Identifying risk factors in prostate cancer: A retrospective cohort

Identifying risk factors in prostate cancer: A retrospective cohort

3rd EAU Baltic Meeting, 27-28 May 2016, Tallinn, Estonia 2 Identifying risk factors in prostate cancer: A retrospective cohort Akman J., Hines J., Gr...

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3rd EAU Baltic Meeting, 27-28 May 2016, Tallinn, Estonia

2 Identifying risk factors in prostate cancer: A retrospective cohort Akman J., Hines J., Green J., Chowdhury S. Whipps Cross University Hospital, Dept. of Urology, London, United Kingdom

INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer remains a major cause of death amongst men in the UK. Identifying those who have an increased risk of developing the disease continues to be a primary objective for researchers and clinicians alike. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to demonstrate an association between smoking and prostate cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation of various risk factors, including smoking, with the incidence of prostate cancer within the Whipps Cross University Hospital catchment area, UK. MATERIAL & METHODS: A retrospective, cohort study was conducted on 184 patients who attended the prostate clinic at Whipps Cross University Hospital over a continuous six month period in 2015. Patients with prostate cancer were confirmed using transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy with a Gleason score of 6 and above. Data on different ethnic groups, smoking status and first degree relatives with the disease, were collected. Relative risks were calculated to assess the significance of the results. RESULTS: The average age was 67.3 (35 - 90) and the average PSA was 13.1 (0.24 - 340)mcg/L. A total of 36 patients were identified as smokers, 53% were ex-smokers (n=19) and 47% were active (n=17). Exsmokers were 3.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer (p=0.0039, 96% CI 1.5052 to 8.488, NNT=5) whereas active smokers were not associated with the disease. Black patients were 2.4 times more likely to get the disease (p=0.019, 95% CI 1.1556 to 5.0153, NNT=7). Having a strong family history was not identified to be a significant risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that being of African heritage and previously smoking increase ones risk of developing prostate cancer. This highlights the need for increased awareness of the two risk factors, particularly the modifiable ones, to improve patient outcomes. Eur Urol Suppl 2016; 15(5): e1170