Inorganic Chemistry

Inorganic Chemistry

462 BOOKKEVtEWS The book comments with a very useful review section on recent advances and then continues to look at appfications of several techniq...

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462

BOOKKEVtEWS

The book comments with a very useful review section on recent advances and then continues to look at appfications of several techniques to study of protein structure, biomembranes, chromophore-contai~ng systems, and nucleic acids, and is completed by a most informative section on the medical and pharmaceutical applications, including in uiuo studies. Each paper is reproduced in its original form, and as a reference text for those working in this field the book will prove most valuable. S. M. MACMANUS Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Applications in Agricultural, Pharmaceutical M. A. BROWN(ed.), ACS, Washington, DC, 1990. Pages xii + 298. $64.95.

and Environmental

Chemistry:

The ACS Symposium Series No. 420 provides a useful monograph on applications of LC/MS and contains papers on agricultural, pharmaceutical and environmental chemistry which are in camera-ready form and reviewed under the supervision of the editor, Mark Brown, with the assistance of the Series Advisory Board. Unfortunately, there is a wide variation in the standard of presentation in this format which detracts somewhat from the overall quality of the book. Eighteen papers formed into chapters deal progressively with agrochemicals, pesticide metabolism and degradation (2-7). pharmaceuticals and metabolism (812) and environmental analysis (13-18). These applications of LC/MS are preceded by Chapter 1, a short review of the development of LC/MS techniques by Cairns and Siegmund. This paper highlights the advantages of LC/MS over GC/MS in the analysis of molecules that are either thermally labile, or of low volatility or high polarity. Although not an in-depth review, it does form a useful, limited introduction and deals with the practicalities, advantages and disadvantages of the various LC/MS interfaces that have been developed. Because of the stereotyped format, there is some inevitable overlap and repetition in description and practical aspects from paper to paper. However, the applications provide a good indication of the wide use of LC/MS techniques in these fields. The first category of papers describes techniques for enhancing structural information, confirmation of pesticide residues by LC/Tandem MS, the use of solvent ions to confirm structure of selected herbicides with thermospray (TSP), chlorinated herbicide analysis by LC/MS, multi-residue analysis of thermally labile sulphonylurea herbicides in crops, and the appli~tion of negative-ion MS in studies of herbicide metabolism. The second category considers structural elucidation of xenobiotic conjugates obtained from either biological fluids or from enzymatic/chemi~al synthesis by positive-ion TSP, LC/MS and LC/MS/MS; exploratory qualitative analysis of novel pharmaceuticals, nemadectins and tetracyclines in fermentation broths by TSP/LC/MS; quantification of components of human plasma, endogenous retinoic acid, by LC/NCI-MS at picrogram levels; LC/MS in bioanalysis dealing with three aspects, namely, optimization strategy for TSP, and two applications (i) confirmatory evidence for aminotrazepam in blood, involving TSP LC/MS and MS/MS and (ii) analysis after chiral separation of metoprolol enantiomers with a phase system switching approach and MB/LC/MS; monitoring of in viva cyclic acetylation and deacetylation of anticonvulsants by TSP/LC/MS. The third section highlights aspects of applications in environmental analysis. Two papers deal with target and non-target pollutants in hazardous wastes and phenols, and their sulphates and conjugates utilizing particle beam MS. Vestal, a leader in the development of TSP, describes a combination ion source for the detection of environmentally important compounds. DLI and FAB LC/MS are applied to the analysis of metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene. The use of ion-exchange TSP tandem MS for polar urinary metabolites and use of LSIMS (caesium ion) for structural studies of in uirro alkylation of haemoglobin by el~trophilic methods. viz. with styrene-7&oxide, are also presented. The latter paper highli~ts the powerful application of a four sector (EBEB) MS/MS instrument for the sequencing of tryptic peptides isolated from human globins. In conclusion, this monograph provides valuable and exemplary information on the wide use of a range of LC/MS techniques for qualitative, quantitative and structural analyses and is a useful addition to the literature dealing with this important subject. P. J. BAUGH Inorganic Chemistry: D. F. SHRIVER, P. W. ATKINSand C. H. LANGFORD (eds.), OUP, Oxford, 1990. Pages xiii + 706. E40.00 (hardback), f16.50 (softback).

A single text dealing with inorganic chemistry must be extensive, as the discipline covers over a hundred elements and extends into many other branches of science. Inevitably this new work will be compared with Advanced Inorganic Chemistry by Cotton and Wilkinson and Chem~try oj’ the Elements by Greenwood and Eamshaw. It is aimed at the undergraduate student and is keenly priced. The approach adopted by the authors is selective and interpretative rather than comprehensive. The 19 chapters of the book are arranged under five section headings: structure, reactions, s- and p-block elements, d- andf-block elements and interdisciplinary topics (which comprise catalysis, structure and properties of solids and bioinorganic chemistry). Not all chapters are strictly sequential and it would be possible to move directly from say Chapter 3 on d-metal complexes to Chapter 14 on bonding and spectra of complexes. There are several worked examples together with additional problems, and short answers are supplied to all exercises; these will be useful to both teacher and student. A separate publication, Guide to Solutions, by Prof. S. Strauss accompanies the text but has not been seen by this reviewer. Suggestions for further reading (supplementary books) are given at the end of each chapter. In the text the columns in the periodic table are numbered from I to 18 and (for the main groups) from I to VIII, so that the oxygen group is Group VI/16 and the chromium group is Group 6.

BOOK

REVIEWS

463

The book is extremely well produced, with wide margins which contain many excellent diagrams. In particular there are numerous structures which emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the subject. However, I did notice that one structure of tin referred to in the formula index was actually a polymer of sulphur (S,). Bonding and mechanistic models are explained clearly and co-ordination chemistry is well surveyed. Periodic trends rather than isolated treatments of elements are emphasized, e.g., the inorganic chemistry of phosphorus is mentioned in various chapters, viz. those on the nitrogen and oxygen groups, the structures of solids, molecular structure, Bronsted acids and bases, Lewis acids and bases, oxidation and reduction, hydrogen and its compounds, main group organometallics, and d- and f-block organometallics. Also, uranium is not mentioned in the general index but some uranium chemistry is scattered here and there in the text. The terms “d-orbital splitting” and “crystal field theory” are also absent but “ligand field splitting” and “ligand field theory” are present, along with “frontier orbital energy level” diagrams. As a general introductory text with a structural bias it certainly succeeds in its interpretative approach. P. J. Cox

Dictionary of Drugs-Chemical

Data, Structures and Bibliographies: J. ELKS and G. R. GANELLIN (eds.), Chapman & Hall,

London, 1989. f675. This 2-volume work provides a concise up-to-date reference source on structures, physical properties and pharmacological properties of more than 6000 drugs of current interest. The compilation brings together essential data that are otherwise difficult to retrieve, and together with additional references allows a rapid access to original data. The main work is clearly presented in the style of the Dicfionary of Organic Compounds with extensive cross-referenced indexing. The Structure Index, however, though providing a source of rapid scanning for structural recognition, is confusingly condensed. This will be a key source for scientists of many disciplines working with pharmaceuticals as well as for the industry itself. The editors are to be commended on their labours, but not surprisingly for such a specialized publication the cost is high. It will be of interest to see whether the high standard of these volumes is to be maintained in subsequent additions. D. G.

DURHAM