AZ31B Mg alloy welding joint

AZ31B Mg alloy welding joint

Journal of Manufacturing Processes 42 (2019) 257–265 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Manufacturing Processes journal homepage: ...

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Journal of Manufacturing Processes 42 (2019) 257–265

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Manufacturing Processes journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/manpro

Interfacial characteristics and nano-mechanical properties of dissimilar 304 austenitic stainless steel/AZ31B Mg alloy welding joint ⁎

T



Tingting Zhanga,c,d, Wenxian Wangb,c,d, , Jun Zhoue, , Zhifeng Yanb,c,d, Jie Zhangb,c,d a

College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, 79 West Yingze Street, 030024, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, 79 West Yingze Street, 030024, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China c Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, 79 West Yingze Street, 030024, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China d Shanxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Magnesium-based Materials, Ministry of Education, 79 West Yingze Street, 030024, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China e Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University Erie, The Behrend College, Erie, PA, 16563, USA b

A R T I C LE I N FO

A B S T R A C T

Keywords: Dissimilar welded joint Magnesium alloy Austenitic stainless steel Interfacial bonding mechanism Nano-mechanical property

Due to their distinct physical and metallurgical properties, using conventional fusion welding to direct join steel and magnesium alloy without interlayer metal faces many challenges. In this study, dissimilar joining of a 304 austenitic stainless steel/AZ31B magnesium alloy (304/AZ31B) cladding plate was successfully obtained by explosive welding. A periodic and half-wavy shaped joint was observed at the AZ31B side, while the interface was maintained straight at the 304 side. Microstructure characteristics in the half-wavy shaped joint were analyzed thoroughly by using SEM, EBSD and TEM. The results show that columnar crystals were found at the bottom of the welded joint while fine equiaxed grains were presented in its center, which is similar to that in a fusion joint. The TEM results showed that a thin diffusion layer (80 nm) was formed on the surface of 304 flyer plate. The diffusion at the surface of the 304 plate and melting-solidification near the AZ31B side showed that the AZ31B and 304 were metallurgically bonded. The formation mechanism of the dissimilar welded joint was further discussed and explained by studing the nano-mechanical properties of joint.

1. Introduction Composite materials due to their excellent comprehensive performance have much broader range of applications than the single metals. Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are the preferred choice to satisfy the demand of light weight because they are approximately 75% lighter than steels [1,2]. Stainless steels (SS) are also widely used because of their excellent mechanical and corrosion properties [3,4]. Therefore, magnesium-stainless steel composite materials with light weight and good mechanical/corrosion properties can have much broader applications. Thus, how to fabricate such composite materials with strong interfacial bonding is of practical interests. However, it also poses a great deal of challenges. Over the years, efforts have been made in joining dissimilar metals of magnesium alloy and stainless steel. However, due to the distinct differences in their physical and metallurgical properties, such as mutual solubility, crystal structure, the degree of reactivity and melting points, dissimilar Mg/SS metals were considered to be impossible to be joined directly by conventional fusion welding methods [5,6]. Many

researches have so far focused on adding interlayer metals for joining Mg/Steel composites. Manladan et al [7] found that the peak load of AZ31Mg/316 L joint produced by resistance element welding (REW) was 63% higher than that made by resistance spot welding (RSW). Ding et al [8] investigated the spot welding joint of AZ31B/443. An interface layer was observed and the molten Mg was found to be able to wet the surface of the interface layer of the Fe-Al intermetallic compound. Liu et al. [9] made an AZ31B Mg/DP600 steel composite plate by RSW using Zn interlayer. They found that the melting and brazing of the Mgsteel joint was promoted by the completely melted Zn in welding. The joining mechanisms include braze welding, solid-state bonding and soldering. Wahba and Katayama [10] investigated the laser lap welding of AZ31B Mg/Zinc-coated steel. It was found that there was a transition zone between the AZ31B fusion zone and the SP781 specimen at the joint interface. A 450nm-thick Fe3Al intermetallic compound layer was also noticed on the steel surface. Yuan et al. [11] studied the joining (diffusion-brazing) of AZ31 Mg/AISI 304 L stainless steel with pure Cu as interlayer. A layered structure including AZ31/Cu-Mg compounds/ Cu/Fe-Cu diffusion layer/304 L was found in this diffusion-brazed joint.

⁎ Corresponding authors at: College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, 79 West Yingze Street, Taiyuan, 030024, Shanxi Province, China. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University Erie, The Behrend College, Erie, PA, 16563, USA E-mail addresses: [email protected] (W. Wang), [email protected] (J. Zhou).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2019.04.031 Received 2 March 2019; Received in revised form 18 April 2019; Accepted 28 April 2019 Available online 10 May 2019 1526-6125/ © 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

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Liu et al. [12] studied hybrid laser-TIG welding of AZ31B Mg alloy/ Q235 steel using a Sn interlayer. Intermetallic compound of Mg2Sn with a dendritic structure was observed in the grain boundaries of the Mg alloy. Li et al. [13] studied the laser-brazed Mg/steel and Mg/stainless steel. No distinct reaction layer was observed at the Mg-mild steel interface and the interface was just mechanically bonded. However, an ultra-thin reaction layer was found at the Mg/stainless steel interface, indicating a metallurgical bonding. The interfacial layer was composed of FeAl phase. All these studies show that appropriate using of interlayer metals (such as Zn, Sn, Cu and Al) can play a vital role in successfully joining Mg alloy and steel. A metallurgic bonding at the Mg/ stainless steel interface can be achieved by using appropriate interlayer metals like Al, Zn, Sn, Cu and so on. Explosive welding is known for its good capability of joining bi-/ multi-layer metal plates that are hard to be joined by traditional welding methods [14,15]. Extensive efforts have been made in studying the weldability of dissimilar metals using explosive welding and developing it as a feasible technique for the fabrication of new composite materials. In explosive welding, metals undergo severe plastic deformation under a high-speed oblique collision, thus a wavy/planar bonding interface is commonly formed [16]. However, very limited work has been found to join Mg alloy and steel using explosive welding. Li and Wu [17] studied explosive welding of AZ31B Mg alloy and 2205 duplex stainless steel. Studies were focused on investigating the microstructure of Mg alloy and the tensile properties of the cladding plate. The interfacial microstructure and bonding mechanism were not investigated in details. In this study, experiments were conducted to study the feasibility of joining a AZ31B Mg alloy plate and a 304 stainless steel plate together by using explosive welding. The bonding mechanism, microstructure, and nano-mechanical properties at the interface were systematically investigated.

Table 2 Properties of the as-received metals: ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), elongation (A %), Vickers hardness (H) of AZ31B and 304.

Zn

Si

Fe

Ni

Al

Mg

AZ31B 304

– 18.0˜20.0

0.63 < 2.0

1.10 –

0.1 < 1.0

0.005 Bal.

– 8.0

3.02 –

Bal. –

A (%)

HV

AZ31B 304

238 520

152 260

14 45

68 220

3.1. Characteristics of the explosively-welded 304/AZ31B alloy interface Fig. 3a and b shows the macro-morphologies of the surface and cross-section of the explosively-welded 304/AZ31B cladding plate. As shown, a continuous bonding interface between 304 flyer plate and AZ31B base plate was formed. No defects like no-bonding or porosity were found at the bonding interface. The 304/AZ31B cladding plate was successfully fabricated. As shown in Fig. 3c (the magnified image of the bonding interface), a “half-wave” bonding interface with a clear joint zone is observed. This interface is totally different than a typical wavy/planar interfaces found in other studies, such as that in the Al/Mg cladding plate [18–20]; Steel/Al cladding plate [15,21]; and Ti/Mg cladding plate [22] made by explosive welding. The formation of this new interfacial morphology can be contributed to the distinct physical and mechanical properties (density, hardness, yield strength, etc.) of the AZ31B base plate and 304 flyer plate, as given in Table 2. This can be confirmed by the studies of Zhang et al. [18] and Chu et al. [23] in which it was reported that the formation of a typical wavy interface was controlled by the oscillation in the jet flow in explosive welding, and the jet formation was decided by the metal’s mechanical properties. Metals with lower density and hardness contribute more to jet formation and metals with lower yield strength are easier to be deformed to form a wavy interface. To further analyze the interfacial morphology, magnified backscattered electron (BSE) images of the joint zone and the EDS analysis results are given in Fig. 3d, in which mixed structures were found. EDS analysis results of different locations (labelled as Points ‘1’ and ‘2’ in Fig. 3d) in the interlayer zone given in Fig. 3e and f reveal that the chemical composition there mainly consists of Mg and Al elements in dark matrix which may come from the melted AZ31B magnesium alloy base plate, while the white zone mainly consists of Fe and Cr elements which are from the melted 304 stainless steel flyer plate. Additionally, the EDS map scanning testing was also conducted to analyze the structure constitute at the explosively-welded 304/AZ31B joint. As shown in Fig. 4, it is reasonable to conclude that the interface at the AZ31B plate side changed from its original straight morphology to a wavy one while the 304 plate side kept its original straight interface after welding. A half-wavy-shape gap was formed under explosive impact at the collision zone. The formation of “half-wavy” interface can be further confirmed by the fact that the yield strength of AZ31B Mg alloy is much lower than that of 304 austenitic stainless steel, as illustrated in Table 2. The chemical compositions at the joint zone contain both that of the AZ31B alloy base plate (Mg and Al element) and that of the 304 austenitic stainless steel flyer plate (Fe, Ni and Cr element).

Table 1 Chemical composition of AZ31B and 304. Mn

YS (MPa)

3. Results and discussion

In experiments, a 304 flyer plate with a dimension of 650 mm × 350 mm × 2 mm and an AZ31B base plate with a dimension of 600 mm × 300 mm × 15 mm were used. The chemical composition and mechanical properties of the flyer metal and base metal at room temperature are listed in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively. Fig. 1 displays the original microstructures of the 304 flyer metal and AZ31B base metal before welding. As shown, the 304 plate contains regular austenitic grains and the AZ31B plate contains equiaxed grains with an average size around 20 μm. The schematic sketch of the experiment is shown in Fig. 2. The standoff distance was set to 5 mm. The explosive was uniformly laid across the flyer plate surface with a detonator placed at its edge. A mixture of ammonium nitrate powders and diesel fuel oil (ANFO) was used as explosive with a density of 2.8 g·cm−3 and the explosion velocity was around 2500 m/s. To investigate the interfacial microstructure after welding, SEM and EBSD analyses were conducted. The specimens were cut along the detonation direction at the bonding interface of the welded 304/AZ31B cladding plate. A Hitachi S3400 N SEM equipped with an Oxford Instruments EDS and EBSD system were used to characterize the morphologies and microstructure near the interface. TEM analyses were conducted to determine the interfacial bonding mechanism and microstructure using a JEOL-2100 microscopy with an Oxford Instruments

Cr

UTS (MPa)

EDS system at 200 kV. To investigate the nano-mechanical properties at the bonding interface, nanoindentation tests were performed using the Nano Indenter G200 Tester equipped with a standard Berkovich indenter with a maximum load of 80 mN. In nanoindentation testing, loading rate and unloading rate were both set at 10 nm/s. Surfaces of the specimens for nanoindentation tests were first mechanically ground using SiC sandpapers (down to 3000 grit) and then polished. To further study the phase distribution at the bonding interface of the 304/AZ31B cladding plate, X-ray diffraction (XRD) testing at the joint zone was conducted.

2. Experiment

Materials

Materials

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Fig. 1. The microstructure of flyer and base metal before explosive welding: (a) 304; (b) AZ31B.

and b are the XRD results showing the phase distributions in the welded joint zone. As shown, phases of Mg, Mg17Al12, Mg2Si, and FeAl2 (new phase) were found there. Among them, Mg, Mg17Al12, Mg2Si are possibly from the melted AZ31B and the formation of the new FeAl2 phase is believed to be related with the melting of Mg alloy and 304 stainless steel at the interface during welding. The XRD results shown are consistent with the microstructure and element distributions given in Figs. 4 and 5. 3.2. Interfacial bonding of the 304/AZ31B explosively-welded joint To further study the interfacial bonding between the 304 flyer plate and the welded joint zone, TEM analyses were conducted at the selected location shown in Fig. 3c. The TEM specimens were prepared by using a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) system, as shown in Figs. 7a and b. The 304 stainless steel/joint zone interface is shown in Fig. 7c by using TEM bright field. As shown, a diffusion layer with an average width of 80 nm was observed at the interface. Fig. 7d shows the corresponding diffraction pattern of the location highlighted by red circle in Fig. 7c. It was found that the chemical composition in the joint zone is mainly the melted Mg matrix. For further analysis of the microstructures at the bonding interface, the EDS map scanning results showing the element distributions in the region denoted by the dotted yellow line box in Fig. 7c are given in Fig. 7e-j. As shown, some (Fe, Cr, Al)-rich nanoparticles (pointed by the arrows in figures) diffused throughout the dark Mg matrix and there is a gradient distribution of Fe, Cr, Al and Si elements near the 304 austenitic stainless steel side. Only Fe and Cr elements in the 304 steel plate were diffused to the welded joint zone. Especially, Ni element only existed in original 304 austenitic stainless steel and didn't diffuse during welding process. So, the dotted line can be reasonably construed the dotted line as the initial interface of original 304 inner surface, as shown in Fig. 7g. Meanwhile, the Al element diffused from welded joint zone to the 304 plate. Therefore, a continuous metallurgic bonding interface is achieved. The formation of a diffusion layer and a metallurgic bonding interface depends on two things: 1) the selections of raw materials: the alloy elements from AZ31B and 304 can diffuse at the interface; 2) the formation of jetting during welding: jetting can remove the oxide film on metal surface and promote the metallurgic bonding at the interface.

Fig. 2. Sketch of explosive welding process.

High temperature and pressure were found existing at the collision zone between the flyer plate and base plate during welding, so diffusion or melting-solidification there can promote the formation of dissimilar welding joint with elements from both AZ31B and 304 plates. To further study the joint structure shown in Fig. 3c, EBSD analysis was conducted and the results were given in Fig. 5. As shown in the band contrast (BC) map in Fig. 5a and the Inverse Pole Figure (IPF) map in Fig. 5b, the joint zone contains mainly fine grains. V-shaped columnar crystals were found in the interlayer zone near the Mg alloy base plate and fine equiaxed grains appeared at the center of the welded joint zone. This microstructure distribution is similar to that in a fusion welding joint [24,25]. Therefore, the formation of such a “fusion welding” microstructure in explosive welding can be considered as a result of melting-solidification process occurred in the joint zone during welding. Local strain distribution in the joint zone of the 304/AZ31B cladding plate after explosive welding is shown in Fig. 5c. High strains were noticed in both sides of the welded joint zone. At the AZ31B magnesium alloy side, the local strain adjacent to the joint zone is higher than that in other zones. This might be due to the severe deformations occurred in this zone, which is consistent with the formation of the wavy interface. As shown by the structure distribution in this zone in Fig. 5d, fine recrystallized grains mainly exist adjacent to the welded joint zone at theAZ31B magnesium alloy side. Meanwhile, at the 304 austenitic stainless steel side, the deformed and substructured microstructures mainly appeared adjacent to the joint zone. This type of microstructure distribution is related to the deformation characterization and materials properties. Therefore, recrystallization grains appear adjacent to joint zone at AZ31B Mg alloy plate side. Similar results were observed in other studies [23,26]. To further analyze the phase distributions in the welded joint zone, XRD testing was conducted at the selected locations in Fig. 3c. Fig. 6a

3.3. Formation mechanism of the half-wave welded joint zone Since explosive welding occurs so fast, the formation process of the weld joint is very difficult to be observed. However, understanding this process is critical for understanding the bonding mechanism. Fortunately, by studying the microstructure characteristics above, the formation process of the weld joint can be reasonably discussed. Fig. 8 schematically depicts the joint formation in the explosively-welded 259

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Fig. 3. The macro-morphology images and EDS analysis of explosively-welded 304/AZ31B cladding plate: (a) The surface morphology; (b) The cross-section morphology; (c) Enlarged BSE image of the bonding interface; (d) Enlarged BSE image of local welded joint zone; (e) and (f) EDS analysis results at locations labelled in (d).

was first melted at the collision zone and then this molten AZ31B alloy flew to fill the half-wave gap there. During the third stage of collision (shown in Fig. 8d), due to the transient nature of the explosive welding (occurred typically around 10−6 S), the melts quickly solidified and a welded joint zone is then formed. The solidification in the welded joint zone proceeded in a fashion similar to that in a typical fusion weld pool. Cooling happened much faster at the bottom of the welded joint zone adjacent to the AZ31B plate than at the center of the welded joint zone, thus columnar crystals appear at the bottom while fine equiaxed grains formed at the center of the welded joint zone. Since the time for diffusion is so short, only a thin diffusion layer is formed at the interface between the 304 austenitic stainless steel plate and welded joint zone. Finally, melting-solidification of the thin diffusion layer effectively bond the 304 and AZ31B alloy plates together, as shown in Fig. 8e. During the entire explosive welding process, since the collision between the flyer plate and the base plate occurred in a periodic fashion along the welding direction, a periodical half-wave morphology of the welded joint zone is formed in the 304/AZ31B cladding plate after welding.

304/AZ31B cladding plate. As shown in Fig. 8a, at the beginning of welding, detonation wave pushes the 304 flyer plate to collide with the AZ31B base plate at a certain collision speed (vp) and collision angle (β). During the first stage of collision (shown in Fig. 8b), macroscopic deformation occurs at the collision zone when the explosion-induced shear stress is over material’s yield strength. Since the yield strength of AZ31B alloy is much lower than that of 304, deformation (appearing as a half-wave shape) occurs predominantly in the AZ31B plate and very minimally in the 304 plate (remaining straight). This assumption is in consistent with the SEM results, as shown in Fig. 4. Therefore, a half-wave gap appeared near the collision zone. Since the density, hardness, and yield strength of the AZ31B alloy are much lower than that of the 304, deformation occurred more easily and seriously in the AZ31B plate when the collision proceeded to its second stage (shown in Fig. 8c). As known, heat generated in the material during deformation is directly proportional to the degree of deformation, thus temperature rose much faster in the AZ31B plate than in the 304 plate in the collision zone. Since the melting point of the AZ31B alloy is much lower than that of the 304 plate, the AZ31B plate 260

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Fig. 4. EDS map scanning results of the 304/AZ31B explosively-welded joint.

welding joint (∼2000.8 nm) is between that in the deformed AZ31B Mg alloy near the interface (∼1752.3 nm) and in the original AZ31B Mg alloy (∼2268.3 nm). Fig. 10b shows the average nano-hardness (H) of the different zones in the 304/AZ31B welded joint. Near the interface at the 304 austenitic stainless steel side, it’s nano-hardness (∼4.29 GPa) is slightly higher than that of the original 304 austenitic stainless steel (∼3.74 GPa), which is most likely due to the work hardening behavior in this zone caused by localized plastic deformation during explosive welding. This finding is consistent with the microstructure distribution in this zone, as shown in Fig. 5. Similar results were also found in the AZ31B Mg alloy side. Nano-hardness of the near-interface zone (∼1.14 GPa) is much larger than that of original AZ31B Mg alloy plate. However, the higher nano-hardness after welding is due to not only the work hardening but also the existence of fine grains microstructures there [27,28]. Even more, the average nano-hardness of welding joint (∼0.85 GPa) is close to that of that AZ31B Mg alloy, but far less than

3.4. Nano-mechanical properties of explosively-welded 304/AZ31B joint In order to determine the mechanical properties of the welded joint, three locations were selected for nanoindentation tests in each zone shown in Fig. 9. The nano-mechanical properties of the original AZ31B Mg alloy and 304 austenitic stainless steel were also measured before explosive welding. The results of the nanoindentation tests in the weld joint and the zone near the interface are presented in Fig. 10. A shown in Fig. 10a, during loading process, the displacement-load (P-h) curves for 304 austenitic stainless steel plate before and after welding had similar variation tendency and those for joint zone and the AZ31B Mg alloy had the similar variation tendency as well. Under a peak load of 80 mN, the maximum displacement (hmax) in the region near the joint interface (∼902.3 nm) is slightly smaller than that in the original 304 austenitic stainless steel (∼954.5 nm). The maximum displacement (hmax) in 261

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Fig. 5. EBSD results at the welded joint zone of explosively-welded 304/AZ31B cladding plate: (a) Band contrast (BC) map, (b) Inverse pole figure (IPF) map, (c) Local strain distribution map, (d) Structure distribution map.

4. Conclusions

that of the 304 austenitic stainless steel. This result can be reasonably justified by the fact that the welding joint mainly consists of AZ31B base metal and a bit of 304 austenitic stainless steel flyer metal. Meanwhile, the existence of (Fe, Cr, Al)-rich particles in welding joint also helps the increase of nano-hardness of this zone. In summary, large deformation and microstructure evolution near the welded interface improve its local nano-hardness. Nano-mechanical properties of various zones at the welded joint further confirmed the formation mechanism of the half-wavy shaped interface and bonding mechanism of dissimilar 304/AZ31B welded joint, discussed in Sections 3.2 and 3.3.

In present study, a dissimilar 304/AZ31B cladding plate has been fabricated successfully through explosive welding. Interfacial characteristics and nano-mechanical properties of the welded joint were investigated. Conclusions are listed below: (1) A half-wavy shaped welded joint was observed in the explosively-welded 304 /AZ31B cladding plate. Columnar crystals were found at the bottom of this welded joint zone while fine equiaxed grains were found in its center. (2) TEM results showed that a thin diffusion layer of 80 nm was formed between the 304 austenitic stainless steel and the welded joint zone.

Fig. 6. XRD patterns at the welded joint zone of 304 /AZ31B cladding plate after explosive welding: (a) The result of fracture surface 304 side; (b) The result of fracture surface of AZ31B alloy side. 262

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Fig. 7. TEM and EDS analysis results at the 304/welded joint zone interface: (a) TEM sample cut perpendicular to the 304/ welded joint zone interface and (b) prepared by FIB; (c) TEM bright field image and (d) selection of electron diffraction pattern (SADP) at the zone in welded joint zone (red circle zone); (e)-(j) Chemical composition across interface (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article).

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Fig. 8. Schematic sketches showing the formation of half-wave welded joint zone and the transient liquid phase bonding of the explosively-welded 304/AZ31B plate.

stainless steel (∼3.74 GPa).

Declaration of interests We declare that we do not have any potential competing interests.

Acknowledgments

Fig. 9. The schematic sketch showing the locations for nanoindentation experiments.

The authors are very grateful for the generous support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants: 51805359 and 51375328), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(grant: 2018M631772), Major Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1710254), Key Projects of Shanxi province Key Research and Development Plan (201703D111003) and Scientific and Technological Progress of Shanxi province Colleges and Universities (2017132).

(3) Studies of the diffusion behavior on the surface of 304 plate and melting-solidification near the AZ31B side show that metallurgical bonding was the major mechanism to join the dissimilar metals together. (4) The average nano-hardness of the welded joint was found to be around 0.85 GPa which is close to that of the original AZ31B Mg alloy (∼0.64 GPa), but far less than that of the original 304 austenitic 264

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Fig. 10. Nanoindentation results for the 304/AZ31B explosively-welded joint: (a) Load-displacement curves; (b) The nano-hardness (H) values.

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