Identification keys

Identification keys

CHAPTER 6 Identification keys 1 Keys to the orders of amphibians in North Africa Caudata (salamanders) Anura (frogs and toads) Tail Limbs Present...

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CHAPTER 6

Identification keys 1 Keys to the orders of amphibians in North Africa

Caudata (salamanders) Anura (frogs and toads)

Tail

Limbs

Present Absent

Hindlimbs  forelimbs Hindlimbs . forelimbs

2 Key to the genera of salamanders (Fig. 6.1) Parotoids Skin

Tail

Costal grooves

Pleurodeles Absent

Rough

Laterally compressed Absent

Salamandra Present

Smooth/slightly granular

Subcylindrical

Present

Color

Greenish brown Yellow on black

3 Key to the species of Pleurodeles

Pleurodeles nebulosus Pleurodeles poireti Pleurodeles waltl

Region

TL (mm)

Spots in flanks

Presacral vertebrae

Algeria, Tunisia Algeria Morocco

170 179 119 126 145 270

Absent Absent Present

14 14 15

Amphibians of North Africa DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-815476-2.00006-7

r 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Figure 6.1 Dorsal view of the heads of the North African urodeles: (1) Pleurodeles nebulosus; (2) Pleurodeles poireti; (3) Pleurodeles waltl; (4) Salamandra algira. Drawings: Daniel Escoriza.

4 Key to the genera of frogs and toads (Figs. 6.2 and 6.3)

Alytes Barbarophryne Bufo Bufotes Discoglossus Hoplobatrachus Hyla Kassina Pelobates Pelophylax Phrynobatrachus Ptychadena Pyxicephalus Sclerophrys Tomopterna

Parotoids

Pupils

Tympanum

Dorsal skin

Feet webbing

Toe pads

Absent Present Present Present Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Present Absent

Vertical Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Vertical Vertical Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal

Distinct Distinct Distinct Distinct Indistinct Prominent Distinct Distinct Indistinct Prominent Distinct Prominent Distinct Distinct Indistinct

Rough Rough Rough Rough Smooth/rough Rough Smooth Smooth Smooth Smooth Rough Smooth Rough Rough Smooth

Little Little Little Little Moderate Extensive Little Little Little Moderate Moderate Moderate Little Little Little

No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No

Identification keys

Figure 6.2 Dorsal view of the heads of North African semiterrestrial anurans lacking paratoids. (1) Alytes maurus (north-western Morocco only); (2) Hyla numidica (northern Tunisia and adjacent Algeria only); (3) Hyla meridionalis; (4) Hyla savignyi (Sinai Peninsula only); (5) Kassina senegalensis (southern Mauritania only); (6) Phrynobatrachus natalensis (southern Mauritania only); (7) Pelobates varaldii (north-western Morocco only); (8) Tomopterna milletihorsini (Mauritania only). Drawings: Daniel Escoriza.

Figure 6.3 Dorsal view of the heads of North African semiaquatic anurans. (1) Hoplobatrachus occipitalis (Sahel only); (2) Pyxicephalus edulis (southern Mauritania only); (3) Pelophylax bedriagae (Egypt only); (4) Pelophylax perezi (Canary Islands and Madeira only); (5) Pelophylax saharicus; (6) Discoglossus pictus; (7) Discoglossus scovazzi (Morocco only); (8) Ptychadena bibroni (southern Mauritania only); (9) Ptychadena nilotica (Egypt only); (10) Ptychadena schillukorum (southern Mauritania, Egypt?); (11) Ptychadena trinodis (southern Mauritania only); (?) dubious presence. Drawings: Daniel Escoriza.

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5 Key to the family Bufonidae species (Fig. 6.4)

Barbarophryne brongersmai Bufo spinosus Bufotes boulengeri Sclerophrys dodsoni Sclerophrys kassasii Sclerophrys mauritanica Sclerophrys pentoni Sclerophrys regularis Sclerophrys xeros

SVL (mm)

Iris

Parotoids

Garnet markings on thighs

Paired tubercles on fourth toe

Tarsal fold

35 52

Green

Ovoid, small

No

Yes

No

80 72 46 28 84

Orange Green Brown Brown Brown

Elongated, large Elongated, large Flat Flat Elongated, large

No No No Yes No

Yes Usually no No No Yes

No No Yes No No

No No No

Yes Yes Yes

129 76 58 39 150

54 71 48 72 72 82

Gray Flat No Brown Elongated, moderate No Brown Elongated, moderate Yes

SVL, snout vent length.

6 Key to the family Ptychadenae species

Ptychadena bibroni

Region

SVL (mm)

Dorsal folds

Free Outer phalanges on metatarsal fourth toe tubercle

Tarsal tubercle

Mauritania

38 61

4 Continuous; 2 discontinuous (lateral) 6 Continuous

2

Distinct

No

2

Indistinct

No

All discontinuous 3

Indistinct

No

6 Continuous

Distinct

Yes

Ptychadena Egypt 26 40 nilotica Ptychadena Mauritania, 28 34 schillukorum Egypt? Ptychadena Mauritania 42 57 trinodis

2

7 Keys to the orders of amphibians in North Africa: larvae Head defined External gills/gill slits Presence of limbs (early stages)

Caudata (salamanders) Yes Anura (frogs and toads) No

Yes No

Yes No

Identification keys

Figure 6.4 Dorsal view of the heads of North African bufonids (only the outlines are shown to highlight the shape of the parotoid glands). (1) Barbarophryne brongersmai (southern Morocco only); (2) Bufo spinosus; (3) Bufotes boulengeri; (4) Sclerophrys dodsoni (south-east Egypt only); (5) Sclerophrys kassasii (Egypt only); (6) Sclerophrys mauritanica; (7) Sclerophrys pentoni (southern Mauritania only); (8) Sclerophrys regularis (Mauritania, Egypt); (9) Sclerophrys xeros (Sahel only). Drawings: Daniel Escoriza.

8 Key to the genera of salamanders: larvae Gills

Tail fin

Tail tip

Fingers

Pleurodeles Large, bushy Forward onto the body, high Pointed Pointed Salamandra Usually short Slightly anterior to the hindlimbs, low Bluntly pointed Rounded

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9 Key to the genera of frogs and toads: larvae

Alytes Barbarophryne Bufo Bufotes Discoglossus Hoplobatrachus Hyla Kassina Pelobates Pelophylax Phrynobatrachus Ptychadena Pyxicephalus Sclerophrys Tomopterna

LT (mm)

Eyes

Body shape

Oral disc

Tail fin

Spiracle

Vent

53 30 32 43 36 41 71 41 59 76 120 92 108 35 26 45 55 21 34 45

Dorsal Dorsal Dorsal Dorsal Dorsal Dorsal Lateral Lateral Lateral Dorsal Dorsal Dorsal Dorsal Dorsal Dorsal

Depressed Depressed Depressed Depressed Depressed Depressed Globular Globular Globular Depressed Depressed Depressed Depressed Depressed Depressed

Ventral Ventral Ventral Ventral Ventral Ventral Terminal Terminal Terminal Ventral Ventral Ventral Ventral Ventral Ventral

Short Short Short Short Short Short High High High Short Short Short Short Short Short

Mid-ventral Sinistral Sinistral Sinistral Mid-ventral Sinistral Sinistral Sinistral Sinistral Sinistral Sinistral Sinistral Sinistral Sinistral Sinistral

Medial Medial Medial Medial Medial Dextral Dextral Medial Medial Dextral Medial Dextral Medial Medial Dextral

LT, Total length.

10 Key to the genera of amphibians: eggs

Pleurodeles Barbarophryne Bufo Bufotes Discoglossus Hoplobatrachus Hyla Kassina Pelobates Pelophylax Phrynobatrachus Ptychadena Pyxicephalus Sclerophrys Tomopterna Ø, Diameter.

Ø Egg (mm)

Color

Arrangement

1.0 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.9 1.0 1.4 2.0 1.2 0.6 1.2 1.0 1.3 1.0

White/yellow Black Black Black Black-yellow Black-white Brown-yellow Light blue Black Brown-yellow Brown-white Brown-white Black Black-gray Black

Singly/small clusters (2 20) String: single row of eggs String: single row of eggs String: single row of eggs Small clusters/floating layers (10 100) Singly, attached to substrate Small-moderate clusters (10 315) Small clusters (15) Cords: irregularly arranged eggs Large clusters (2309 10,000) Moderate-large clusters (200 1562) Floating singly or in layers (800 1500) Singly, scattered in water String: single row of eggs Singly/small clusters

1.8 1.9 2.5 2.5 1.5 3.7 2.0 1.7 1.8 1.0 2.0 1.5 2.0 1.5