OLR (1987)34 (3) 263 F. GENERAL FI0. Apparatus, methods, mathematics (multidisciplinary) 87:1770 Ganeko, Yasuhiro and Kazuo Tukahara, 1986. On the p...

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OLR (1987)34 (3)


F. GENERAL FI0. Apparatus, methods, mathematics (multidisciplinary) 87:1770 Ganeko, Yasuhiro and Kazuo Tukahara, 1986. On the possibility of [measuring] ocean bathymetry

by using satellite remote sensing Iof dynamic topography] with altimeter. Rept hydrogr. Res., Tokyo, 21:157-170. (In Japanese, English abstract.) Maritime Safety Agency, Tokyo, Japan. 87:1771 Jamart, B.M. and Jos~ Ozer, 1986. Numerical

boundary layers and spurious residual flows. J. geophys. Res., 91(C9): 10,621-10,63 I. On the basis of a simple example, it is shown that unrealistic 'numerical' boundary layers can develop along solid boundaries in models using a certain type of staggered computational grid. In this particular case the artifact can be ascribed to the discretization of the Coriolis term along the boundary combined with the inadequacy of the boundary condition. As a consequence of that error, the solution of a threedimensional numerical model is found to converge toward an incorrect steady state (the residual mean flow does not vanish as it should). A straightforward correction, called the 'wet-points-only' method, is proposed. The procedure consists of eliminating the boundary points from the evaluation of the Coriolis term. Mgmt. Unit of Math. Models of the North Sea and Scheldt Estuary, Inst. de Math., Liege, Belgium. 87:1772 Schachtner, S.R. and S.D. Ahlbrand, 1986. Putting computer-aided design to work. Johns Hopkins APL tech. Dig., 7(3):250-255. Johns Hopkins' APL is using state-of-the-art computer-aided design technology to develop an exciting variety of modem electromechanical systems. Applications include the Cosmic Background Explorer satellite, a paravane underwater towed vehicle, and prototype AEGIS shipboard electronics system. Proper use of computer-aided design technologies in the laboratory environment can result in extremely well-designed, high-quality, and highly reliable hardware. Capabilities such as 3-D geometric modeling and automatic printed circuit board design allow the solution of problems attacked previously by trial and error. APL, Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD 20707, USA.

87:1773 Willis, J.P., 1986. Instrumental analytical techniques in geochemistry: requirements and applications. Z. analyt. Chem., 324(8):855-864. In the future, analysis at lower and lower detection limits, particularly in-situ, will be required of geochemists. This paper considers advantages and limitations of the most important instrumental techniques--atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, x-ray flourescence spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis, thermal source mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis, and electron microprobe analysis. Briefly discussed are ion chromatography, mass spectrometry/gas chromatography, Mossbauer spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Also considered are problems associated with certified reference materials and sampling techniques. Dept. of Geochem., Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa. Orb)

F250. Waste disposal and pollution (see also B350-Atmospheric pollution, C210Water pollution, E300-Effects of pollution)

87:1774 Laughton, A.S., L.E.J. Roberts, Denys Wilkinson and D.A. Gray (discussion organizers), 1986. The disposal of long-lived and highly radioactive wastes. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (A)319(1545):3-189; 16 papers. These papers discuss the scientific aspects of nuclear waste management, particularly highly radioactive and long-lived wastes. Even without ongoing nuclear activity, the large amounts of radioactive waste already generated present a disposal problem. Finding secure disposal routes and sites leads to geological and marine research of general scientific interest. Following an overview and perspective, topics addressed are long-term containment, interactions with the environment, migration of radioactive species through the geosphere, and pathways in the biosphere. (lit) 87:1775 Mironov, O.G., 1985. Prospects for biological control of marine pollution. HydrobioL J. (a translation of Gidrobiol. Zh.), 21(5):28-31.


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This article discusses control prospects in light of experiments and field observations on several mussel species that are resistant to oil pollution. Mechanisms of oil filtration and chemical transformation by the mussels' gastrointestinal tracts are explored. Inst. of Biol. of the Southern Seas, UkSSR Acad. of Sci., Sevastopol, USSR. (jrb) 87:1776 Vinogradov, A.K. and B.I. Beletskiy, 1985. Ecological--toxicological aspects of sodium standards of wastewaters discharged into the sea. Hydrobiol. J. (a translation of Gidrobiol. Zh.), 21(5):49-54. Standards are tested by studying the salinity tolerance and resistance of phytoplankton and the general effects of NaC1 on their survival, development and behavior. Resistance and tolerance ranges varied widely. Although sodium is one of the biologically least toxic metals, its discharge into the marine environment is undesirable, particularly into waters of ~13 ppt salinity. Inst. of Biol. of the Southern Seas, UkSSR Acad. of Sci., Odessa, USSR. Orb)

F260. Resources, management, economics 87:1777 Dadswell, M.J., R.A. Rulifson and G.R. Daborn, 1986. Potential impact of large-scale tidal power developments in the upper Bay of Fundy on f'~erles resources of the northwest Atlantic. Fisheries, 11(4):26-35. The potential effects of the construction of a large-scale hydroelectric tidal power project in the Bay of Fundy are reviewed. In addition to an extensive saltmarsh-mudflat biome, the upper bay is known to support large populations of diverse species of fishes (alosids, striped bass, spiny dogfish, Atlantic salmon and sturgeon, and American shad), which migrate long distances along the Atlantic coast. Among the effects of concern to these fisheries are a reduction in tidal range in upstream headponds, increased stratification of the water column, increased sedimentation above and below dams, alteration of fish migration routes, and an increased mortality rate for fish and marine mammals brought about by repeated passage through turbines during tide-related water movements. Dept. of Fish. and Oceans, Biol. Station, St. Andrews, NB EOG 2XO, Canada. (hbf)

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87:1778 De Mello, J.DeT.C. and E.P. Dos Santos, 1986. Sustainable yield carve simulated in fishery research la comparison of the Gulland and Santos methedsl. CiOncia Cult., S Paulo, 38(4):712-715. (In Portuguese, English abstract.) Dept. de Biol., Inst. de Biociencias, Univ. of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 87:1779 Dergachev, V.A., 1986. Features in organization of nature conservation in fittoral zones of the USSR seas. Izv. vses. geogr. Obshch,, 118(3):207-213. (In Russian.) 87:1780 Farmer, A.S.D. and M. Ukawa, 1986. A provisional atlas for the commercially important penaeid shrimps of the Arabian Gulf. Kuwait Bull. mar. Sci., 7:23-44. Data concerning the distribution of shrimp fishing grounds in the Arabian Gulf were compiled by interviewing fishing boat skippers and selected shrimp fishing companies. From these a provisional atlas of the distribution of the commercially important species of penaeid shrimp was prepared. The distribution of the different species is discussed briefly with respect to environmental factors. Prime Farm, Whitchurch Canonicornm, Bridgeport, Dorset, U.K.. 87:1781 Limburg, K.E., 1986. Gotland's [Swedenl fisheries. A case study of the economic/ecological processes of renewable resource exploitation. Contr. AskO Lab. Univ. Stockholm, 31:142pp. The effects of increased fishing effort were explored using dynamic simulation models of the herring and cod fisheries to assess the impact of fuel energies on fish harvests, the influence of increased processing capacity, anoxic episodes in cod breeding grounds, and eutrophication of the central Baltic Sea. Ecosystems Res. Ctr., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. (llt)

87:1782 Ryan, Dennis and F.B. Hanson, 1986. hsrvesflng of a logistic population in an envirtmment with stodmstic ~,mus. J. mathl Biol., 24(3):259-277. The effects of large, sudden, random jumps (both adverse or favorable) in the size of a population (interspersed with periods when the population grows logistically) on the best strategy for harvesting in an exploited resource population are studied by use of dynamic programming. Results are compared


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to those produced by quasi-deterministic approximation (which was found to be better for calculating disasters than bonanzas). The authors conclude that 'biological equilibrium with optimal yield is not an efficient policy under deterministic or stochastic dynamics'. Dept. of Math. and Statistics, Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH 45435, USA. (wbg) 87:1783 Smith, C.L., 1986. The life cycle of fisheries. Fisheries, 11(4):20-25. The typical fishery life cycle begins with an initial emphasis on food production, next a growing interest in recreation develops, and finally comes aesthetic uses. As commercial productivity and the number of commercial and recreational users increases, conservation requires more stringent management measures. To adjust to life cycle and evolutionary changes, management needs to separate conservation decisions from allocation issues, manage to include as much of the stock's range as possible, control effort growth, and keep expectations reasonable. Dept. of Anthropol., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

F280. Policy, law, treaties 87:1784 Harville, J.P. (committee chairman), 1986. Summ~ffy report and recommendations: AFS Committee on Federal Fisheries Responsibilities. Fisheries, 11(4):2-6.

This summary report of the American Fisheries Society's ad hoe Committee on Federal Fisheries Responsibilities is published for public review, comments and suggestions on its recommendations. Eight major and four subsidiary issues have emerged and can be grouped under the headings: resource management and protection; common property problems; governmental organization (authority, responsibility, accountability, efficiency, and internal operations); and allocation of additional federal effort and resources. Each is discussed in some detail here. Pacific Marine Fisheries Comm., 305 State Ofc. Bldg., 1400 SW Fifth Ave., Portland, OR 97201, USA. 87:1785 Rulifson, R.A., M.J. Dadswell and G.K. Mahoney, 1986. Draft: American Fisheries Society policy on tidal power development and estuarine and marine environments. Fisheries, 11(4):36-39. The use of ocean tides to generate electricity is receiving attention again by industrialized nations.


This draft of a policy statement on tidal power development addresses issues such as power plant design, the effects both seaward and landward of the barrage and the possible impact on fisheries. Suggested actions to minimize the impact of large-scale tidal power development on fisheries and aquatic resources include policy development by all relevant federal and state agencies and in cases of transboundary effects, other countries, management decisions based on scientific evidence, long-term funding for environmental impact studies, and more studies on the effects of turbines on fish. A special AFS symposium dealing with these issues is proposed. (wbg)

F310. Contemporary development of science (especially oceanography) 87:1786 Klem6s, V., 1986. Dilettantism in hydrology: transition or destiny? Wat. Resour. Res., 22(9): 177S188S. The unsatisfactory state of hydrology is the result of the dichotomy between the theoretical recognition of hydrology as a science in its own right and the practical impossibility of studying it as a primary discipline but only as an appendage of hydraulic engineering, geography, geology, etc. As a consequence, the perspectives of hydrologists tend to be biased in the direction of nonhydrologic primary disciplines and their hydrologic backgrounds have wide gaps which breed a large variety of misconceptions. There is also a proliferation of computerized 'hydrologic' models whose cheaply arranged ability to fit data is presented as proof of their soundness. Some thoughts concerning minimum standards for the testing of hydrologic simulation models, and a few suggestions for a long-term cure that can prevent hydrology from joining alchemy and astrology in the annals of dilettantism are offered. Natl. Hydrol. Res. Inst., Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada. 87:1787 Mao, Hanli, 1984. Studies on physical sciences of the oceans and seas in China, 1979--1982. Review. Chinese J. Oceanol. Limnol, 2(2):243-268. A brief account is given of Chinese achievements in the studies of currents and circulation, hydrographic characteristics and watermasses, tides and sea level, surface waves, storm surges, air-sea interaction, numerical modelling, estuarine and coastal research, marine chemistry, marine acoustics and marine optics. Includes 12 pages of references. Inst. of


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Oceanol., Acad. Sinica, Qingdao, People's Republic of China. 87:1788 Pain, Stephanie, 1986. Clouds over La Jolla. The threat to marine science at Scripps. New Scient., 111(1526):p.82. The roar of the Pacific, pelicans skimming the waves, bright sunny beaches--all this and science, too, is available to some of the world's foremost marine scientists at the 83-year-old Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Beginning as the Marine Biological Association of San Diego, Scripps became part of the University of California in 1912. A fleet of four research ships, an oceanographic buoy, and FLIP, a ship that upends to become a working platform, need another $10 million/yr, to operate at full capacity--a better value, the author suggests, than ten condos or 2 miles of freeway. (llt)

F320. Literature of science 87:1789 Press, Michelle, 1986. American Scientist.An annotated and illustrated look at Sigma Xi's magazine. Am. Scient., 74(5):514-517. The honor society Sigma Xi's magazine, now called American Scientist, was first published in 1913. Its purpose is to 'promote a sense of community among its authors and readers' by presenting articles of a general nature written by other scientists. While perhaps not as well known as Scientific American, it has always been greatly respected by those who know it, and in 1986 received an award for general excellence from the Society of National Association Publications. Its history is briefly recapped here. (This issue of American Scientist celebrates Sigma Xi's 100th anniversary with several articles.) (fcs)

F330. History of science (especially oceanography) 87:1790 Morley, L.W., 1986. Early work leading to the explanation of the banded geomagnetic imprinting of the ocean floor. Eos, 67(36):665-660. Early work of the 'paleomagicians' is described here by one of the early workers. It was a paper by Vine and Mathews (1963) that first publicly linked the curious striped pattern of seafloor magnetic anomalies (first discovered by Mason and Raft in 1952)

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with R.S. Dietz's hypothesis of seafloor spreading (1961). But it could have been by this author (L.W. Morley) instead; he tried to publish the same ideas in Nature and JGR, but both rejected the manuscript (the JGR reviewer describing the concept as 'more appropriate to a cocktail party'). Ctr. for Res. in Experimental Space Science, York Univ., Toronto, Canada. (fcs)

F370. Multidisciplinary scientific studies (general interest) 87:1791 Eagleson, P.S., 1986. The emergence of global-scale hydrology. Wat. Resour. Res., 22(9):6S-14S. Changes in atmosphere and/or landscape characteristics modify the Earth's metabolism through changes in its biogeochemical cycles. Defining the spatial extent of the environmental impact of a local land surface change, or identifying, for forecasting purposes, the location and nature of climatic anomalies that may be causally linked to local hydrologic persistencies requires global scale dynamic modeling of the coupled ocean-atmosphereland surface. The current state of these models with respect to hydrology, their weaknesses, data needs, and potential utility are discussed. Dept. of Civil Engng., MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA. gT: 1792 E11saesser, H.W. (commen0 and J.K. Angell (reply), 1986. [Discussion of] 'Surface temlmrature changes following the six major volcanic episodes between 1780 and 1980: J. Climate appl. Met., 25(8): 1184-1185. Ellsaesser is pleased that Angell and Korshover find little to suggest that volcanic eruptions cause cooling of the Earth's surface; however, he argues that they fail to acknowledge the 'unmistakable coincidence in time between the occurrence of major volcanic eruptions and an accompanying or subsequent minimum in curves of surface temperature.' Is this causal or coincidental? Difficulties arise because (1) temperature responses are not proportional to eruptions, and (2) surface cooling was noted before the eruptions. Angell replies that '...the influence of volcanic eruptions on atmospheric temperature can be accurately gauged only if the effect of equatorial SST is eliminated,' difficult at present due to the nonlinear way in which atmospheric temperature responds to SST. Atmos. and Geophys. Sci. Div., Lawrence Livermore Natl. Lab., Livermore, CA 94550, USA. Orb)

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87:1793 Unesco (Consultative Panel on Coastal Systems), 1986. Research on coastal marine systems. Report of the third meeting of the Unesco/SCOR/ IABO Consultative Panel on Coastal Systems. UNESCO tech. Pap. mar. Sci., 47:27pp. The present report contains a detailed analysis by the Consultative Panel of the various components of the COMAR Project (UNESCO Major Interregional Project). The components can be broken down into: (1) the scientific activities, undertaken in cooperation with SCOR (Scientific Committee for Oceanic Research) and IABO (International Association for Biological Oceanography), concerning traditional knowledge and management of coastal systems, and (2) programs developed in the regions of Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific, the Mediterranean and Red seas, and Europe. Div. of Mar. Sci., Unesco, Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris, France.

F380. Advances in science, reviews (general interest) 87:1794 Jacobs, J.A., 1986. Magnetic reversals: from the core or the skies? Nature, Lond., 323(6086):296-297. Recent work on statistical analysis of the frequency distribution of reversals of the Earth's magnetic field and possible astronomical explanations for such periodicity are reviewed. Current evidence appears to favor events internal to the Earth as the source for changes which may have the greatest influence on the Earth's magnetic field. Laboratory work has shown that three types of stochastic processes (Gaussian, flicker, and brown noise) can influence the evolution of the field; 'irregularities in material properties, physical or chemical processes, or in fluid dynamical turbulence could provide an adequate source of noise.' Dept. of Earth Sci., Univ. of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0EZ, UI,:. 0abf) 87:1795 Lewin, Roger, 1986. A mass extinction without asteroids. Science, 234(4772): 14-15. The possible extinction of perhaps half the world's species through deforestation is perceived as a global crisis by most biologists. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution recently sponsored a national forum on the topic, a Tropical Forest Action Group held seminars and protests, others are sponsoring scientific symposia on


biodiversity, and there are two bills before Congress addressing the issue. Concern centers on the number of extant species in the world and their loss rate. Better understanding of the processes underlying biological diversity is urgently needed. (lit) 87:1796 Lewin, Roger, 1986. Damage to tropical forests, or why were there so many kinds of animals? Science, 234(4773):149-150. Biologists were once faced with the problem of explaining why there are so many species of animals. But now they are witnesses to a sharp reduction in biological diversity brought on by population growth and economic expansion, an issue discussed at a joint National Academy of Sciences/Smithsonian Institution forum in September, 1986. The focus is on the tropics because species diversity is greatest and development (from small-scale slash and burn agriculture to large-scale timber operations) so potentially damaging there. The possible collapse of biodiversity alarms biologists who believe the problem is one resulting from economics and politics, not ignorance. (wbg) 87:1797 McKenzie, Dan, 1986. Mantle mixing still a mystery. Nature, Lond., 323(6086):p.297. Despite the existence of regions within the Earth's mantle which have had significantly different Sm/Nd and Rb/Sr for at least 1000 m.y., the basalts composing the ocean floor are remarkably homogeneous with depleted Nd and Sr. Although available evidence indicates that this depletion occurs at island arcs and that the processes effecting homogenization are both fast and efficient, the results of current attempts to determine the geometry of mantle heterogeneity and to understand the physical processes involved in the generation of homogeneous mantle are inconclusive. Inst. for Geophys., Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX 78751-2789, USA. 0abf) 87:1798

Meadows, P.S., 1986. Biological activity and seabed sediment structure. Nature, Lond., 323(6085): p.207. Animal burrows that increase the surface area of the sediment-water interface and microbial activity that renders sediments anoxic are integral parts of the sediment fabric which inhibit erosion and control patterns of sediment diagenesis and oil formation. The hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalewskii, e.g., secretes a mucus which maintains burrow integrity and also inhibits aerobic microbial activity (which in turn increases longevity of the mucus lining). Dept.


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of Zool., Univ. of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK Orb) 87:1799 Pearce, Fred, 1986. How to stop the greenhouse effect. New Scient., 111(1526):29-30.

Now that the greenhouse effect is recognized as scientific fact and the U.S., the world's most prodigious consumer of fossil fuels, has been so informed (via the Senate subcommittee on environmental pollution), what should the world do? The numerous proposals are reducible to two: we must either remove carbon dioxide from emissions and dump it (in underground caverns or in the deep sea) or we must construct a more energy-efficient world. The latter will require improvements such as heating systems with better heat transfer, use of ceramic heat recuperators in factories, reduced power-to-weight ratios in vehicles and reduced internal friction, and new technologies such as fluidized beds and coal gasification. All have received the attention of Brookhaven's M. Steinberg, whose analysis is encouraging in its conclusion that most of the savings will be cost effective. (wbg) 87:1800 Stuller, Jay, 1986. The next El Nifio. Oceans, 19(5): 18-23.

The E1 Nifao/Southern Oscillation phenomenon is more climatological than meteorological in scale. But it causes severe changes in weather over half the globe. The 1982-83 ENSO left more than 1000 people dead, and caused over $8 billion in damage. It would be convenient to at least predict the onset of an ENSO event, which is one major goal of the TOGA (Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere) ten-year international research program which commenced last year. ENSO phenomena and the research on them are described here. (fcs) 87:1801 Swinbanks, David, 1986. Energy research: tapping the tropical seas. Nature, Lond., 323(6083):p.6.

A nonprofit fund for the development of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) was scheduled to be launched in Japan in September, 1986 with the expectation that more than 100 Japanese companies would become supporting members. Two small pilot plants have already been constructed; warm Pacific surface water is used to vaporize ammonia or freon to drive a turbine, and cold, deep water to then recondense the vapor, allowing the cycle to repeat. It is estimated that because of the high initial capital cost, OTEC-produeed electricity for a 3-MW plant would be Y 50 per KWh, but would drop to a

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competitive Y 19 for a 100-MW plant. Likely candidates for OTEC power are the Japanese islands of Okinawa and Izu and the tiny Pacific Republic of Nauru. (hbf) 87:1802 Taylor, M.A., 1986. Stunning whales and deaf squids. Nature, Lond., 323(6086):298-299.

Although cephalopod deafness may aid in the avoidance of sonic stunning by odontocetes, fossil evidence suggests that it arose prior to the appearance of the first cetaceans. Other adaptations of prey animals which are useful against sonic stunning, such as loss of the air-filled flotation shells of open water squid and scombrid fish and reliance on hydrodynamic lift, are probably also of only seeondary importance in antisonar defense, having evolved originally for other purposes. Bristol Museum and Art Gallery, Queen's Rd., Bristol BS8 IRL, UK. (gsb) 87:1803 Weisburd, S., 1986. Mussel power from methane. Sci. News, Washington, D.C., 130(13):p.198.

Research on mussels from two hydrocarbon seep sites (off the Louisiana and Florida coasts) indicates that these organisms may derive energy from symbiosis with methane-oxidizing bacteria in a relationship analogous to those found in H:Spowered communities at hydrothermal vents. Isotopic, biochemical, and structural evidence support the hypothesis, as does the ability of researchers to maintain the mussels on air and methane alone. (gsb) 87:1804 Weisburd, S., 1986. One ozone hole returns, another is found. Sci. News, Washington, D.C, 130014): p.215.

Using a solar backscatter ultraviolet instrument, a • NASA researcher has found yet another ozone hole, centered over Spitsbergen, which exists from October through February. It is smaller and of different shape and placement than its Antarctic cousin. Possible mechanisms for the formation of ozone holes and the link between hole behavior and stratospheric temperatures are discussed. Orb)

F420. Miscellaneous 87:1805 Grieder, P.K.F., 1986. The current status of DUMAND [deep underwater muun and neutrino detectorl. Nuovo Cim~ (C)9(2):222-236.

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Scientific aims of the D U M A N D project are briefly described, along with the system lay-out and capabilities, and some technical details of the detector modules. Also discussed are the anticipated project schedule and construction strategy, followed by an account of the present project status. Physik. Inst., Univ. of Bern, Switzerland. 87:1806

Heyerdahl, T., 1985. Roles of the ocean in the early spread of man. Contr. mar. Sci. Univ. Texas, (Suppl.)27:481-499. The roles of the ocean in promoting or preventing the early spread of man and culture traits have been a major topic of debate in anthropology, and yet no branch of that diversified science is devoted to marine matters. Studies and experiments conducted during a number of decades have shown the need for a more serious and unbiased approach to research into man's early activities at sea and the role of readily constructed wash-through watercraft as a very early tool that permitted seaborne populations to engage in either planned or unpremeditated voyages more quickly and easily than any trek over large stretches of land or ice. This is a report of the author's own experience crossing the three main world oceans with prehistoric types of wash-through craft. Kon-Tiki Museum, Oslo, Norway. 87:1807

Krakauer, Jon, 1986. A fishing frenzy strikes on Sitka IAlasiml when herring ran. Smithsonian, 17(7): 96-109. The excitement of the fast-paced season for netting herring off the rocky shores of Sitka is described. Catches of Pacific herring, valued for their roe, which is the basis for the Japanese delicacy kazunoko, are tightly controlled by the Alaskan Department of Fish and Game. By the early 1960s


the Sitka Sound herring population had been drastically reduced by overfishing, and by 1977 state authorities were forced to restrict the number of boats participating in the fishery. As a result of this regulation, by 1985 the herring population had rebounded sufficiently to permit a total catch of 7500 tons of fish in 6 hours and 55 minutes, and in 1986 an estimated 6.5 million dollars worth of herring, distributed unevenly among a fleet of 52 permitted boats, was landed in 3 hours and 10 minutes. (hbf) 87:1808

Laurance, M.R. and D.E. Brownlee, 1986. The flux of meteoroids and orbital space debris striking satellites in low Earth orbit. Nature, Lond., 323(6084):136-138. Dept. of Astron., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. 87:1809 Wickramasinghe, D.T. and D.A. Allen, 1986. Discovery of organic grains in comet Halley. Nature, Lond., 323(6083):44-46. Previously we demonstrated that one component of the interstellar dust grains has an organic composition, by detecting a broad absorption band at a central wavelength of 3.4/~m along the line of sight to IRS7, a luminous star near the galactic centre. We have performed the same observations of comet Halley, and now report the detection of a similar emission band in the comet's spectrum. This evidence of organic grains in comets indicates the possible presence therein of a component of similar composition to that found in micrometeorites. Although no definite identification is possible we note that a feature near 3.4 pan is predicted by various models of interstellar dust. Dept. of Math., Australian Natl. Univ., Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia..