 1983. [Surveys and services of the Bedford Institute of Oceanography.I BIO Rev., 1983:92pp.
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The review highlights surveys, monitoring, charts, atlases, data reports, and instrumentation development at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography. Selected topics include: data gathering on the water column and resources (living and non-living); data processing, archiving and availability; data-collection instrument design; and environmental concerns and the fisheries management advisory process. Information is provided on 1982 voyages and on laboratory projects, organization and personnel. (ihz)
F170. Engineering and industry 84:5842 Association de Recherche sur le B6ton En Mer, 1983. Behaviour of offshore concrete structures. 2nd International Symposium, Paris, 12-14 October 1982. Publs Cent. natn. Exploit. Oceans, CNEXO, Act. Colloq., 15:567pp. 48 papers. (Papers in French with English abstracts, a few papers in English.) 84:5843 Glasscock, M.S. and L.D. Finn, 1984. Design of guyed tower for 1,000 ft of water. J. struct. Engng, Am. Soc. cir. Engrs, 110(5):1083-1098. Installation of Exxon's Lena guyed tower in 1000 ft of water has culminated 12 yr of guyed tower technology development. The platform is the world's tallest and second deepest. The platform design is reviewed with emphasis on features unique to a guyed tower; buoyancy tank, guyed system, pile foundation, transportation and launch, structural, and pipeline riser designs are covered, as are severe storm and fatigue analyses. Exxon Co., U.S.A., P.O. 2189, Houston, Tex. 77001, USA. 84:5844 Shields, D.H., L. Domaschuk, D.W. Corkal and J.R. McCutchon, 1984. Controlfing sand placement during the building of artificial islands. Can. geotech. J., 21(2):371-375. A new way to construct artificial islands of sand is described. Present high cost of island building is due to the difficulty of making underwater sand slopes steep; shallow slopes have enormous implications in terms of sand volume and cost. Small-scale model tests show that if the sand is mixed with certain chemicals (polyvinyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol) the resulting 'cohesion' enables the sand to fall through seawater as a block, with little dispersion. Steep underwater slopes result. Civil Engng. Dept., Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2N2, Canada.
FI90. Navigation, cartography, etc. 84:5845 Liang, D.F., J.C. McMillan, M.F. Vinnins, A. Ficko, B.G. Fletcher and C.A. Maskell, 1983/84. Low cost integrated marine navigation system. Navigation, Washington D.C., 30(4):281-299. Enhanced navigational accuracy, mission reliability, and operational efficiency are among the benefits provided by a new, low-cost, microprocessor-based Marine Integrated Navigation System (MINS). Two configurations are available: MINS-A, which works with a gyrocompass, EM or Doppler log and radio receivers such as Loran C and Omega, and MINS-B, which extends this capability by integrating SATNAV and NAVSTAR/GPS type receivers. Hardware, software, operational features, and sea trial and simulation analysis results are described briefly. Defence Res. Estab., Ottawa, Canada. (jch)
F220. Medicine and public health 84:5846 Accorinti, J., 1983. Antifungal product from algal origin. (Review.) Revue int. Oc~anogr. M~d., 72:45-53. Forty-five algal specimens from different taxonomic groups (10 freshwater, 35 marine) are listed; all produce antipathogenic substances against the yeast mold, Candida albicans and other lower fungi. It appears that the polyenic fractions are responsible for the antibiotic response. Dept. of Biol. Sci., Univ. of Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina. (ahm)
F250. Waste disposal and pollution (see also B350-Atmospheric pollution, C210Water pollution, E300-Effects of pollution) 84:5847 Bond, D.H., 1984. At-sea incineration of hazardous waste. The risk is yet to be justified. Environ. Sci. Technol., 18(5): I48A-152A. Permanent disposal of hazardous waste by burning at sea may seem an ideal solution to a growing problem, but experience to date is not supportive. Measurement and sampling failures of the two EPA-approved 'research burns' are summarized and include: the absence of feed rate measurement of either waste or combustion air, the absence of particle measurements in stack gases, questionable
incinerator temperature measurements, and invalid accuracy of destruction efficiencies. It is recommended that past performance be closely reviewed before future research burns are permitted. Desmond Bond, Inc., 2416 Luckett Ave., Vienna, Va. 22180, USA. (bwt)
84:5848 Ferguson, J.F. and Lasse Vr~de, 1984. Chemical aspects of the lime seawater process. J. Wat. Pollut. Control Fed., 56(4):355-363. When lime is used for the removal of suspended solids and phosphate in wastewater treatment, blending in a small percentage of seawater renders the treatment substantially more effective. After briefly describing the chemistry of the lime-seawater process, its potential application to wastewater treatment in the coastal United States is discussed. This process, untried in the U.S., has been used extensively in Norway for nearly a decade. Dept. of Civil Engng., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 98195, USA. (bwt)
84:5849 Francis, T.J.G., 1984. A review of lOS [Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, U.K.I research into the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the oceans. Sci. total Environment, 35(3):301323. During the period 1979-1984, the IOS carried out feasibility studies covering all disciplines of oceanography related to deep-sea, high-level nuclear waste disposal. While much progress has been made toward understanding the effects of various disposal methods, much remains to be done; this paper reviews IOS research. Seismic, geochemical, physical, biological, and engineering studies will proceed in the Great Meteor East area in the next few years as the research effort is focused. Inst. of Oceanogr. Sci., Wormley, Godalming, Surrey, UK. (jch)
84:5850 Hartje, V.J., 1984. Oil pollution caused by tanker accidents: liability versus regulation. Nat. Resour. J., 24(1):41-60. The control of oil pollution is usually attempted through taxes, property rights and regulation. The potential contribution of liability law to pollution prevention is assessed under the assumption that forced compensation for damages to individuals would serve as a deterrent to the originator of the damage. Weaknesses in liability law are examined. It is concluded that strict liability, coupled with compulsory liability insurance, could play a supplementary role in pollution control. However, to be
OLR (1984) 31 ( 1 I)
of more significance liability laws should make ~t easier for victims of pollution to claim compensation. Intnl. Inst. for Environ. and Society, Science Center Berlin, FRG. (bwt)
84:5851 Joyner, C.C., 1984. Oceanic pollution and the Southern Ocean: rethinking the international legal implications for Antarctica. Nat. Resour. J., 24(1): 1-40. Linked to economic development are concomitant costs of resource depletion and environmental degradation. These costs, paid by many, could negate the benefits gained by a few if resource exploitation in Antarctica proceeds without caution. The geopolitical problems implicit in Antarctic resource exploitation and marine pollution are discussed and political challenges facing international law are emphasized. Dept. of Political Sci., The George Washington Univ., Washington, DC, USA. (bwt)
84:5852 Lahey, W.L., 1984. Economic charges for environmental protection: ocean dumping fees. Ecology Law Q., 11(3):305-342. The history of ocean dumping regulation has been uneven and inequitable. An ocean dumping fee might redress these defects and reverse unnecessary environmental deterioration. After a review of the background of ocean dumping the concept of an ocean dumping fee is examined. Included is an analysis of the failure of the existing system, a summary of economic theory that supports a user-fee system and a discussion of the administrative-legal-political implications involved. (bwt)
F260. Resources, management, economics 84:5853 Anderson, lan, 1984. America is ready to mine Pacific floor. New Scient., 102(1409):p.6. Since the establishment of the 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone, pros, cons, and opinions on seabed mining have been voiced by groups ranging from the U.S. Department of the Interior and coastal states to myriad scientific, industrial and environmental groups. In most cases, the economics of such mining are far from certain, and debate surrounds the planned lease of areas off Hawaii and California.
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84:5854 Cole, H.A., 1984. Marine nature reserves and marine plaaning, Editorial. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 15(4): 123-124. As the United Kingdom proceeds with plans to establish a number of Marine Nature Reserves, problems of conflicting interests among industrialists, commercial fishermen, recreationists, etc. will require resolution. The author suggests that certain activities be afforded priority in designated areas but that large areas be left uncontrolled. (msg)
84:5855 Flynn, J.B., N.R. Martin Jr. and G.D. Hanson, 1984. Effects of capital rationing and tax incentives on the internal growth of an aquacnitural firm. Aquaculture, 38(3):261-273. USAID, APO, Monrovia, Liberia. 84:5856 Grigg, R.W., 1984. Resource management of precious corals: a review and application to shallow-water reef building corals. Mar. Ecol. (P.S.Z.N. I), 5(1):57-74. This review of the ecology and history of precious corals emphasizes 'modern attempts of resource management using fishery models.' The application of Beverton and Holt's mathematical model to management of precious corals and shallow-water reef building corals is discussed. Hawaii Inst. of Mar. Biol., Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96744, USA. (ahm) 84:5857 Stutz, B.D., 1984. Catch as catch can. With more U.S. fishermen using better-equipped boats competing for a limited resource, both fishermen and fish are in trouble. Technol. Rev., 87(4):68-74. With the passage of the Magnuson Fisheries Act in 1976 establishing U.S. control out to 200 miles, the fishing industry took 'the plunge into high technology.' With government assistance, fishing vessels took on the high tech look of their foreign competition, and in 1977 foreign catches decreased as domestic catches increased. Whether supply would outstrip demand and whether the fisheries could stand increased harvesting brought predictions, later fulfilled, of depleted fish stocks, rising costs, and ultimately decreased income for fishermen. The fishing industry must now 'recognize that commercial fishing is changing and needs updateO management.' (dgs)
F280. Policy, law, treaties 84:5858 de Cuellar, J.P., 1983. [United Nations: Third U.N. Conference on the Law of the Sea. Report of the U.N. Sceretary -General.] Reprinted in: Int. leg. Mater., 22(6): 1322-1342. The report covers the closing session of UNCLOS III, signing of the final act and opening of the convention for signature; status of the convention; status of plans for the International Seabed Authority and the International Tribunal for LOS; decisions on administrative matters with respect to the Secretary--General's ongoing role; requirements for servicing the Preparatory Commission; and conclusions and recommendations. (fcs) 84:5859 Filardi, Linda, 1984. Canadian perspectives on seabed mining: the case of the production limitation formula. Ocean Dev. int. Law, 13(4):457-477. The production limitation formula for seabed mining was added to the UNCLOS treaty deliberations by land-based, mineral producers and exporters concerned that minerals from the seabed would compete with their products. Although the majority of land-based producers are LDC's with a substantial economic stake in preserving their markets, Canada, ranking fifth in overall mineral production, also had a legitimate concern. The author argues that by strongly advocating the formula, Canada alienated the United States and various Canadian industrialists and government officials, and most importantly, forfeited her ability as a 'middle power' to negotiate a seabed regime acceptable to Western industrialized powers and the Group of 77. Allied Bank International, New York, N.Y., USA. (msg) 84:5860
Harvey, Susan, 1984. Federal consistency and OCS oil and gas development: a review and assessment of the 'directly affecting' controversy. Ocean Dev. int. Law, 13(4):481-515. Natl. Mar. Pollution Program Off., NOAA, Rockville, Md. USA. 84:5861 McDorman, T.L., 1984. The 1982 Law of the Sea Convention: the first year. J. marit. Law Commerce, 15(2):211-232. The Law of the Sea Convention covers a broad spectrum of ocean issues, and takes a sophisticated approach to complex ocean management problems. Individual states are currently deciding whether or not to ratify the comprehensive convention, while simultaneously considering new national legislative and institutional initiatives required to implement it.
In spite of an abrupt about face by the United States the treaty was overwhelmingly adopted by UNCLOS II in 1982. The major international institution created by the convention--the International Seabed Authority--is now being established. If the convention is not ratified its restraining pressures will disappear and the trend toward increased sovereignty zones will continue. Even if never ratified the 'creation of the LOS Convention will remain as a tangible accomplishment of UNCLOS III.' Dalhousie Ocean Stud. Prog., Halifax, NS, Canada. (bwt) 84:5862 Miller, D.S., 1984. Offshore federalism: evolving federal-state relations in offshore oil and gas development. Ecology Law Q., 11(3):401-450.
Shared jurisdiction of the submerged lands off U.S. shores by state and federal governments has evolved through a series of court decisions and legislative actions. This evolution is traced, beginning with an 1845 Supreme Court decision supporting state title to all submerged land, up to the 1984 decision that OCS lease sales do not need to be consistent with state CZM plans. Miller argues that due to the unbalanced distribution of OCS oil development costs and benefits, coastal states will be more responsive to environmental concerns and social needs than federal agencies and that shared jurisdiction as defined by the Coastal Zone Management Act is an appropriate balance. (bwt) 84:5863 Moore, S.H. (chairman, Marine Resources Committee, ABA Section of Natural Resources Law.), 1984. [Report: Marine resources---legal activity.] Nat. Resour. Law., 17(2):197-223.
Six major federal laws--the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, Endangered Species Act, Marine Mammals Protection Act, Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act, Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, and the Coastal Zone Management Act--are discussed in terms of recent legislative, judicial and administrative developments. 84:5864 Van Dyke, J.M. and D.L. Teichmann, 1984. Transfer of seabed mining technology: a stumbling block to U.S. ratification of the Law of the Sea Convention? Ocean Dev. int. Law, 13(4):427-447.
The United Nations Declaration of Principles of 1970 introduced the concept that the resources of the seabed are the 'common heritage' of humankind. This concept is translated into action by the transfer
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of technology provisions of the Law of the Sea Convention. Because of these provisions, the U.S. refuses to ratify the Convention. The technology transfer provisions are reviewed; although ambiguous they could be clarified by the Preparatory Conference. 'Technology transfer is an established tool for promoting development' and is not incompatible with U.S. interests. Univ. of Hawaii Sch. of Law, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. (bwt) 84:5865 Vranesh, George (chairman, Water Resources Committee, ABA Section of Natural Resources Law), 1984. [Report: Water resources--legal activity.I Nat. Resour. Law., 17(2):307-325.
F310. Contemporary development of science (especially oceanography) 84:5866 Walsh, John, 1984. China-U.S. science cooperation blooming. Science, 224(4652):967-968.
An estimated 10,000 Chinese scholars are presently in the U.S. as a part of U.S.-China exchange agreements; intergovernmental protocols are increasing. Initially concentrated in the basic sciences, Chinese exchange scholars and students now represent a broader disciplinary range including applied sciences, engineering, economics and finance. Cooperative efforts are also increasing in joint research projects and between professional organizations and industrial groups. (bwt)
F330. History of science (especially oceanography) 84:5867 Montalenti, Giuseppe, 1983. Darwin: the new idea of life. Scientia, 118(1-8):5-344; 10 papers.
This collection comprises papers by scientists and science historians dealing entirely with the theories of Charles Darwin. The fruits of Darwinism and resultant new fields of research are assessed. Specific topics covered include metaphysics, punctuated equilibrium theory, behavior, Darwinism in Italy and Russia, scientific freedom and 'historicity' in science. Univ. di Roma, Italy. (mjj)
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F340. Biographies, obituaries, etc. 84:5868 Blanchard, D.C., 1984. The life and science of Alfred H. Woodcock. Bull. Am. met. Soc., 65(5):457-463. Alfred H. Woodcock's long career as oceanographer and meteorologist was his 26th line of work in the 10 years following his graduation from high school (which marked the end of his formal education). He discovered Woods Hole in 1930 under purely serendipitous circumstances, and didn't leave until 1963, when he moved to Hawaii to more easily pursue his studies of tropical rain formation. In 1983 at age 77 he was still making trips up Mauna Kea to study rain. But Woodcock also studied herring gulls, and boundary layer circulation based on the gulls' flight behavior; Physalia, and surface circulation based on their motions; not to mention Sargassum and its buoyancy regulation; sea salt aerosols; bubble formation and bursting; or his work in the war years on underwater acoustics, wake suppression and smoke screens. When told by a stewardess that God makes it rain, Woodcock is said to have replied that if so, then 'we want to know exactly how he does it.' Atmos. Sci. Res. Center, SUNY, Albany, N.Y. 12222, USA. (fcs)
F370. Multidisciplinary scientific studies (general interest) 84:5869 Beament, James, A.D. Bradshaw, P.F. Chester, M.W. Holdgate, Morris Sugden and B.A. Thrush (eds.), 1984. Ecological effects of deposited sulphur and nitrogen compounds. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)305(1124):255-577; 22 papers. The 22 papers include discussions on atmospheric transport and transformation, effects of acidification on North American fisheries, and mechanisms responsible for the fishery decline. The majority of the contributions are concerned with acidification of terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. (msg) 84:5870 Bender, M.L., 1984. On the relationship between ocean chemistry and atmospheric pCO2 during the Cenozoic. Geophys. Monogr. Am. geophys. Un., 29(Maurice Ewing Ser. 5):352-359. Using a simple two-box model of ocean chemistry, no major variations of pCO 2 were implied by the observed range of Cenozoic deep ocean temperature, carbonate compensation depth, or seawater calcium concentrations, pCO 2 changes associated with the poorly constrained or simply unknown variations in
the deep ocean total and preformed nutrient concentrations, and in the ratio of CaCO3/CH20 in the raining particulate matter, were probably also small, but the results were equivocal. It is not yet possible to place useful limits on paleoatmospheric pCO 2 from the sedimentary record. Grad. Sch. of Oceanogr., Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. 84:5871 Berger, W.H. and R.S. Keir, 1984. Glaclal-Holocene changes in atmospheric CO2 and the deep-sea record. Geophys. Monogr. Am. geophys. Un., 29(Maurice Ewing Ser. 5):337-351. It appears that Broecker's (1982) phosphate-extraction model has to be modified by decoupling a fertility decrease of the ocean from organic carbon buildup on the shelves, because of constraints imposed by the foraminiferal ~3C signal. Denitrification and carbon/carbonate rain ratios are possible mechanisms. Buildup of shelf carbonates during deglacial transgression may deliver considerable CO 2 to the atmosphere via decreasing upper ocean alkalinity. This mechanism relies heavily on decreased mixing to retard equilibration with the deep sea. Holocene increase in the dissolution of deep sea carbonates may yield constraints on shelf carbonate buildup. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La Jolla, Calif. 92093, USA. 84:5872 Chao, B.F., 1984. Interannnal length-of-day variation with relation to the Southern Oscillation/El Nifio. Geophys. Res. Letts, 11(5):541-544. For the period 1957-1983, the two series show a very encouraging qualitative correlation, in particular with respect to E1 Nifio events; the linear correlation coefficient is 0.55. It is believed that much, if not most, interannual length-of-day variation is caused by the Southern Oscillation, and the true correlation is considerably higher than its apparent value as the Southern Oscillation Index is merely an indicator derived from two local atmospheric measurements. Geodynam. Br., Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771, USA. 84:5g'/3 Cogley, J.G. and A. Henderson-Sellers, 1984. The origin and earliest state of the Earth's hydrosphere. Revs Geophys. Space Phys~ 22(2): 131-175. A variety of model studies suggests that the Earth's hydrosphere came into being during accretion, and has persisted without major changes. Water was present mostly in the oceans, CO 2 in the sediments, and the residual atmosphere was made up largely of
nitrogen, water and CO 2. Geological isotope systems indicate an early separation of the atmosphere, and probably of the hydrosphere as a whole, and an early origin of the biosphere. Though the early Sun was probably less luminous than today, surface temperatures were close to present values. A near-global ocean and cloudy atmosphere provide feedbacks that work against either a runaway greenhouse or a deep freeze; large land surfaces have an opposing tendency. Localized glacier ice may have been a favorable location for chemical evolution. Includes ca. 300 references. Dept. of Geogr., Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ont. K9J 7B8, Canada. (jfp)
84:5874 Dansgaard, W. et al., 1984. North Atlantic climatic oscillations revealed by deep Greenland ice cores. Geophys. Monogr. Am. geophys. Un., 29(Maurice Ewing Ser. 5):288-298.
Five long-term oxygen isotope (~) records along ice cores are discussed, in particular two with persistent 8 oscillations with a quasi-periodicity of ca. 2550 years. The ~ cycles in the Wisconsin glaciation cannot be ascribed to discontinuities in the cores, nor to ice-dynamic instabilities in the ice sheet. Holocene 6 cycles are less pronounced, but they are concurrent with the fluctuating glacial extension elsewhere. An anti-correlation with ~4C concentration in atmospheric CO: and with ~°Be deposition rates on the ice sheets suggests a connection between climate and solar processes. Geophys. Isotope Lab., Univ. of Copenhagen, Haraldsgade 6, DK-22000, Copenhagen, Denmark.
84:5875 Hartman, Blayne and D.E. Hammond, 1984. Gas exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces in south San Francisco Bay. J. geophys. Res., 89(C3):3593-3603.
Using radon as a tracer, gas exchange rates across the sediment/water and air/water interfaces and gas concentrations in water and sediment columns were calculated. Benthic fluxes were greater than expected from molecular diffusion, probably due to macrofaunal irrigation. Radon transfer from water to air depended on wind speed, not current velocity. Gas transfer coefficients empirically predicted from wind speed were close to values derived from a mass balance, and were 'more accurate than coefficients predicted from thepretical gas exchange models.' Union Sci. and Tech. Div., 376 South Valencia Ave., Brea, Calif. 92621, USA. (mjj)
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84:5876 Semtner, A.J. Jr., 1984. The climatic response of the Arctic Ocean to Soviet river diversions. Clim. Change, 6(2): 109-130.
The effect of variable river runoff is investigated using a 3-D numerical model which includes some simplified ice dynamics and hydrodynamics. When integrated with present runoff and atmospheric conditions, the model gives a realistic account of water masses and circulation. The effect of the maximum planned runoff diversion is found to be overall fairly small. Specifically, deep convection does not occur in the Eurasian Basin, though vertical stability is substantially decreased. There is some heat loss from Atlantic layer water before it enters the Central Arctic, but ice extent is barely changed. These results generally confirm forecasts made by Soviet investigators. Climate Sect., NCAR, Boulder. Colo. 80307, USA. (jfp) 84:5877 Viecelli, J.A., 1984. The atmospheric carbon dioxide response to oceanic primary productivity fluctuations. Clim. Change, 6(2):153-166.
A time-dependent model of the ocean which balances the downward transport of organic particulate matter with the 'upward hydrodynamic mixing of dissolved inorganic carbon...is used to make rough estimates of the effect of periodic and impulsive changes in the rate of primary production on the atmospheric CO 2 concentration.' A 1% decrease in productivity might cause a steady increase in atmospheric CO 2 (0.5-2.5%). A major, short term fluctuation in productivity would produce a smaller perturbation. Univ. of California, Lawrence Livermore Natl. Lab., Livermore, Calif. 94550, USA. (msg)
F380. Advances in science, reviews (general interest) 84:5878 Friend, P.F., 1984. Storms in the abyss. (Report.) Nature, Lond., 309(5965):p.212.
The study area (2 × 4 km; ~ 5 km deep; below the Gulf Stream south of Halifax, Nova Scotia) experiences intermittent and reversing current surges of speeds :>0.3 m/s; these storm periods may last for days to weeks. High eddy kinetic energy in deep waters often occurs below surface waters of high eddy kinetic energy. These vigorous currents 'erode and transport large amounts of the fine-grained sediment.' A few small areas with strong deep
OLR (1984) 31 (I I)
currents may be the sources of 'most of the suspended muddy material of the world's oceans.' Dept. of Earth Sci., Univ. of Cambridge, Downing St., Cambridge CB2 3EQ, UK. (ahm) 84:5879
Gribbin, John, 1984. The world's beaches are vanishing. New Scient., 102(1409):30-32. An International Geographical Union global survey has recently confirmed earlier impressions that the world's sandy coastlines have been receding rapidly, particularly in recent decades and centuries. Erosion of one area is not necessarily matched by sand accumulation elsewhere. Also, while some erosion is accelerated by human activity, much is unrelated. 'The next phase of [IGU] research will investigate the factors which are most important in causing beach erosion in specific regions.' (jch) 84:5880
Jacobs, J.A., 1984. What triggers reversals of the Earth's magnetic field? (Report.) Nature, Lond., 309(5964):p. 115. Until there is a clearer understanding of how the Earth's magnetic field is even generated 'any correlation of reversals with surface phenomena must remain highly speculative.' There is, however, some interesting work on the possibility of reversals being triggered by changes at the upper and lower boundaries of the outer core. This report discusses the recently reported work of Olson (1983) where reversals are explained in terms of fluctuations in turbulence, caused by the opposite helicities of energy sources associated with heat loss at the core-mantle boundary and progressive growth of the inner core. Dept. of Earth Sci., Univ. of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0EZ, UK. (fcs) 84:5881
Rose, D.J., M.M. Miller and Carson Agnew, 1984. Reducing the problem of global warming. Technol. Rev., 87(4):49-58. Based on a study they conducted for the National Science Foundation [Global energy futures and CO2-induced climate change, MIT/Stanford, 1983], the authors conclude that the projected doubling of atmospheric CO 2 can be slowed by several centuries. Other such suggestions have been rejected as politically or economically unfeasible; the strategy offered here 'does not require major alterations in energy use.' By maintaining the present level of CO 2 input to the atmosphere and increasing energy end-use efficiency on a global scale by only about 1% per year, CO 2 could be held to about 420 ppm (from the present 338) by 2050. Exercising any of the
other CO2-benig n options (increasing the role of nuclear power, greater utilization of non-fossil energy sources) would reduce the projected increase still further. But 'leadership in implementing policies...in the best interests of all nations...must take place before clear evidence of a warming and identification of the winners and losers.' Dept. of Nuclear Engng., MIT, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA. (sir) 84:5882
Sleep, N.H., 1984. Contraction and stretching in basin formation. (Report.) Nature, Lond., 308(5962): p.771. Cochran's (1983) model of basin formation, wherein subsidence is 'attributed to both thermal contraction and lithosphere stretching,' is considered briefly as to its basic concepts, relationships to previous work, and applicability--'probably accurate enough' for investigating 'petroleum maturity,' with the caveat to 'give careful attention to seismic sections...because the importance of slow rifting must be recognized.' Dept. of Geophys., Stanford Univ., Stanford, Calif. 94305, USA. (ihz) 84:5883
Smith, J.M., 1984. Evolution. Palaeontology at the high table. Report. Nature, Lond., 309(5967): 401-402. Palaeontologists have tended to be ignored since the rise of the 'modern [evolutionary] synthesis' and its domination by geneticists. But in recent years, as Stephen Jay Gould's address at the Tanner Lectures demonstrated, that has changed. It is the palaeontologists (Gould and others) who have introduced the ideas of 'punctuated equilibria' (in which long periods of stasis are only infrequently broken by speciation) and 'hierarchical evolution' (which essentially argues that selective forces can act at genetic and species levels in addition to acting on individuals). And it is they who have uncovered the evidence that catastrophism and sudden extinctions may permit the radiation of other groups in the absence of interspecific competition. Univ. of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, Sussex BN1 9QG, UK. (fcs) 84:5884
Tett, Paul, 1984. Fixation of CO z in dark midwater zones of the ocean. (Report.) Nature, Lond, 309(5963):p. 14. Reviewed here is Karl's paper (in this same issue of Nature) documenting the presence in the midwater zone of chemolithotrophic denitrifying bacteria which obtain sufficient energy from ammonium oxidation to reduce CO 2 to organic compounds.
Rates of NH4 oxidation and subsequent CO 2 fixation reported by Karl agree with estimates of tropical oceanic primary production. The evolution and role of chemolithotrophy are briefly discussed. Dunstaffnage Mar. Res. Lab., Scottish Mar. Biol. Assoc., P.O. Box 3, Oban Argyll PA34 4AD, Scotland. (mjj) 84:5885 Wiseman, W.J. Jr., C.N.K. Mooers and G.Z. Forristall, 1984. Ocean current processes. Ocean Sci. Engng, 8(4):367-459.
This paper catalogs and discusses the ocean current processes that may impact offshore industrial operations. The discussion and bibliography (~150 entries) are extensive, but not exhaustive. The review is designed to be an introduction for engineers with little or no knowledge of physical oceanographic processes. Coastal Stud. Inst., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, La. 70803, USA.
F390. Educational literature 84:5886 Brock, R.G., 1984. El Nifio and world climate: piecing together the puzzle. Environment, 26(3):14-20, 37-39.
Over the past 20 years, a new world-climate view has been emerging of an ordered Earth system that interacts in its various elements. The spectacular weather of 1983 offered an exceptional opportunity to analyze ocean-atmosphere interactions; scientists have come to agree that many of the year's violent climatic events can be traced to El Niflo. 84:5887 Grove, J.S., 1984. At the heart of El Nifio: too warm waters surround the Gabipagos Islanas. Oceans, 17(3):3-8.
The relatively isolated chain of islands known as the Gal~tpagos provides an ideal setting for studying the effects of the most recent E1 Nifio (1982/83). Previously variant seawater temperature regions became equalized, warmer than normal; the customary upwelling was absent. Many organisms, both sea and land, suffered to the extent of raising the specter of local extinction. Interestingly, the same aberrant conditions caused many other species to thrive. Observations of the local flora and fauna in the ensuing years may lead to further elucidation of the theory of natural selection. (jch) 84:5888 Knauss, J.A., 1984. Is the ocean a proper resting place for radioactive material? Maritimes, 28(2): 11-13.
OLR (1984) 31 (1 I)
Increasing volumes of radioactive waste make it likely that the oceans will be used as a waste depository in the future. Such disposal is now prohibited by the 1974 'London Dumping Convention.' Ocean disposal probably is safer than land disposal for low-level radioactive waste, but longterm effects are unknown. Mistakes might be harder to correct at an ocean site. The 'ocean community' is called upon to procure the necessary knowledge and develop the necessary technology either to oppose or assist in ocean disposal of radioactive waste. GSO, URI, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. (mjj) 84:5889 Maranto, Gina, 1984. Inferno in paradise. A dramatic double eruption of Hawaii's volcanoes threatens a city but gives geologists a new look into the Earth's interior. Discover, 5(6):88-92.
The double eruption of the volcanoes Mauna Loa (the world's tallest active volcano) and Kilauea on the island of Hawaii gave scientists an extraordinary chance to examine 'hotspot' volcanoes and was 'a bonanza for geophysicists and geochemists who are trying to explain the structure and chemical composition of the planet's interior.' Here an overview ~f hotspot volcanism is presented and contrasted to plate boundary volcanism; current theories of plume origins and mechanisms are described, (dgs) 84:5890 McGregor, B.A., 1984. The submerged continental margin. (Geologic processes in the deep sea off North America.) Am. Scient., 72(3):275-281.
Creation of an Exclusive Economic Zone extending U.S. control 200 nautical miles beyond the coastline coincident with technological advances, such as long and medium-range sidescan sonar and deep-diving submersibles which enable us to 'see' and sample the deep-sea floor, has opened up a vast new area for scientific exploration. Accumulated evidence emphasizes the role of erosion (both subaerial during periods of lowered sea levels and submarine by the action of density currents, slumping, benthic organisms, and ocean currents) in the formation of canyons and valleys cut far below the present sea level. Further investigation should provide information on processes, frequency, and age of erosional events, as well as on the location of petroleum and mineral deposits. USGS, Mail Stop 915, Reston, Va. 22092, USA. (hbf). 84:5891 McNally, Robert, 1984. The short, unhappy saga of Steller's sea cow. Sea Front., 30(3):168-172.
OLR (1984) 31 (1 I)
Shipwrecked on the Aleutian Islands, the crew of Bering's 1741 expedition to the North Pacific survived by eating sea cow, a relative of the tropical manatee, while George Wilhelm Steller, a scientist, took notes (in Latin) comprising the only study of the northern sea cow before its extinction less than 30 years later. Russian fur hunters ate the last Steller's sea cows; it is surmised that Stone Age hunters were responsible for the extinction of once plentiful sea cows on other North Pacific coasts. (dgs)
84:5892 Rona, P.A., 1984. Perpetual seafloor metal factory. Sea Front., 30(3): 132-141. The discovery of metalliferous sediments in the Red Sea, polymetaUic sulfide mounds in the East Pacific,
and layered, manganese and iron-rich deposits on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have changed from 'poor to promising' the prospects for the occurrence of metallic subsea deposits of significant size. Even if these particular deposits prove economically unfruitful, they have provided insight into the formative process of metal ore deposits, both under the sea and on land. (jch)
84:5893 Stanley, S.M., 1984. Mass extinctions in the ocean. Scient. Am., 250(6):64-72. During brief intervals over the past 700 million years many marine animals and plants have died out. Geologic evidence now suggests that most of the mass extinctions were caused by cooling of the sea,