arranged at angles along radial planes of the tyre. A belt consisting of a plurality of layers of parallel, organic fibre cords covers the crown of the carcass. The cords in the belt layer have an initial modulus which is higher than that of the cords in the carcass. Dual composite headed self.threading screw Hashimoto, K. (Maruemu Seisakusho Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan) US Pat 4 887 951 (19 December 1989) The main body of the screw is metal with a small hexagonal head. Over this is a larger, fibre-reinforced, synthetic resin hexagonal head. If the synthetic resin head is cut into it is therefore still possible to apply a wrench to the screw. Torque rod of composite material Trudeau, W.H. ( 0 & S Manufacturing Company, Whitmore Lake, MI, USA) US Pat 4 888 236 (19 December 1989) A torque rod preform for a heavy duty motor vehicle is composed of a polymerizable composite material. The body is in two portions which are loosely interlockable, with a sleeve slidable over the interlocked region when the two portions are loosely interlocked. Low-thermal-expansion, heat conducting laminates having layers of metal and reinforced polymer matrix composite Zweben, C.H., Mogle, R.A., Rodini, B.T. and Thaw, C.L. (General Electric Company, King of Prussia, PA, USA) US Pat 4 888 247 (19 December 1989) A heat conducting laminate comprises at least one layer of metal and at least one layer of a thermoset, polymer-matrix composite material with a low thermal expansion reinforcing material embedded therein. Tyre reinforcing component Mathews, D. (Apsley Metals Limited, UK) US Pat 4 889173 (26 December 1989) A tyre reinforcing component is formed from a ply of an elastomeric material reinforced with a single continuous cord which extends back and forth across the width of the ply in a zig-zag formation. At the edges of the ply a plurality of loops are formed which are folded back onto the ply so that they lie adjacent to the centreline of the ply, The two edges are folded back in different directions so that the angle between one set of loops and the centreline is different from that between the other set and the centreline. Pneumatic radial tyres Oshima, K. and Iwasaki, S. (Bridgestone Corp, Tokyo, Japan) US Pat 4 889 174 (26 December 1989) A pneumatic radial tyre comprises a tread portion, a carcass ply and a belt. The belt consists of a first layer of steel cords superimposed on the carcass ply, a second layer of twisted polyvinyl alcohol fibres piled on the first layer and a third layer of twisted polyvinyl alcohol fibres which is housed within the second layer by folding the second layer radially inward back over the third layer. Composite bicycle frames and methods of making same Trimble, B.J. (Berryville, AK, USA) US Pat 4 889355 (26 December 1989) A hollow bicycle frame is formed from two adjacent wall sections made of a fibrous material impregnated with a synthetic resin.
The two sections are united by overlapping their edges such that load may be transferred from one section to the other across the junction. Method of manufacturing golf club shafts Roy, P.A. (Fiber-Speed International, Inc, Naples, FL, USA) US Pat 4 889 575 (26 December 1989) A method of making a fibre-reinforced resin golf club shaft from resin-impregnated cloth is described. Three shaped blanks are assembled on a mandrel at a temperature which assists assembly but is below the curing temperature of the resin and the whole is cured in an oven.
MATERIALS Fibre-reinforced silicon nitride composite ceramics Corbin, N.D. and Willkens, C.A. (Norton Company, Worcester, MA, USA) US Pat 4 885 199 (5 December 1989) A fibre-reinforced composite comprises 20-80 vol % silicon carbide fibres with an average length of at least 1 mm and diameters :between 8 and 25 ~tm, crack deflection zones occupying a predominant proportion of the space within 1 ~tm of the fibres and a matrix consisting of predominantly reaction-bonded silicon nitride. The fibres are derived from the decomposition of organosilicon polymers and are collectively capable of bearing load without fibre failure at points of matrix failure. The crack deflection zones are comprised of a material with its most probable direction of slip parallel to the surfaces of the reinforcing fibres. Glass-mat-reinforced thermoplastic panels Wahl, L. and Vogel, H. (BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, FRG) US Pat 4 885 205 (5 December 1989) Fibre-reinforced, thermoformable, semifinished material comprises a thermoplastic polymer and at least one layer of symmetrically needled glass-fibre mat. Foam composite and manufacture thereof Graalmann, O., Kreibiehl, G., Turznik, G. and Weber, H. (BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, FRG) US Pat 4 885 206 (5 December 1989) A foam composite comprises one or more layers of a flexible melamine-formaldehyde resin foam with a density between 8 and 25 × 103 kg m -3 and one or more layers of a flexible polyimide foam with a density between 8 and 4 0 x 103kgm -3. Composite material and methods for making Trenkler, G. and Delagi, R.G. (Texas Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, TX, USA) US Pat 4 885 214 (5 December 1989) Discrete elements of a first metal are coated with a second metal and dispersed in a metal matrix. The bonds between the second metal and the metal matrix are diffusion bonds comprising an intermetallic material. Pressure-sintered polycrystalline mixed materials with a base of hexagonal boron nltride, oxides and carbides Sindlhauser, P., Hunoid, K. and Lipp, A. (Elektroschmeizwerk Kempten GmbH,
Munich, FRG) US Pat 4 885 264 (5 December 1989) A pressure-sintered polycrystalline material is made from 30-85 wt % hexagonal boron nitride, 10-50 wt % of either zirconium oxide or magnesium oxide and 5-20 wt % of either silicon carbide, titanium carbide or zirconium carbide. The density of the material is at least about 94% of the theoretically possible density based on the total weight of the mixed materials. Method of using evenly distributed air flow to condition glass filaments prior to application of sizing Lewin, D.F. (Owens-Coming Fiberglas Corporation, Toledo, OH, USA) US Pat 4 886 536 (12 December 1989) A method for forming continuous glass fibres is described in which streams of molten glass are supplied from a bushing and are drawn into continuous filaments. A stream of air at an angle of between 20 and 30° below the horizontal is passed across the continuous filaments to cool and regulate their temperature whilst keeping them free from moisture. A sizing material is applied to the filaments so that their moisture content is below 6 wt % and the filaments are collected on a spindle or collet. Laminated composite of a rigid polyurethane modifk,d polyisocyanurate substrate and metal, plastic, cellulose, glass, ceramic or combinations thereof Younes, U.E. (Arco Chemical Technology, lnc, Wilmington, DE, USA) US Pat4886 700 (12 December 1989) A compression moulded laminated composite consists of at least one layer of a rigid, polyurethane-modified polyisocyanurate thermoset composition and at least one layer of metal, cellulose, plastic, glass, ceramic or a combination thereof. The thermoset composition is prepared in the mould by reacting a mixture of an organic di- or polyisocyanate with 2-50 wt % of a cyclic alkylene carbonate and 2-50 wt % of a polyether polyol (based on the isocyanate-carbonate-polyoi mixture) in the presence of a soluble adduct of a tertiary amine and a cyclic alkylene carbonate as catalyst at a concentration of 0.005-5.0 wt %, based on the total composition. Thermosetting resin and prepreg and laminate using the same Katagiri, J., Nagai, A,, Tawara, K., Takahashi, A., Wajima, M., Narahara, T. and Hiraga, R. (Hitachi, Ltd, Toyota, Japan) US Pat 4 886 858 (12 December 1989) A thermosetting poly(p-hydroxystyrene) derivative resin is given. Woven fabric with bias weft and tyre reinforced by same Verbauwhedc, G. and Vanasschc, R. (Zwevegem, Belgium) US Pat 4 887 656 (19 December 1989) A woven fabric for reinforcing elastomers consists of warp elements with a warp pitch a, and unidirectional, single, stranded, threadlike weft elements with a width b, a tensile modulus of at least 180 GPa and a weft pitch c. The angle between the warp and the weft element is between 15 and 30°, the packing factor b/c is between 45 and 80% and 3c<~a<~15c.
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