Investigation of Flank Wear in Hard Turning of AISI 52100 Grade Steel Using Multilayer Coated Carbide and Mixed Ceramic Inserts

Investigation of Flank Wear in Hard Turning of AISI 52100 Grade Steel Using Multilayer Coated Carbide and Mixed Ceramic Inserts

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2nd International Conference on Materials Manufacturing and Design Engineering 2nd International Conference on Materials Manufacturing and Design Engineering

Investigation of Flank Wear in Hard Turning of AISI 52100 Grade Investigation of Flank Wear in Carbide Hard Turning of AISI 52100 Inserts Grade Steel Using Multilayer Coated and Mixed Ceramic Manufacturing Society International Conference 2017, MESIC 2017, 28-30 June Steel UsingEngineering Multilayer Coated Carbide and Mixed Ceramic Inserts 2017, Vigo (Pontevedra), Spain Amlana Pandaa*, Ashok Kumar Sahooa, Arun Kumar Routb, Ramanuj Kumara, a a a in Industry Costing models capacity optimization 4.0: Kumar Trade-off Amlana Pandaa*,for Ashok Kumar Sahoo , Arun Kumar Routb, Ramanuj , Rabin Kumar Das a Rabin Kumar Das between used capacity and operational efficiency School of Mechanical Engineering, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Techanology, Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar -751024, Odisha, India

a

b Department of Production Engineering, VSSUT,Deemed Burla-768017, Odisha, India School of Mechanical Engineering, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Techanology, to be University, Bhubaneswar -751024, Odisha, India a a,* b b b Department of Production Engineering, VSSUT, Burla-768017, Odisha, India

a

A. Santana , P. Afonso , A. Zanin , R. Wernke

Abstract Abstract

a

University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal b Unochapecó, 89809-000 Chapecó, SC, Brazil

Heat-treated high carbon and high chromium steel alloys are popularly used in press tool, die mould, ball, and roller etc. making industries. Ceramic is chromium well-knownsteel toolalloys material turningused of heat-treated steel Nevertheless, the Heat-treated high carbon and high are for popularly in press tool, diealloy. mould, ball, and roller performance of low budget tool comparative to the ceramic tool is highly needed for economic concern. In this etc. making industries. Ceramic is well-known tool material for turning of heat-treated steel alloy. Nevertheless, the Abstract paper, multilayer coated carbide ceramic tools used astool cutting tool materials to economic turn the heat-treated performance of low budget tool and comparative to theare ceramic is highly needed for concern. InAISI this 52100 bearing steel and the performance evaluation of both tools in terms of flank wear is compared. Scanning paper, multilayer coated carbide and ceramic tools are used as cutting tool materials to turn the heat-treated AISI Under theMicroscopy concept of(SEM) "Industry 4.0", production processes will (EDS) be pushed to be interconnected, Electron Energy Dispersive approach hasincreasingly been is utilized to compare the 52100 bearing steel and the with performance evaluationSpectroscopy of both tools in terms of flank wear compared. Scanning information based on a real time basis and, necessarily, much more efficient. In this context, capacity results both tools.(SEM) The obtained width of flank Spectroscopy wear was noticed be below mm for both tools. ElectronofMicroscopy with Energy Dispersive (EDS)toapproach hasthan been0.3 utilized tooptimization compare the goes beyond the traditional ofacting capacity maximization, contributing alsotofor organization’s profitability and value. Abrasion adhesion are aim most wear mechanisms forwas coated carbide whereas ismm mostfordominant for results of and both tools. The obtained width of flank wear noticed be belowabrasion than 0.3 both tools. Indeed, lean management and speed continuous improvement suggest instead for of the ceramic tool. For both iswear the most dominating character for wear atcapacity theabrasion flankoptimization surface. Abrasion and adhesion aretools, most acting mechanisms forapproaches coated carbide whereas is most dominant maximization. The study of capacity optimization and costing models is an important research topic that deserves the ceramic tool. For both tools, speed is the most dominating character for wear at the flank surface. contributions from both the practical and theoretical perspectives. This paper presents and discusses a mathematical © 2017The Authors.Published by Elsevier B.V. © 2018for Thecapacity Authors. management Published by Elsevier B.V.different costing models (ABC and TDABC). A generic model has been model based on Peer-review under responsibility ofscientific the scientific committee of the 2nd International Conference on Materials © 2017The under Authors.Published B.V. Peer-review responsibility ofby theElsevier committee of the 2nd International Conference on Materials Manufacturing and developed andunder itand wasresponsibility used toEngineering. analyze idlescientific capacity committee and to design strategies towards theConference maximization organization’s Manufacturing Design Peer-review of the of the 2nd International on of Materials Design Engineering. value. The trade-off capacity maximization vs operational efficiency is highlighted and it is shown that capacity Manufacturing and Design Engineering. Keywords:Hard might Turning;hide AISIoperational 52100; SEM; EDS optimization inefficiency. Keywords:Hard Turning;Published AISI 52100; EDSB.V. © 2017 The Authors. bySEM; Elsevier Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the Manufacturing Engineering Society International Conference 2017. Keywords: Cost Models; ABC; TDABC; Capacity Management; Idle Capacity; Operational Efficiency

1. Introduction

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 0674-6540805. E-mail address: [email protected] *The Corresponding author. Tel.: 0674-6540805. cost of idle capacity is a fundamental information for companies and their management of extreme importance E-mail address: [email protected] in modern production systems. In general, it is defined as unused capacity or production potential and can be measured 2351-9789© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

in several ways: tons of production, available hours of manufacturing, etc.Conference The management of Manufacturing the idle capacity Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 2nd International on Materials and 2351-9789© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. * PauloEngineering. Afonso. Tel.: +351 253 510 of 761; +351 253 604 741 of the 2nd International Conference on Materials Manufacturing and Design Peer-review under responsibility thefax: scientific committee E-mail address: [email protected] Design Engineering.

2351-9789 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Peer-review under of the scientificbycommittee the Manufacturing Engineering Society International Conference 2017. 2351-9789 © 2018responsibility The Authors. Published Elsevier of B.V. Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 2nd International Conference on Materials Manufacturing and Design Engineering. 10.1016/j.promfg.2018.02.053

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1. Introduction The machining process have plays a vital role in the field of manufacturing industry. This Machining process technology acquiring more and more imperative certainly contributed to economic development. Machining is an operation of more importance in the manufacturing sector. This operation mainly applied for the finishing of the mechanical components. During the process of finish hard turning due to the formation of a cutting force and the higher temperature which seriously affect process parameters, such as the integrity of the surfaces, the wear at inserts tip, life of the insert, the quality of turned surface, and geometrical dimensions. The tool wear is a general finding in the machining process that significantly affects the size of the product, the quality, the efficiency of the operation of machining, judgments of production and financial feasibility. The wear of the insert have a great influence upon economy of machining. Meanwhile, the wear of the insert during machining process is formed by the contact between cutting tool and the material of work along with sliding [1]. The perfect combination of the cutting tool factors and machining conditions offers better performance during operation of finish hard turning [2]. The cutting tool wear generated during the machining process are the main difficulties encountered in the industry. In response to the requirement of the manufacturing and the machining industry, the number of researchers has made the tool wear analysis. The hard materials are considered as a range of hardness between 45 to 70 HRC. The main advantages include the cutting operation is difficult in the sequences of lesser manufacturing, greater flexibility, gain of time. This innovative technology has required in the world of manufacturing because of its developed process, in addition to obtaining a surface finish which are highly enviable [3]. TIN coatings, TIAN, TICN, Al 2O3 are generally used in the cutting tools. The wear at insert tip and the life of the insert are mainly influenced by the cutting factors, i.e., speed and power, and depth of cut is a determinant at the time of the machining in order to judge the performance of the tool. The increase in the demand of the industry for the cutting of metals for the hard materials and their wide field of applications require the remarkable analysis to improve their ability to machining. For an ideal cutting tool, a blend of combination is required for the improvement of the resistance to wear with good properties of lubricant, endurance, the chemical stability and of suitable substrate added to the surface at the same time [4]. Talib et al. [5] considered the consequence of the cutting speeds on flank wear and wear mechanism of TiAN-coated when turning of low carbon steel under lubrication system. Wear at the flank surface reduces as the speed improved as a result of excellent oxidation confrontation of coated layer TiAlN at elevated temperature. Keblouti et al. [6] obtained high surface quality in dry turning of AISI 52100 steel when utilizing PVD coated cutting tool. The influence of cutting factors and material of coating were examined in surface roughness. Maruda [7] presented investigation of tool wear of carbide insert (P25) in turning of steel AISI 1045 for various cooling environment i.e. dry cutting and MQCL. Further, SEM study exposed that lively compounds enclosed in a tribofilm lessen adhesion and diffusion of cutting tool wear process. Attanasio et al. [8] considered the aftermath of wear on the insert and factors involved in cutting on dark and white layer development while orthogonal finish turning of AISI 52100 hardened grades steel along PCBN inserts. Developed finite elements (FE) models are correlated with exploratory outcome to study the outcome of machining environment and wear of the tool on the changes in microstructure. Furthermore, the flank wear is generally due to abrasive that are sturdily swayed by cutting speed. Ghani et al. [9] explored the tool wear trend with tool life of minimal content CBN insets in turning of H13 grade steel along with experimental and finite element thermal modeling techniques. Chipping is found to be prevailing wear mechanism observed and can be declined by lowering heat penetration to the cutting tool. Ventura et al. [10] performed the persuade of cutting tip geometries on cutting tool wear characteristic of CBN insert in hard turning of 16MnCrS5 steel (60 ± 2 HRC). Particular chamfered cutting tip is suitable for minimizing the flank wear. The term called attrition is found to be the most important wear mechanisms. Dogra et al. [11] recognized the a diversity of research progresses in hard turning by using CBN insert related to wear at tools surface, chip morphology, finish quality of turned surface, micro-hardness variation development of white layer and residual stress. Forecast of residual stress in process of finished turning of hard to cut material is extremely trustworthy. Moreover, logical model is essential for prediction of residual stress in turned parts by taking into consideration of different dynamic effects such as tool wear and vibration. Quiza et al. [12] deliberated the tool wear development in turning hardened D2 steel utilizing ceramic insert and developed the prediction model using statistical regression and multilayer perceptron neural network technique at different parameter of cutting speed, feed rate and period. Neural network model has been proved to be efficient for accurate forecast of tool wear in hard machining. Camargo et al. [13] formulated a computational model for tool wear during turning of AISI D6 steel (57 HRC) using PCBN cutting tool.The developed model was good enough for assessment of the ideal cutting conditions in hard machining of D6 steel. Shalaby et al. [14] illustrated wear mechanism of various cutting tool materials used in turning medium hardened D2 steel. It was concluded that mixed ceramic cutting insert has provided longer tool lifespan and fewer



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force components than the PCBN insert. The current study concentrate on the tool wear analysis on the flank surface of the insert when turning with the help of AISI 52100 steel utilising multilayer coated carbide insert CNMG 120408 and mixed ceramic of CNGA 120408T02020. 2. Methodology The tests were conducted on 40 mm diameter and 120 mm long AISI 52100 steel (0.940 % C, 0.227% Si, 0.491% Mn, 0.046 %P, 0.022%S, 1.210 % Cr, 0.076 % Ni, 0.0.58% Cu balance Fe) with hardness of 55±1 HRC. Turning of heat treated AISI 52100 grade steel has been performed on a computerized numerical control lathe having specification (Model: JOBBER XL, Make: AMS-ACE Designers, INDIA, Power: 16 kW, Max RPM: 3500) under dry environment. Hard turning tests has been performed using two types of commercially available cutting inserts (WIDIA make) i.e. moderate temperature chemical vapour deposition (MTCVD) multilayer coated carbide inserts (TiN/TiCN/Al2O3) of HK 150 grade and K-type application range of Al2O3 top layer and mixed ceramic insert (Al2O3 + TiCN) of CW2015 grade respectively. The hard turning methodology is as presented in Fig. 1.

Cutting Speed

Feed

Depth of cut

Coating material

Hard Turning Process Work piece : AISI 52100 steel Insert :Ceramic and multilayer coated carbide

Tool Wear Analysis (SEM/EDS)

Fig. 1.Hard turning methodology

3. Experimental details The flank wear of cutting inserts after hard turning has been visualized by HITACHI make SU3500 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Also, Investigations of the flank wear along with chemical composition in certain surface of the worn areas were executed on a SEM fitted with INCA software by OXFORD Instruments act model make Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). SEM in combination with EDS makes possible to identify the elemental composition of the specimen. EDS analysis was carried out on a thin coating layer on top of carbide substrate.

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Fig.2. EDS view and elemental composition of multilayer Al2O3 coated carbide, HK 150 (without worn surface)

Fig.3. EDS view and elemental composition of multilayer Al2O3 coated carbide, HK 150, worn tool (Cutting speed = 190 m/min, feed = 0.08 mm/rev and depth of cut = 0.3 mm)



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Fig. 4. EDS view and elemental composition of mixed ceramic insert, CW 2105 (without worn surface)

Fig.5. EDS view and elemental composition of mixed ceramic insert, worn tool (Cutting speed = 190 m/min, feed= 0.08 mm/rev and depth of cut = 0.3 mm)

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4. Result and discussion The flank wear of two types i.e. multilayer coated carbide and mixed ceramic insert after hard turning process in dry condition using AISI 52100 steel by the SEM and EDS method at the peak rank of chosen speed= 190 m/min, feed = 0.08 mm/rev and depth of cut = 0.3 mm were analyzed. The mapping of elements by this method aids in better consideration of coating layer performance. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis has been carried out at micro area of without worn surfaces to verify the elements present in the cutting inserts along with their weight and atomic percentages at the relevant EDS spectrum. It validates the existence of elements in the cutting tools (Fig. 2 and Fig. 4). EDS result represents all compositional elements of coated carbide insert like as Ti, Al, O and C. It was observed that (Fig. 3) hard turning of AISI 52100 bearing steel with aluminium oxide multilayer coated carbide insert is regarded as steady and stable machining without any premature tool failure as weightage of Aluminium remains almost same. Further, tungsten is not exposed in EDS analysis and all coating element presents after machining thus indicates that delamination of coating layers do not occur. The Al2O3 layer delays the diffusion of oxygen into the flank surface. Moreover, this endows with finer oxidation resistance. Also, the intense hardness at elevated temperature and low thermal conductivity provided necessary for stable in dry turning [15].

0.14

Flank wear, VBc (mm)

f = 0.16 mm

Coated carbide Ceramic

0.16

0.12

f = 0..12 mm

0.10 0.08 f = 0.04 mm

0.06

f = 0.08 mm

0.04

d = 0.1 mm

0.02 0.00

0

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

Cutting speed, v (m/min)

Fig.6. Influence of speed and feed on tool wear

No untimely failure like tip breakage and/or catastrophic collapse, plastic deformation on the cutting tip has occurred. The foremost consequence of flank wear is anticipated to be caused by abrasion. The enhanced performance is endorsed owing to the existence of top thermal barrier coating of aluminium oxide. Further, for this property more generated heat is gathered on the specimen than insert. Therefore, impedes the augmentation of flank wear of the cutting tool. Similar case has been observed in ceramic insert as per A SEM with EDS analyses (Fig. 5). However, iron content is increased after machining and clearly observed through EDS analysis of both inserts. It is transformed element from the workpiece to the cutting insert at elevated temperature through diffusion mechanism. Abrasion is the most important wear mechanism perceived. The better interpretation is endorsed owing to the presence of thermal barrier property of ceramic insert. Hence, further prevents the development of flank wear of the cutting tool. From the Fig. 6, it is noticed that at constant depth of cut when speed along with feed increases wear at flank surface of both the tool increases but coated carbide tool always produce higher flank wear as compared to ceramic insert. 5. Conclusion Tool flank wear for multilayer coated and ceramic has been analysed in machining of heat-treated AISI 52100 grade steel alloy dry scenario. The following conclusions have been made as follows: 

The flank wear was noticed to be lower than 0.3 mm for both tools. Abrasion and adhesion are most acting wear mechanisms for coated carbide whereas abrasion is most dominant for the ceramic tool. For both tools, speed is the major dominating character for wear at the flank surface.



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Al2O3 (top) layer delays the diffusion of oxygen into the flank surface confirming the finer oxidation resistance. Also, the intense hardness at elevated temperature and low thermal conductivity of coated tool ensure stable dry turning. Steady and stable machining without any premature tool failure was observed for both types of tool. Carbide inserts with several layers of coating performed fine owing to economical attainable and environment responsive in turning operation of hardened materials.

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