F. GENERAL FI0. Apparatus, methods, mathematics (multidisciplinary) 88:7101 Baumeister, W., K.-H. Herrmann (organizers) and W. Baumeister (guest editor), 1988. Scanning tunneling microscopy. Selected contributions from a workshop, 23rd meeting of the German Society for Electron Microscopy, Bremen, September 1987. Ultramicrosc., 25(2):99-181; 10 papers. Papers from the workshop plus solicited papers comprise this collection on the state-of-the-art in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Combined SEM/STM systems, near field and reflection microscopy, data representation, compact microscopes, and application to the study of Si, nonuniform surfaces, and biological samples are covered. (gsb) 88:7102 Dealteris, J.T., 1988. The application of hydroacoustics to the mapping of suhtidal oyster reefs. J. Shellfish Res., 7(1):41-45. Dept. of Fish., Animal and Vet. Sci., Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02882, USA. 88:7103 Forbes, A.M.G., 1988. Fourier transform •tering: a cautionary note. J. geophys. Res., 93(C6):69586962. Two filters to remove unwanted signals from time series of ocean currents and sea levels are examined: a tidal harmonic 'filter' and a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) filter. A number of sample time series are used to test DFT filters. It is shown that 'ringing' in the retransformed time series can be minimized by careful choice of the filter bandwidth and the amount of tapering of the sides of the filter. Div. of Oceanogr., CSIRO, GPO Box 1538, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia. 88:7104 Papert, Seymour et al., 1988. Artificial intelligence. Daedalus, Boston, l17(l):311pp; 14 papers. 'In no sense can this issue of Daedalus be read as a manual on the subject of artificial intelligence.' Instead, 'it is a spirited and sometimes heated exploration of what the new discipline appears to have accomplished, as interesting for the reservations and warnings issued as for the enthusiasms expressed...the question is not simply what AI has produced in terms of practical results but how much
it has illuminated our understanding of mind.' Subjects range from 'neural nets' and the 'new connectionism,' to a paper entitled 'Much ado about not very much.' (fcs) 88:7105 Wright, Robyn and S.M. Thornberg, 1988. SEDIDAT: a BASIC program for the collection and statistical analysis of particle settling velocity data. Computers, Geosciences, 14(1):55-81. The series of compiled IBM-BASIC programs that direct the collection, statistical calculation, and graphic presentation of particle settling velocity and equivalent spherical diameter for samples analyzed using the settling tube technique follow an easily understood menu-driven format. Input parameters, such as water temperature, are easily changed. Optional output to a dot-matrix printer includes a summary of moment and graphic statistical parameters, tabulation of individual and cumulative weight percents, a listing of major distribution modes, and cumulative and histogram plots of a raw time, settling velocity, Chi and Phi data. Dept. of Geol., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.
F40. Area studies, surveys (multidisciplinary) 88:7106 Dickson, R.R. and R.G.V. Boelens (eds.), 1988. The status of current knowledge on anthropogenic influences in the Irish Sea. [Report.] ICES coop. Res. Rept, 155:88pp. This report briefly overviews the area's general physical oceanography, including circulation and flushing characteristics. Plankton, intertidal and benthic fauna, fish and fisheries, seabirds, and marine mammals are described and the area's potential for mariculture is assessed; relevant anthropogenic influences and activities are noted. A third section addresses the status of nonradioactive contaminants in the Irish Sea, with emphasis on mercury in Liverpool Bay; other heavy metals and hydrocarbons in the sediments, water, and biota are also discussed. Min. of Agric. Fish., Fish. Lab., Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT, UK. (sir) 88:7107 Freeland, H.J., 1988. Derived Lagrangian statistics on Vancouver Island continental shelf and impel-
cations for salmon migration. Atmos. Ocean, 26(2):267-281. Inst. of Ocean Sci., P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2, Canada. 88:7108 PaffenhOfer, G.-A. et al., 1987. Summer upwemng on the southeastern continental shelf of the U.S.A. during 1981. Prog. Oceanogr., 19(3-4):221-441; 9 papers.
The goal of this interdisciplinary study, begun in 1975, was to determine the causes of cold, subsurface summer intrusions of Gulf Stream water into the middle and inner shelf, their frequency of size and occurrence, and the processes associated with their development, persistence and fate. Two large intrusion events in the study area (29"-32°N) between June and August 1981 were observed and are characterized in detail in these papers. Processes initiated within the intrusions dominated shelf water biology; during summer strong primary and secondary production occurred in water masses originating from Gulf Stream upweUings. 88:7109 PaffenhSfer, G.-A. et al., 1987. Summer upwelling on the southeastern continental shelf of the U.S.A. during 1981: summary and canclnsions. Prog. Oceanogr, 19(3-4):437-441.
This interdisciplinary study examined the causes, frequency, size, and associated processes of cold, subsurface intrusions of Gulf Stream water into the middle and inner shelf. During summer 1981 cold water masses from greater depths of the Gulf Stream intruded onto the middle and inner shelf when the following conditions occurred simultaneously: (a) passage of a Gulf Stream frontal eddy, (b) sustained northward wind stress, and (c) onshore position of the Gulf Stream. Skidaway Inst. of Oceanogr., P.O. Box 13687, Savannah, GA 31416, USA. 88:7110 Raju, V.S.R. et al., 1987. Variation of physicochemical characteristics with tide in Visakhapatnam Harbour waters, east coast of India. Indian J. mar. Sci., 16(4):218-222. Natl. Inst. of Oceanogr., Reg. Centre, Andhra Univ. Campus, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India.
88:7111 Unesco, 1988. Eutrophication in the Mediterranean Sea: receiving capacity and monitoring of longterm effects. Report and proceedings of a scientific workshop, Bologna, Italy, 2-6 March 1987. UNESCO Repts mar. Sci~ 49:195pp.
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A scientific workshop convened in Bologna, Italy 2-6 March 1987 agreed on 'Guidelines for the Monitoring, Assessment and Control of Eutrophication in the Mediterranean Sea.' A summary report of the meeting including the guidelines and recommendations, appears in Part I of this document. Also included is a review paper on the present state of knowledge of the eutrophication phenomenon in the Mediterranean, which was illustrated by a number of case studies, including a special session on the North Adriatic. Copies are available from: Mar. Info. Ctr., Div. of Mar. Sci., Unesco, Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris, France.
FI00. Expeditions, research programs, etc. 88:7112 Alfred Wegener Institute (Polarstern shipboard scientific party ), 1988. Breakthrough in Arctic deep--sea research: the R/V Paim'stem Expedition 1987. Eos, 69(25):665, 676-678.
In the summer of 1987 the R/V Polarstern penetrated the eastern Arctic ice pack as far as 86°11 "N, which set a record for research vessels (if not military ones). Briefly reported here are preliminary observations on sea ice dynamics, hydrography, bottom studies, and the marine ecosystem. Another expedition is proposed for 1991. (fcs) 88:7113 McNutt, L. et al., 1988. The Oceanography Report. LIMEX'87: The Labrador Ice Margin Experiment, March 1987. A pilot experiment in anticipation of RADARSAT and ERS 1 data. Eos, 69(23):634-635,643. LIMEX was conceived as a series of studies to address the dynamics of the Labrador Sea ice cover, the role of atmospheric and oceanic conditions in influencing ice dynamics, the modelling of airsea-ice interaction in sufficient detail to predict conditions meaningfully, and the refinement of remote sensing techniques to enable these ends. The first field program was conducted off Newfoundland last year. Its objectives and preliminary results are outlined. RADARSAT Office, Ottawa, Canada. (fcs)
FI70. Engineering and industry 88:7114 Chan, E.S. and W.K. Melville, 1988. Deep-water plunging wave pressures on a vertical plane wall.
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Proc. R. Soc., Lond., (A)417(1852):95-131. Dept. of Civil Engng, Natl. Univ. of Singapore, Kent Ridge, 0511 Singapore. 88:7115 Gravens, M.B., 1988. Electrodeposited minerals in marine structures. J. Wat Way Port coast. Ocean Engng, Am. Soc. civ. Engrs, 114(4):519-530.
The engineering applicability of the electrodeposition process was evaluated in two experiments to determine the possible use of electrodeposited minerals as a primary construction material. In the first, wood specimens were indurated with electrode-deposited minerals. The second experiment employed a steel-mesh frame which was to be solidified with electrodeposited minerals. Success would indicate that the electrodeposition process could provide a viable substitute for marine concrete and increase the useful life of many submerged marine structures such as breakwaters, weirs, boat docks, and piers. Hydr. Engr., Coast. Engng Res. Ctr., U.S. Army Eng. Waterways Exp. Sta., P.O. Box 631, Vicksburg, MS 39180-0631, USA. 88:7116 Stuart, C.O. Jr. and Charles Vallance, 1988. Underwater inspection and repair of linings in immersion areas. Mater. Perform., 27(6):44-47. S.G. Pinney & Assoc., Inc., 473 SE Verada Ave., Port St. Lucie, FL 34983, USA.
I I 15
This review, containing 253 references, describes recent literature on the assessment of the human health effects of chemicals. Research has been directed toward animal studies, epidemiology, quantitative structure activity relationships, dose-response, risk perception, expert systems, and mechanisms of carcinogenesis. New databases on animal toxicity (200 chemicals), epidemiology (30 chemicals) and carcinogenicity and mutagenicity (327 studies) have been assembled. The influence of genetic factors, metabolism, and environmental aspects have been considered. Over 75 assays are presented in table format with comments on their use and number of references included. Utah Water Res. Lab., Utah State Univ., Logan, UT 84322-8200, USA. (gsb)
F260. Resources, management, economics 88:7119 Serafin, R. and J. Zaleski et al., 1988. [Ecosystem redevelopment of Baltic Sea and Great Lakes compared.] Ambio, 17(2):99-136; 5 papers.
These papers are based on some of the presentations from the International Symposium on Ecosystem Redevelopment held in Budapest in April 1987. Topics covered in this comparison of the Great Lakes and the Baltic Sea are economic geography, coastal zone and fisheries redevelopment, international cooperation, and an energy-based analysis of ecosystem redevelopment. (llt)
F250. Waste disposal and pollution (see also B 3 5 0 - A t m o s p h e r i c pollution, C 2 1 0 W a t e r pollution, E300-Effects of pollution) 88:7117 Chang, S.-Y. et al., 1988. Literature review [water pollution control]. J. Wat. Pollut. Control Fed., 60(6):706-1160; 48 papers. This series of reviews on water pollution control covers the areas of chemical analysis of water and wastewater (monitoring, sampling procedures); wastewater treatment (reclamation and reuse, sludge treatment and disposal, treatment plant management); industrial wastes (agricultural, textile, fuels, and hazardous wastes); and the fate and effects of pollutants (nonpoint sources, and effects on sediments, saltwater organisms, and humans). (lit) 88:7118 Sims, R.C., J.L. Sims and R.R. Dupont, 1988. Human health effects assays. [Review.] J. Wat. Pollut. Control Fed., 60(6): 1093-1106.
F280. Policy, law, treaties 88:7120 Gibson, C.S., 1987. Narrow grounds for a complex decision: the Supreme Court's review of an agency's statutory construction in Japan Whaling Association v. American Cetacean Society. Ecology Law Q., 14(3):485-516.
Recognizing the importance of protecting whales and seeking to promote the enforcement of quotas set by the International Whaling Commission, the U.S. Congress adopted the 1971 Pelly and the 1979 Packwood-Magnuson amendments. But when the American Cetacean Society filed suit against Japan (5 days before an executive agreement, in lieu of certification, between the U.S. and Japan was reached) to compel the U.S. Secretary of Commerce to certify Japan's violation of the IWC's zero quota for sperm whales, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that
the Secretary has discretion to forego certification in light of the executive agreement (which furthered conservationist goals). The significance of this decision is discussed. (wbg) 88:7121 Sun, Marjorie, 1988. Antarctica pact could open way for mining. Science, 240(4859):p.1612.
On June 2, 1988, 33 nations, meeting in Wellington, New Zealand agreed on a framework for regulating mineral exploration and mining in Antarctica. The agreement, which represents an unusually good balance between commercial and environmental interests, must now be ratified by 16 of the 20 nations that signed the 1959 Antarctica Treaty. Approval is expected in 1989, based on the fact that the convention dodges the issue of whether the seven nations claiming sovereignty in Antarctica have a valid claim by preventing claimant and non-claimant nations from outvoting each other. One weakness, however, is that environmental groups do not have the right to observe regulatory committee meetings. (wbg)
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F I N D R E F is described. The routine scans manuscripts for dates and any nearby capitalized words that could be author names. Then it cross-ties these snippets to the bibliography, with, of course, opportunities to override its primitive logic. Natl. Center, USGS, Reston, VA 22092, USA. (fcs) 88:7124 Milliman, John, 1988. Editorial. Trends in oceanographic journals: Deep-Sea Research at 35 years. Deep-Sea Res., 35(5A):635-638.
1988 marks the 35th anniversary of Deep-Sea Research. This short essay documents some of the changes in the journal over those years, including the number of papers and their subjects, the number of authors and their nationalities. While 'big science' is currently the trend in ocean studies, DSR 'will continue to emphasize research carried out by a single individual or a small team of workers.' Geol. and Geophys. Dept., WHOI, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. (fcs)
F340. Biographies, obituaries, etc. F310. Contemporary development of science (especially o c e a n o g r a p h y )
88:7125 Proubasta, Dolores, 1988. Klaus Helbig. Leading Edge, 7(6):9-13.
88:7122 Staff, 1988. Science in Canada. Nature, Lond., 333(6175):717-736.
'Are you all very happy?' Klaus Helbig exhorts his class, as they struggle with an examination. 'Hardly, for Helbig is the quintessential German professor; he expects what he gives: the utmost.' One of the 'leading geophysicists in the world' (Helbig's first and continuing love is seismic anisotropy), 'he makes the best collegiate minds implode under his didactic assault.' His career and life are recounted here. Proubasta is associate editor of Geophysics: The Leading Edge of Exploration. (fcs)
These articles deal with a variety of issues, including the question of whether the Canadian government's misunderstanding of the nature of the scientific enterprise itself, prevents utilizing science's potential for contributing to the nation's future prosperity. Discussed are the funding of scientific research; how Canada was named, and now is still at work developing a proper balance between dependence and autonomy in its dealings with the U.S.; Memorial University's 'Oceans 2000' program, which is to help fund the development of a world center in ocean science, engineering and technology; Canada's plans to export nuclear technology; and perhaps the most important issue, acid rain. (wbg)
F320. Literature of science 88:7123 Hayba, D.O., 1988. A bask program for locating
references cited in geosdenee manuscripts. Computers, Geosciences, 14(1): 131- 134. The operation of a computer program called
F370. Multidisciplinary scientific studies (general interest) 88:7126 Barry, J.P., 1988. Hydrographic patterns in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica and their relationship to local benthic communities. Polar Biol., 8(5):377-391.
Measurements of temperature, salinity, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, chl a, phaeophytin, and oxygen before the regional phytoplankton bloom and after its peak, indicate that several processes contribute to changes in the vertical and horizontal structure of the water column. Regional variation in the source of water masses within the sound, ice cover patterns,
OLR (1988)35 (12)
and Ross Ice Shelf and continental glacier meltwater result in E-W and N-S gradients in the thermohaline, nutrient, and productivity characteristics of the sound. These patterns are also related to the extremely variable structure and productivity of shallow water benthic macrofaunal communities. Nutrient ratios indicated that meltwater from the Ross Ice Shelf and/or nearby terrestrial sources may be important in the western sound, causing enhanced stability which may result in particularly high productivity in northern McMurdo Sound. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
Cubit, J.D. et al., 1988. Hydrographic and meteorological studies of a Caribbean fringing reef at Punta Galeta, Panama: hourly and daily variations for 1977-1985. [Data report.] Smithson. Contr. mar. Sci., 32:220pp. Smithsonian Tropical Res. Inst., Apartado 2072, Balboa, Panama. 88:7130 Grigg, R.W. et al., 1987. Seamount benthic ecology and potential environmental impact from manganese crust mining in Hawaii. Geophys. Monogr.
Am. geophys. Un., 43:379-390. 88:7127 Barry, J.P. and P.K. Dayton, 1988. Current patterns in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica and their relationship to local biotic communities. Polar Biol., 8(5)'367-376. Current speed and direction measurements (summer and spring of 1984) indicated that currents were dominated by oscillatory flow associated with diurnal tidal components. Net flow was southward in the eastern sound, and northward in the western sound. Hydrographic data indicated a similar pattern of cold water with low chl a content flowing northward from under the Ross Ice Shelf in the western sound and denser, slightly wanner, higher chl a water flowing southward in the eastern sound. Previous studies have shown higher productivity in the eastern sound than in the west, apparently due to the circulation pattern. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
Boehlert, G.W, and Amatzia Genin, 1987. A review of the effects of seamonnts on biological processes.
Geophys. Monogr. Am. geophys. Un.,
43: 319-334. The effects of seamounts on biological processes particularly as they affect pelagic and benthic ecosystems and fisheries productivity are reviewed. Flow acceleration on upper flanks of seamounts may lead to low sedimentation, but high standing stocks of benthic fauna, particularly filter feeders. Nutrient enrichment and enhanced primary productivity occur in the water column over some seamounts and unusual distribution patterns and abundance may occur at higher trophic levels. Maintenance of high micronekton and demersal fish standing stocks suggests high rates of energy transfer. The energy may be generated in-situ or advected from elsewhere and concentrated at the seamount. SWFC, Honolulu Lab., NMFS, NOAA, 2570 Dole St., Honolulu, HI 96822-2396, USA.
A depauperate benthic megafauna in terms of diversity, abundance, and commercial value, was found at Cross Seamount (18°40"N, 158°17"W) within the Hawaiian EEZ. Isolation, small habitat area, slow bottom currents, and apparently inhospitable ferromanganese crust deposits are thought to contribute to the low abundance and diversity. The authors suggest that manganese crust mining would have little impact on the area. Hawaii Inst. of Mar. Biol., Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. (gsb) 88:7131 Harris, G.P. et al., 1988. Interannuai variability in climate and fisheries in Tasmania. Nature, Lond., 333(6175): 754-757. Forty years (1945-85) of observations at a coastal station (Maria Island) in Tasmania showed strong interannual SST variability. Maria Island is close to the region of convergence of the surface currents, on the equatorial side of the Subtropical Convergence water mass boundary. The spring bloom was often extended by as much as three months in some years. Here we explain the reason for the interannual climatic and oceanic variability in Tasmania and show the links between climate and the fisheries. Div. of Fish., CSIRO Mar. Lab., GPO Box 1538, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia. 88:7132
Hirono, Motokazu, 1988. On the trigger of E! Nlfio Southern Oscillation by the forcing of early El Chlch6n volcanic aerosols. J. geophys. Res., 93(D5):5365-5384. After the 1982 volcanic eruption of El Chich6n, the distribution of volcanic aerosols in the upper atmosphere was zonally inhomogeneous for a month or more and located in a fairly uniform band around the Earth in the northern subtropical region for several months. The impact of those aerosols absorbing radiation on the atmospheric motion is discussed in the model of Gill (1980). The mean westerly wind induced near the central Pacific
equatorial region would be able to trigger or amplify the E1 Nifio Southern Oscillation. Several results related to the simulation are discussed in detail. Kyushu Sangyo Univ., Higashiku Fukuoka, Japan. 88:7133 Roden, G.I., 1987. Effects of scamounts and seamount chains on ocean circulation and thermo-
haline structure. Geophys. Monogr. Am. geophys. Un., 43:335-354. Flow patterns resulting from the flow-topography interactions are complex and occur on scales from local to planetary. They depend on a variety of parameters involving the Earth's rotation and its variation with latitude; stratification; structure of the basic flow; friction; and the height, shape, orientation, and spacing of the seamounts. Internal wave reflection, tidal amplification, eddy trapping, mesoscale geopotential height perturbations, and deflection and modification of the incident flow are some of the more conspicuous features that have been observed. On some seamounts, bottom intensified Taylor columns and trapped thermohaiine fronts are suggested. School of Oceanogr., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
F 3 8 0 . A d v a n c e s in
r e v i e w s (gen-
eral interest) 88:7134 Gribbin, John, 1988. Britain shivers in the greemdhanme. New Scient, 118(1616):42-43. Some of the recent warming trends--and cooling trends, e.g., that of Europe--are briefly discussed, along with the methodological difficulties that have accompanied their identification. For example, how much has the heat of urban activities affected the trends at certain observatories? Beyond the diminishing uncertainties about the reality of such trends still looms the question of cause. No doubt CO2 is involved, but the picture looks more complicated than once thought. (fcs) 88:7135 Hecht, Jeff, 1988. America in peril from the sea. New Scient., 118(1616):54-59. Global warming, causing glacial melting and thermal expansion of ocean water, and coastal subsidence are producing rising sea levels. The beaches and sandy barrier islands are in retreat. If left undisturbed, the barrier island offers protection as it 'works like a tank tread' moving landward with the sea. But extensive building along the North American coast has disrupted this natural process. There
are two alternatives: plan a 'strategic retreat' now (moving threatened buildings inland) or undertake expensive coastal fortifications. The failure of seawalls first led geologists to replacing eroded sand but now the Skidaway panel, joined by the National Research Council, favors 'strategic retreat.' (wbg) 88:7136 Kerr, R.A., 1988. Geophysics: the slower side of the sciences. [Report.] Science, 240(4860): 1734-1735. Several papers presented at the A G U 1988 spring meeting add new insights into some of the relatively slow processes that affect the Earth. Pratt and Nelson reported new findings of layering within the crust at depths of 3.5-14 km beneath southern Illinois and Indiana, of unknown composition and origin. Hoyt and Lee (in independent studies) presented evidence that the 0.018% per year reduction in solar irradiance observed in the early 1980s has been reversed. These variations in h-radiance may be linked to the ll-year sunspot cycle. Rosenreid and DePaolo, working with rubidium-strontium dating to measure growth rates of garnets formed during heat- and pressure-induced metamorphism, found that 3-cm diameter garnets required roughly 8 m.y. to form. Silver, Carlson, and Olson suggested a new 'penetrative convection model' of the behavior of mantle materials which utilizes a 2% density difference between cold slabs and lower mantle materials to produce an initial sinking of slabs to the core/mantle boundary; after heating, they rise again through the mantle and lithosphere with only minimal mixing with the enveloping material. 0abf)
88:7137 Marshall, John, 1988. Submarine salt lenses. [Report.] Nature, Lond, 333(6174):594-595. 'Studies such as the one described by Laurence Armi et al. remind us that perhaps we should take more notice of those theories that emphasize the particle rather than the wave-like aspects of geophysical fluids.' The study referred to appears in this issue of Nature and concerns the life history of a 'Meddy' which was tracked and otherwise monitored for over two years. Such Meddles, which are subsurface lenses (about 1 km thick and 50 km in diameter) of salty water formed from outflow at the Strait of Gibraltar, spin into the Atlantic, and stay coherent and persistent because their potential vorticity is so anomalous that a closed circulation is induced. It could be that the salty water of the Mediterranean finds its way into the Atlantic by the continual generation (one every ten days is all that is required) of such concentrated spinnning blobs. With a lifetime of 1-2 yr, there could be fifty of them in the North Atlantic at any time; 'indeed numerical
models of eddy-rich ocean gyres suggest that coherent vortices are a ubiquitous feature of the oceans.' Dept. of Phys., Imperial Coll. of Sci. and Tech., London SW7 2BZ, UK. (fcs) 88:7138 Monastersky, R., 1988. Scientist says greenhouse warming is here. Sci. News, Washington, D.C., 134(1):p.4.
Global temperatures have increased 0.6-0.7C ° over the last 100 years, and the 5 warmest of the last 100 years have been in this decade. But what does this mean? NASA climate expert, James Hansen, testified to the U.S. Congress recently that he is 99% sure all of this is evidence of a greenhouse effect, and there is support for this view from computer simulations of Earth's climate. But other scientists are not as sure. Meanwhile, Congress is awakening to the possible threat but needs additional evidence before it can consider launching a massive program. (wbg) 88:7139 Shine, Keith, 1988. Antarctic ozone---an extended meeting report. Weather, 43(5):208-216.
This report is based on the Royal Meteorological Society meeting of 17 February, 1988, which addressed the issue of the Antarctic ozone hole, and represents the first in a series of articles on this topic planned for future issues. A brief synopsis of each of the talks is given. (emm)
different tectonic settings illustrates the use of geochemical data on lavas for reconstructing the paleogeography associated with various ancient volcanoes. Dept. of Earth Sci., The Open Univ., Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK. (hbf) 88:7142 Evans, J.W., 1988. Cockle diaries: the interpretation of tidal growth lines. Endeavour, 12(1):8-15.
Regular environmental changes are often reflected by changing patterns of growth. Generally, as in tree growth rings, the patterns represent fairly long-term fluctuations. In some organisms, however, growth lines corresponding to daily environmental variations can be detected. This article describes how the analysis of growth lines can provide a daily diary of the intertidal experience of the Pacific Cockle. Dept. of Biol., Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, Canada. 88:7143 Massom, R.A., 1988. The biological significance of open water within the sea ice covers of the polar regions. Endeavour, 12(1):21-26.
There are always considerable areas of open water in the polar regions, including some of considerable size which are normally in the same place from year to year. Mapping these areas has lately been much facilitated by remote sensing from polar orbiting satellites. This unusual ecological niche has been exploited by a specialized community of plants and animals. Scott Polar Res. Inst., Univ. of Cambridge, UK.
88:7140 Sun, Marjorie, 1988. Tighter ozone standard urged by scientists. [Report.] Science, 240(4860): 17241725.
F390. Educational literature
88:7144 Shulman, Seth, 1988. Nuclear arms race at sea. Nature, Lond., 333(6173):p.489.
88:7141 Blake, Stephen, 1988. The chemistry of volcanoes. Chem. Br., 24(6):539-542.
The complex behavior of the roughly 1350 active volcanoes is reviewed in light of thermodynamic principles which reveal the importance of gaseous components, the O:(Si+AI) ratio, and the magma viscosity in controlling the nature of a volcanic eruption. A general summary of mineral-melt compositional relations and the method for estimating magmatic temperatures is included. An examination of the compositional differences of lavas from
While the nuclear arms race ashore has abated as evidenced by the Reagan/Gorbachev summit and the ratification of the I N F treaty by the US Congress, there is a 'hidden arms race' at sea, according to a new report. Written by defense analysts at the Institute for Policy Studies in Washington, DC (and jointly published by that organization and Greenpeace), the report describes the type and location of 16,000 nuclear weapons plus ships and aircraft with nuclear capabilities in the US, USSR, British, French and Chinese navies. The danger from sea-launched cruise missiles, the 'most dangerous weapons in production,' is stressed. (wbg)