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Full Length Article
Intensiﬁcation of CO2 capture using aqueous diethylenetriamine (DETA) solution from simulated ﬂue gas in a rotating packed bed
Miaopeng Shenga, Chenxia Xiea,b, Xiaofei Zenga,b, Baochang Suna,b, , Liangliang Zhanga,b, ⁎ Guangwen Chua,b, Yong Luoa,b, Jian-Feng Chena,b, Haikui Zoua,b, a b
Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, PR China State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, PR China
A R T I C LE I N FO
A B S T R A C T
Keywords: CO2 capture Process intensiﬁcation Diethylenetriamine Rotating packed bed Back-Propagation Neural Network model
Coal still has a vital role in power generation, and coal-ﬁred power plants are considered to be a main source of CO2 emission. This work proposed a process intensiﬁcation (PI) technology, combining the highly eﬃcient diethylenetriamine (DETA) solvent for CO2 absorption and the PI device of rotating packed bed (RPB) for enhancing gas-liquid mass transfer, to improve CO2 capture performance. Experimental study was conducted in a lab-scale RPB, and the dependences of CO2 removal performance on various operation conditions were systematically investigated. It was founded that CO2 loading has a vital eﬀect on removal eﬃciency, and increasing rotation speed and solvent ﬂow rate is beneﬁcial to CO2 removal. The comparison of mass transfer performance between RPB and packed column (PC) demonstrated that the gas retention time in RPB with a value of 1.5 s is far shorter than that in PC under the similar operation conditions, which means RPB possesses a great advantage of shrinking mass-transfer device’s size for the CO2 capture process. Additionally, a Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) model was developed for predicting the value of overall volumetric mass-transfer coeﬃcient (KGav), and the predicted values agree well with experimental data with a satisfactory average absolute relative derivation (AARD) of 7.85%. These results demonstrated that this PI technology is expected to be a competitive candidate for improving CO2 capture performance from ﬂue gas.
1. Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major contributor to global warming, and coal-ﬁred power plants are considered to be a main source of CO2 emission. According to BP energy outlook 2017 , coal consumption in 2016 was 3732 Gt of oil equivalent, accounting for 28.1% of world’s global primary energy consumption, while Asia-Paciﬁc region consumed 73.78% of the total as shown in Fig. 1. Despite the dramatic drop in the mount of coal power capacity in 2016, the number of the coalﬁred plants is still very large, and the amount of global coal power capacity in pre-construction planning and operating were 446.6GW and 1995.8GW, respectively, as of January 2017 . Also, the continuous falling in coal price since 2011 enables coal power sector to obtain unprecedented excess proﬁts, which may stimulate generation companies to invest in new coal power projects . In view of growing increase in world population and demand of economic development, coal-ﬁred power plant will still be a vital source of power generation in the near future, especially in developing countries like China and India, despite the growing utilization of natural gas and renewables. ⁎
Therefore, continually large CO2 emission as well as its impacts on climate change call for the eﬃcient control of CO2 emission, and ﬁrst of all, developing more advanced and cost-eﬀective CO2 capture technologies becomes urgently needed. Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) using amine-based solvent is considered as the most mature and promising end-of-pipe treatment process for CO2 capture from coal-ﬁred power plants, which has so far been applied in chemical industries . However, high energy demand of this process is the main drawback, which leads to a reduction in power generation eﬃciency up to 13%  and high capital and operation cost, and thus hinders its commercialization. Therefore, the improvements, including process optimization, solvent development and design improvement in equipments, are vital to minimizing the energy penalty as well as the capital and operation cost [4–6]. Monoethanolamine (MEA), a typical chemical solvent, has been served as standard solvent for the CO2 capture process, but its drawbacks signiﬁcantly expand the investment and operation costs, e.g. low capacity, high regeneration energy, corrosion and degradation . In the past decades, many eﬀorts have been made to develop new amine-
Corresponding authors at: P.O. Box 35, No. 15 Bei San Huan Dong Road, Beijing 100029, PR China. E-mail addresses: [email protected]
(B. Sun), [email protected]
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.07.136 Received 10 June 2018; Received in revised form 25 July 2018; Accepted 30 July 2018 0016-2361/ © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Nomenclature α β CAmine DCO2 G GI kL k2 kAmH kDETA,P kDETA,S kH2O
CO2 loading, mol mol−1 2 )/2 /9.8) high gravity level (=(2πN /60)2 (rin2 + rout −1 concentration of amine solvent, mol L diﬀusion coeﬃcient of CO2 in liquid, m2 s−1 gas ﬂow rate, m3 h−1 inert gas molar ﬂow rate, kmol m2 h−1 liquid-phase mass transfer coeﬃcient, m s−1 second order reaction-rate constant, m3 kmol s−1 third-order reaction rate constant contributed by amine, m3 kmol s−1 third-order reaction rate constant contributed by primary amino group of DETA, m3 kmol s−1 third-order reaction rate constant contributed by secondary amino group of DETA, m3 kmol s−1 third-order reaction rate constant contributed by H2O,
L Lf G/L N Ns rin rout SN SR t T yin yout
m3 kmol s−1 overall volumetric mass-transfer coeﬃcient, kmol m−3 kPa−1 h−1 solvent ﬂow rate, L h−1 solvent ﬂux rate, m3 m−2 h−1 gas-liquid ratio, L·L−1 rotation speed of RPB, rpm· number of packing layers in RPB inner radius of the packing, cm inner radius of the packing, cm surface renewable rate of liquid elements, s−1 the ratio of kL,N to kL,1000rpm average liquid retention time, s temperature, °C inlet CO2 concentration, % outlet CO2 concentration, %
Fig. 1. Contribution of world’s global primary energy consumption in 2016 by fuel (a) and region (b) according to BP energy outlook 2017 .
multiple-phase ﬁelds like acid gas absorption [9,19–22], VOC Stripping,  distillation , and bromination , and waste water treatment [26,27]. Due to the strong centrifugal force created by highspeed packing, liquid is spilt or spread into tiny liquid elements, including ﬁlms, droplets and threads, and these will inevitably provide a large gas-liquid contact area. Moreover, the fast coalescence and redispersion of liquid elements between packing layers leads to a high surface renewable rate and thus an intensiﬁcation on liquid-phase mass transfer process according to Higbie’s penetration theory . Jassim et al.  adapted MEA for CO2 capture in RPB and found RPB possesses an advantage of size reduction as compared to conventional packed column. Simulated works and experimental studies by Qian et al. , Joel et al. , and Yu et al. , also conﬁrm that RPB can obtain better mass transfer eﬃciency with an obvious advantages of size reduction and energy reduction as compared to conventional masstransfer device, implying RPB can be a promising device for CO2 capture. Contacting time between gas and liquid in RPB is much shorter than conventional packed column because of the very short liquid retention time in RPB (normally < 1 s),  which requires highly eﬃcient solvent with a fast reaction rate with CO2 to match the short retention time
based solvents, like piperazine (PZ) [7,8], N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) [9,10], 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP)  and Diethylenetriamine (DETA) , to overcome the limitations of MEA. DETA is a linear polyamine and contains three amino groups (see Fig. 2), which exhibits the high reaction rate and high capacity for CO2 absorption. Hartono et al.  investigated the kinetics of DETA-CO2 system and the results show that DETA has a much higher reaction rate with CO2 than that of MEA. Fu et al.  compared the CO2 capture performance between aqueous DETA and aqueous MEA in a packed column with Dixon rings, and they found that DETA has a much higher overall gas-phase volumetric mass-transfer coeﬃcient (KGav) than that of MEA. Zhang et al.  measured the regeneration heat duty for CO2 desorption, and found that DETA consumes less heat duty than MEA for regenerating a certain amount of CO2. The results of a pilot-plant test work, which carried out in a packed column with Sulzer DX500 packing by Gao et al. , agrees well with the results obtained by Fu et al. and Zhang et al. These studies show DETA has much higher reaction rate and CO2 capacity, but lower regeneration heat duty than MEA, which means DETA is a promising solvent for CO2 capture. CO2 capture by chemical absorption method belongs to a gas–liquid mass transfer process accompanied with chemical reactions, and the mass transfer resistance mainly exists in liquid phase . Therefore, besides the eﬀorts made in developing new solvents, researchers should pay more attention to intensify the gas-liquid mass transfer of CO2 via developing new type device or using additives like nanoﬂuids and catalysts [15–18]. Rotating packed bed (RPB), as a high-eﬃciency process intensiﬁcation (PI) device, has been successfully applied in
Fig. 2. Structure of DETA. 1519
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and high mass transfer eﬃciency in RPB. Fig. 3 presents the comparisons of reaction rate between CO2 and diﬀerent solvents, including amine-based solvents, ammonia (NH3) and potassium glycinate (PG). PZ and its derivatives (i.e. 1-(2-aminoethyl)piperazine (AEPZ) and N(2-hydrox-ethyl)piperazine (N-HEPZ)) possess the highest reaction rate with CO2, followed by polyamines, like ethylenediamine (EDA), 2-((2Aminoethyl)amino)ethanol (AEEA) and DETA. Previous studies by Yu et al.  and Sheng et al.  exhibit that adding 5–15 wt% of PZ into aqueous DETA solution can improve CO2 removal eﬃciency in RPB. However, the eﬀect of PZ concentration on CO2 removal eﬃciency was less signiﬁcant than that of others operation conditions. Moreover, PZ has a poor water-solubility, and Freeman and Rochelle recommended a concentrated PZ (40 wt%) solution with a relatively high CO2 loading to avoid the risk of solid precipitation under low temperature [7,8]. Given these conclusions as well as the cost of absorbent, adding a small amount of PZ and its derivative into aqueous DETA solution may not be a very economic choice, and an individual DETA solution may still match the short retention time and high mass transfer eﬃciency in RPB due to its high reaction rate with CO2. In addition, the investigation of aqueous DETA solution as solvent for CO2 capture in RPB is inadequate. Therefore, combining RPB’s intensiﬁcation in mass transfer process and solvent’s high reaction rate with CO2 can not only enhance the CO2 capture performance but also reduce the size of absorber. In this work, an investigation on the absorption of CO2 into aqueous DETA solution in RPB, which adopts DETA as absorbent and RPB as absorber to intensify the CO2 capture process, was presented to explore the dependences of CO2 removal eﬃciency on various operation conditions. The comparisons of KGav between RPB and packed columns from literature were also presented. In addition, the modelling study on KGav, including empirical model and Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) model, was deduced for the further design of the scale-up of this process. This work could provide a potential solution for improving CO2 capture performance as well as promoting the commercialization of post-combustion amine-based CO2 capture technology.
CO2 + DETA +
DETA DETAH+ ↔ DETCOO− + ⎧ + H2 O ⎨ ⎩ H3 O
−rCO2 - DETA = (kDETA,P CDETA + kDETA,S CDETA + kH2O CH2O ) CDETA CCO2 (5)
−3869.3 ⎞; kDETA,S T ⎠ −4092.8 ⎞ = 4.6294 × 108 exp ⎛ ⎝ T ⎠
kDETA,P = 7.4692 × 109 exp ⎛ ⎝
where rCO2-DETA is the overall reaction between CO2 and DETA; kDETA,P is third-order reaction rate constant contributed by primary amino group of DETA; and kDETA,S is third-order reaction rate constant contributed by secondary amino group of DETA; kH2O is third-order reaction rate constant contributed by H2O. The value of kDETA,P calculated by Eq. (6) is 9.2 times that of kMEA at 40 °C as shown in Fig. 3, which shows a high reaction rate between CO2 and DETA. 3. Experimental section 3.1. Materials DETA (purity ≥ 98.0%) was purchased from Tianjin Fuchen Chemical Reagents Factory, and aqueous solution with a certain concentration was prepared with deionized water. CO2 gas (purity ≥ 99.9%) was supplied by Beijing Ruyuanruquan Technology Co. Ltd, and the air was generated by an oil free air compressor (TYW-1, Suzhou Tongyi Electrical and Mechanical Co. Ltd). Standard 1.0N H2SO4 solution was purchased from National Analytic Center, China. Concentrated H2SO4 (> 95 wt%) was purchased from Beijing Chemical Works to prepare dilute H2SO4 solution (∼1 mol L−1), which was used for CO2 loading measurement as described in Section 3.2. All chemicals were used without further puriﬁcation. 3.2. Experimental procedure
2. Reactions during absorption of CO2 into DETA solvent
The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 5. Stainless wire mess was
To the best of our knowledge, the only available kinetics studies of CO2 absorption into aqueous DETA solution published in literature were reported by Hartono et al. [11,33]. According to their study, the reaction between CO2 and DETA can be described by zwitterion mechanism and termolecular mechanism, and further, the latter may be more accurate:
CO2 + 2H2 O↔ H3 O + + HCO−3
CO2 + OH−↔HCO−3
+ ⎧ DETAH ⎧ DETA H2 O ⎪ H3 O+ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − H2 O CO2 + DETA + OH ↔ DETACOO− + ⎨ HCO− ⎨ 3 H2 CO3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ CO32 − ⎪ HCO−3 ⎩ ⎩
Normally, the reaction between hydroxyl ion and CO2 can be neglected due to its low concentration . NMR study on reaction products from another work of Hartono et al.  shows that the concentrations of HCO−3 and CO32 - are very low as compared to DETA concentration, and they are generated when CO2 loading reaches as high as 1.38 (See Fig. 4). Normally, the high loading has far exceeded the optimal operating range in view of the regeneration heat duty of CO2 according to Zhang et al.  and Gao et al.  Therefore, the eﬀects of CO32 - and HCO−3 in Eq. (3) can be neglected, and the Eq. (3) can be simpliﬁed to be Eq. (4). Because DETA has three amino groups, the overall reaction rate can be considered to be a combination of CO2 reaction with primary and secondary amino groups which are expressed as Eqs. (5) and (6).
Fig. 3. Comparison of reaction rate constants of various solvents: (a) Secondorder reaction rate constant k2; (b) Third-order reaction rate constant kAmH. (drawn by Sheng on the basis of a literature review ). 1520
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Fig. 4. Products generated from reaction between CO2 and DETA. (drawn according to reference ).
The CO2 removal eﬃciency was calculated by
packed in the RPB, and the diameter of packing wire was 0.25 mm. The outer diameter, inner diameter and axial height of packing were 15 cm, 5 cm and 5.3 cm, respectively. Prior to each experiment, the RPB was pre-heat and pre-wet through circulating hot solvent, and at the same, the gaseous mixture of CO2 and air with a certain proportion was introduced into RPB. Normally, this procedure took about 15 min to reach a steady state. When temperature and inlet CO2 centration reached the pre-set values, a fresh lean solvent with a certain temperature was pumped into RPB, and then the liquid contacted with the gaseous mixture counter-currently to capture CO2. All experiments were carried out under atmosphere pressure, and all data were recorded when the system reached a steady state. CO2 concentration in gaseous mixture was monitored by infrared CO2 analyzer (GXH-3010F, Beijing Huayun Analytical Instrument Institution), and CO2 loading in solvent was analyzed by measuring the volume of released CO2 from solvent through adding an excess amount of dilute H2SO4 solution . Amine concentration was analyzed by potentiometric titration method with standard 1.0 N H2SO4 solution, and the operation was achieved by an Automatic Potentiometric Titrator (ZDJ-4B, INESA Scientiﬁc Instrument Co., Ltd).
y (1−y in ) ⎤ η = ⎡1− out × 100% ⎢ y in (1−y out ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
where yin and yout are CO2 concentration at gas inlet and gas outlet, respectively. 4. Results and discussion 4.1. Eﬀects of solvent concentration and CO2 loading Solvent concentration and CO2 loading are vital parameters for the design of amine-based PCC, and Fig. 6 shows the dependences of CO2 removal eﬃciency on solvent concentration and CO2 loading in RPB. It can be seen that CO2 removal eﬃciency obviously decreased as CO2 loading increased, and this change was more evident when CO2 loading exceeded the range of 0.4–0.5. Increasing DETA concentration favored the CO2 removal, but it had a limited eﬀect on CO2 removal eﬃciency when CO2 loading was lower
Fig. 5. Experimental setup for the CO2 capture in an RPB. 1521
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Fig. 6. Dependences of CO2 removal eﬃciency on solvent concentration and CO2 loading in RPB. Table 1 Viscosity of aqueous DETA solution. DETA concentration
25 wt% 30 wt%a 10 wt%b 20 wt%b 30 wt%b 40 wt%b a b
Viscosity/cP T = 30 °C
T = 40 °C
T = 50 °C
2.8413 3.7357 1.211 2.011 3.572 7.310
2.101 2.6839 0.970 1.540 2.582 4.859
1.6153 2.0119 0.799 1.221 1.95 3.302
Obtained from Ref. . Obtained from Ref. .
Fig. 8. Eﬀect of rotation speed on liquid retention time and SR.
Fig. 7. Dependence of CO2 removal eﬃciency on rotation speed in RPB.
than 0.4. Although high DETA concentration will accelerate the reaction between CO2 and DETA, the solvent viscosity, increasing as DETA concentration increases as shown in Table 1, will hinder the diﬀusion of CO2 molecule in the liquid and then impede CO2 absorption. The
Fig. 9. Dependence of CO2 removal eﬃciency on solvent ﬂow rate in RPB.
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Fig. 13. Comparison of KGav between packed columns and RPB under similar gas-liquid ratio.
Fig. 10. Dependence of CO2 removal eﬃciency on gas ﬂow rate in RPB.
30 wt% DETA, especially when CO2 loading was low as shown in Fig. 6. 4.2. Eﬀect of rotation speed In the RPB, liquid is split into very ﬁne liquid elements, including ﬁlms, droplets and threads, by high-speed rotating packing, and high rotation speed favors the formation of ﬁne liquid elements. Visual studies in RPB show that average thickness of liquid ﬁlm is about 10−5 m  and average diameter of liquid droplet is about 10 4 m,  resulting in a large gas-liquid contact area and thus enhancing the mass transfer process. Fig. 7 shows that CO2 removal eﬃciency signiﬁcantly increased with increasing rotation speed, which highly beneﬁts from the formation of ﬁne liquid elements and large gas-liquid contact area. Previous studies have demonstrated that eﬀective gas-liquid contact area (ae) is proportional to rotation speed, i.e... n is in the range of 0.24–0.68 . As aforementioned, liquid has a short retention time (t) in the RPB. Qian et al.  believed that intensiﬁcation of RPB on gas-liquid mass transfer process mainly beneﬁts from the high surface renewable rate (SN) and short life time of liquid elements. Liquid retention time and surface renewable rate of liquid elements can be calculated by Eqs. (8) and (9), respectively . SR is deﬁned as the ratio of liquid-side mass transfer coeﬃcients (kL,N) to that obtained under 1000 rpm as Eq. (10), which could intuitively reﬂect the intensiﬁcation performance according to Danckwerts’s surface renewable theory . The calculated results have been plotted in Fig. 8. It can be seen that the value of SR signiﬁcantly increases due to the drop in liquid retention time when rotation speed increases, meaning the mass transfer process, i.e. CO2 absorption process, can be enhanced signiﬁcantly.
Fig. 11. Dependence of CO2 removal eﬃciency on temperature in RPB.
Fig. 12. Dependence of CO2 removal eﬃciency on inlet CO2 concentration in RPB.
2 2 rout−rin ⎡ ⎛ 2πN ⎞2 (rin + rout ) ⎤ ⎥ 0.02107L0.2279 ⎢ ⎝ 60 ⎠ 2 ⎣ ⎦
kL, N = kL,1000rpm
DCO2 SN DCO2 S1000rpm
where kL is liquid-phase mass transfer coeﬃcient; rin and rout are inner radius and outer radius of packing, respectively; Ns is the number of packing layer in RPB. However, when rotation is too high, CO2 may not be completely absorbed by the solvent in a very short contact time before it exits from the RPB, which weakens the CO2 removal process. Therefore, a slower
viscosity of 20 wt% DETA is about 60% of that of 30 wt% DETA under the temperature in a typical range of 30–50 °C [37,38]. Thus, low viscosity favored 20 wt% DETA to obtain removal eﬃciency as good as
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Table 2 Detailed comparison of removal performance between packed column and RPB. Packed column
References Packing type
Fu et al.  ∅ 3 × 3 Dixon ring
Gao et al.  Sulzer DX
Fu et al.  BX 500
This work Stainless wire mesh
Packing dimension Diameter (cm) Height (cm) Volume (cm3)
2.4 140 633
2.8 120 739
15 200 35,343
5 (ID), 15 (OD) 5.3 (axial height) 833
DETA, MEA 2 0.179–0.215 30 1.2–4.2 0.32–0.49 4.7–7.2 0.32–1.2
DETA, MEA 2 for DETA 6 for MEA 0 40 5–40 1.7–6.3 20.4–72.5 1.6–3.5
Operation conditions Solvent Solvent concentration (mol L−1) CO2 loading (mol mol−1) Temperature (°C) Solvent ﬂow rate (L h−1) Gas ﬂow rate (m3 h−1) Gas retention time (s) KGav (kmol m−3 kPa−1 h−1) a
2–3 0.184–0.826 30–50 1.2–3.0 0.32–0.59 4.52–8.22 0.55–1.35
1.98–3.01a 0.15–0.52 30–50 11–32 2.0–3.5 0.86–1.5 1.12–7.44
Determined by titration method.
Fig. 14. Relationship between operating conditions and KGav.
growth rate in CO2 removal eﬃciency was observed when rotation speed exceeded 1000 rpm as shown in Fig. 7. 4.3. Eﬀect of solvent ﬂow rate Fig. 9 shows the dependence of CO2 removal eﬃciency on solvent ﬂow rate in RPB. It can be seen that the removal eﬃciency increased as the solvent ﬂow rate increased, and this tendency became more evident when CO2 loading increased. Previous studies have conﬁrmed that CO2 absorption into aqueous DETA solution is a liquid-ﬁlm control process [12,14]. Increasing solvent ﬂow rate not only enlarges the eﬀective gasliquid contact area, but also provides more free amine molecules. Additional, surface renewable rate of liquid also increases and then enhances the mass transfer process according to Eqs. (8)–(10). These factors enhance the mass transfer process and then lead to a higher CO2 removal eﬃciency. 4.4. Eﬀect of gas ﬂow rate
Fig. 15. Literature data of CO2 solubility in 30 wt% DETA solvent.
Fig. 10 shows the dependence of CO2 removal eﬃciency on gas ﬂow rate in RPB. The dependence of removal eﬃciency on gas ﬂow rate was opposite to that of solvent ﬂow rate, and increasing gas ﬂow rate was unfavorable for CO2 absorption. This tendency became more evident 1524
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Fig. 16. The structure of 4-layer BPNN model used in this work.
larger volatilization loss, which are unfavorable to CO2 absorption. Therefore, too high temperature than 60 °C is not a very good choice. The results obtained in this work were similar to the works of Fu et al. . 4.6. Eﬀect of CO2 concentration Fig. 12 shows the dependence of CO2 removal eﬃciency on inlet CO2 concentration in RPB. Because the absorption process is mainly controlled by liquid-ﬁlm mass transfer process, reducing gas-ﬁlm resistance through increasing CO2 concentration has a limited eﬀect on CO2 removal eﬃciency. Moreover, increasing CO2 concentration needs more free amine molecules to absorb the excessive CO2 to keep a constant removal eﬃciency. Therefore, CO2 removal eﬃciency decreased with increasing CO2 concentration as shown in Fig. 12, especially under high CO2 loading. 4.7. Comparisons with conventional packed column Fig. 17. Comparison between predicated KGav and experimental data.
Packed column (PC) is a commonly-used device for amine-based PCC, and three mass transfer studies of CO2 absorption into aqueous DETA solution have been reported in literature, including two laboratory-scale studies and one pilot-scale test. The comparison of CO2 removal performance between PC and RPB is plotted in Fig. 13, and the detail information is list in Table 2. The overall volumetric masstransfer coeﬃcient (KGav) in RPB was calculated by
when CO2 loading increased and liquid ﬂow rate and rotation speed decreased. Although increasing gas ﬂow rate can reduce the gas-ﬁlm mass transfer resistance, it has a limited eﬀect on CO2 transfer from gas to liquid because this process is a liquid-ﬁlm control process. Moreover, increasing gas ﬂow rate reduces the gas retention time in RPB, which reduces the contact time between gas and liquid. Therefore, CO2 removal eﬃciency decreases when gas ﬂow rate increases.
KG a v = 4.5. Eﬀect of temperature
GI ⎡ yCO2 ,in (1−yCO2 ,out ) × ln 2 −rin2 ) ⎢ yCO2 ,out (1−yCO2 ,in ) πPH (rout ⎣ yCO2 ,in yCO2,out ⎞ ⎤ + ⎜⎛ − ⎟ − − 1 y 1 yCO2,out ⎠ ⎥ CO2 ,in ⎝ ⎦
Fig. 11 shows the dependence of CO2 removal eﬃciency on temperature in RPB. It can be seen that the removal eﬃciency increased with elevating temperature, and this trend was more evident when CO2 increased. Temperature is a vital factor, which determines the reaction rate between CO2 and DETA, and elevating temperature accelerates the reaction rate according to Eq. (6). Also, elevating temperature can largely reduce the solvent viscosity as shown in Table 1, which is favorable to the diﬀusion of CO2 and amine molecules in liquid phase. However, elevating temperature results in a lower CO2 solubility and
From Fig. 13, RPB obtained higher values of KGav than PCs under the similar gas-liquid ratio, and KGav obtained by DETA solvent was much higher than that obtained by MEA solvent. In this comparison, the size of RPB in this work was close to that of PC used by Fu et al. , but much smaller than that of PC used by Gao et al.  as show in Table2. The gas retention time in RPB and PC in Fu et al’s work were 0.86 s and 5.4 s under mainly-studied gas ﬂow rate of 3.5 m3 h−1 and 1525
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0.42 m3 h−1, respectively. And the value was as high as 32.7 s in PC of Gao et al with a gas ﬂow rate of 3.9 m3 h−1. In their study, the gas ﬂow rate was investigated in the range of 1.7–6.3 m3 h−1, which leaded to a very long gas retention time from 20.4 to 72.5 s. Another work by Fu et al. , also investigated the mass transfer performance in a Sulzer DX packing column. Unfortunately, no speciﬁc but foggy operation conditions were given in their work. Thus, the comparison result is not plotted in Fig. 13, but listed in Table 2. It can be seen that RPB obtained higher mass transfer performance with a similar size, which is consistent with results shown in Fig. 13. From these comparison results, one can see that the gas retention time in RPB can be controlled below 1.5 s due to its intensiﬁcation on mass transfer process, which means that RPB can be used for larger ﬂue gas treatment as compared to PC with a similar device size.
approaches [42,47]. It has been applied in the ﬁelds of chemical engineering and shows a competitive performance as compared to conventional approaches [42,47,48]. Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) model, on the basis of the steepest gradient descent method with attempt to minimize the error between input and output data, is one of the most classic and commonly-used ANN models [42,47]. The Fig. 16 shows a schematic structure of a 4-layer BPNN model developed in this work. A total of 218 data sets were obtained from experimental work. 164 data sets (75%) were used for training the net and the residual 54 data sets (25%) were used for testing the net. From our analysis, the suitable parameters were obtained as shown in Fig. 16. The comparison result is plotted in Fig. 17, and the predicted values of KGav by BPNN model agree well with experimental data with a satisfactory AARD (average absolute relative deviation) of 7.85%. However, BPNN model is a black box, and thus, no mathematic explanation can be obtained to elucidate the relationships between input operating conditions and output value of KGav.
5. Model development 5.1. Empirical correlation model KGav is a vital parameter for the design of RPB, and a deep understanding of KGav can help designer make an accurate assessment of RPB for a speciﬁc reactive absorption system. For a mass transfer process accompanied by chemical reactions, many factors, including operating conditions, mass transfer parameters, physicochemical properties and hydraulics properties, simultaneously determine the ultimate process performance. However, all mass transfer parameters, physicochemical properties and hydraulics properties can be determined by a function of operating conditions as shown in Fig. 14. Therefore, many empirical correlations of KGav as a function of the operating parameters have been developed for packed column , and the majority of them have a similar form as
K G α v ∝ Lfm
6. Conclusions In this work, a rotating packed bed (RPB) was adopted as a PI device to improving CO2 removal performance into aqueous solution of diethylenetriamine (DETA) from simulated ﬂue gas. The dependences of CO2 removal eﬃciency on various operating conditions were investigated. Results shows CO2 loading has an important eﬀect on removal eﬃciency. When CO2 loading is low than 0.15, changing other operating conditions have a limited eﬀect. When CO2 loading is higher than 0.4, increasing DETA concentration is beneﬁcial to CO2 removal. As rotation speed and solvent ﬂow rate increase, CO2 removal eﬃciency increases due to the increase in eﬀective gas-liquid contact area and surface renewable rate of liquid elements in RPB. Increasing gas ﬂow rate and CO2 concentration lead to a reduction in CO2 removal eﬃciency, and removal eﬃciency increases with elevating temperature. Comparison results between RPB and packed column (PC) in the literature demonstrate that the gas retention time in RPB can be controlled below 1.5 s due to its intensiﬁcation on mass transfer process, which means RPB can fulﬁll larger ﬂue gas treatment task than PCs with a similar size, and DETA solvent exhibits a much higher removal performance than MEA solvent. Therefore, this PI technology, which combines the advantages of DETA solvent and RPB, is expected to be a competitive candidate for improving CO2 capture. A BPNN model was developed for predicting the value of overall volumetric mass-transfer coeﬃcient (KGav), and the predicted values agree well with experimental data with a satisfactory AARD (average absolute relative derivation) of 7.85%. Additionally, in view of the large deviation of experimental data of CO2 solubility in literature, more experimental work is need to develop a precise empirical model or theoretical model of KGav.
(α eq−α ) CAmine n PCO 2
where Lf is liquid ﬂow ﬂux; PCO2 is CO2 partial pressure; αeq is CO2 loading in equilibrium with PCO2; exponent m is in the typical range of 0.18–0.67, mainly depending on solvents and packing types, and exponent n is normally equals 1. Fu et al.  proposed a correlation for DETA solvent in a Dixonring packed column as
K G α v = L f0.67 GI0.08 ⎡0.075 × ⎢ ⎣
(α eq−α ) CDETA PCO2
+ 0.142⎤ ⎥ ⎦
We attempted to adopt Eq. (14) or other similar correlation forms to correlate KGav with operating conditions. But unfortunately, we failed to give a precise correlation because of an obvious diﬀerence in CO2 solubility data in literature [44–46]. Additionally, no satisﬁed results were obtained even if αeq was ﬁx at a maximum theoretical value of 1.5. The diﬀerence in CO2 solubility in 30 wt% DETA is plotted in Fig. 15, and other comparison results under various conditions can be seen in Table S1 and Figs. S1 and S2 (see Supplementary material). It can be seen that there is a large deviation in literature data, and more experimental work is need to develop a precise empirical model or theoretical model of KGav.
(α eq−α ) CDETA K G α v = F× Lfm1 GIm2 βm3e m4 × T ⎡ + m5⎤ ⎥ ⎢ PCO2 ⎦ ⎣
Acknowledgements One of the authors, Miaopeng Sheng, would like to thank Ms. Shuying Wu from our group for her kind help and suggestions. The ﬁnancial support from the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFB0603300), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. JD1706) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. U1607114) were gratefully acknowledged.
where F, m1–m5 are parameters regressed from experimental data. 5.2. Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) model
Appendix A. Supplementary data
Artiﬁcial neural network (ANN) model, with the excellent ability for deal with the uncertainties of linear or nonlinear relationships among noisy data, is a powerful tool to settle the problems that are diﬃcult for conventional process simulation tools and empirical correlation
Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.07.136. 1526
Fuel 234 (2018) 1518–1527
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