Investigation of various wall and window glass material buildings in different climatic zones of India for energy efficient building construction

Investigation of various wall and window glass material buildings in different climatic zones of India for energy efficient building construction

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 23224–23234 www.materialstoday.com/proceedings ICAER-...

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Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 23224–23234

www.materialstoday.com/proceedings

ICAER-2015

Investigation of various wall and window glass material buildings in different climatic zones of India for energy efficient building construction G. Kiran Kumara, S. Saboor a,* , T.P. Ashok Babua a

Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore-575025, India

Abstract The commercial and residential buildings consume about 33% of energy for cooling and day lighting in India. This paper presents the thermal performance of buildings constructed with various building and window glass materials in five different climatic zones of India such as hot and dry (Ahmedabad), moderate (Bangalore), cold (Guwahati), warm and humid (Madras) and composite (New Delhi) climatic zones. In this study, four building materials such as laterite stone, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick were selected and four window glass materials such as clear, bronze, green and bronze-reflective glasses were selected. The spectral optical properties of four glass materials were measured experimentally using Perkin-Elmer lambda 950 spectrophotometer from wavelengths ranging from 300 nm- 2500 nm. Total eighty building models were designed using Design builder 4.3.0.039 and thermal analysis was carried out in Energy plus 8.1 simulation tool. From the results, it is observed that mud brick with bronze-reflective glass window buildings were found to be energy efficient from the least heat gain point of view among eighty building models studied in five climatic zones of India. The results of the study help in selecting the best combination of building and window glass materials for reducing cooling loads in buildings of five different climatic zones of India.

© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Selection and Peer-review under responsibility of the Conference Committee Members of International Conference on Advances in Energy Research 2015 (ICAER-2015). Keywords: Energy efficient glass; Passive cooling; Building simulation; Solar optical properties; Building materials

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +91-542-6702825; fax: +91-542-2368428 E-mail : [email protected] 2214-7853 © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Selection and Peer-review under responsibility of the Conference Committee Members of International Conference on Advances in Energy Research 2015 (ICAER-2015).

Kumar et al./ Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 23224–23234

Nomenclature BZGW Bronze glass window BZRGW Bronze-reflective glass window CLGW Clear glass window Cp Specific heat (J/kg K) D Density (kg/m3) GGW Green glass window k Thermal conductivity (W/m K)

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Sλ Relative spectral distribution of the solar radiation Greek letters αs Solar absorbance αλ Spectral absorbance ∆λ Wavelength interval (nm) λ Wavelength τs Solar transmittance τλ Spectral transmittance

1. Introduction The Building sector is responsible for 33% of energy consumption in India with commercial building sector and residential building sector responsible for 8% and 25%, respectively [1]. The building enclosures such as walls, floors, roofs and windows are important part of building. These building envelopes/enclosures help in blocking or attenuating the heat transfer, airflow and day lighting in the buildings. Glass is the main building element in the construction of residential and commercial buildings and it also accounts for a higher conductance coefficient than other building enclosures. Hence, it is mandatory to study the thermal behavior of the walls and window glasses to reduce heat gain in buildings. The numerical computations of design of windows to reduce solar radiation in buildings with single and multiple glazings were studied [2,3]. Thermal and optical properties of vaious building and glazing were studied and reported in the literature [4,5]. The simulations were carried out on peak summer day of the cities studied [6,7,8]. The heat transfer modeling on clear glass windows under the exposure of solar radiation were studied earlier [9]. Optimization studies of the insulation location inside the flat roof were reported in the literature [10]. The evaluation of thermal and optical properties of color and low emissivity glasses was studied [11]. The present study presents the suitable wall and window glass material combinations for the enclosures in different climatic zones of India. The five major cities were selected in the five different climatic zones of India. 2. Experimental procedure The spectral optical properties of clear, bronze, green and bronze-reflective glass materials were measured using Perkin Elmer Lambda 950 Spectrophotometer facility available at UGC DAE consortium scientific research, INDORE as per the standard procedure given in ASTM-E 424 and BS EN 410 [12,13]. The spectral optical properties of glass materials are essential to evaluate the direct solar radiation passing through the glass material. The thickness of the glass is 6 mm. The experiments were conducted for four glass materials at 00 tilt angle of incidence and at wavelengths ranging from 300-2500 nm. The spectral optical properties such as transmission and absorption of clear, bronze, green and bronze-reflective glass were measured at different wavelengths. Fig. 1. (a) shows the Perkin-Elmer lambda 950 spectrophotometer with PC integrated software. Fig. 1. (b) shows the spectral transmission properties of glass materials and from this, it is observed that the bronze-reflective glass has the least spectral transmission values among four studied glass materials and clear glass has the highest spectral transmission values among four studied glass materials. The experimentally measured spectral properties help in computing the solar thermal properties using British Standard method BS EN: 410-1988. The transmittance and absorptance of single glazing glass materials were evaluated using Eqs. (1) and (2). = =

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

(1)

(2)

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Fig. 1.(a) Perkin Elmer lambda 950 spectrophotometer with PC integrated software; (b) Spectral transmission of glass materials.

3. Thermal Analysis The building models with different building and window glass materials were designed in Design builder version 4.3.0.039. The dimensions of the building models are 5 m X 5 m X 3.2 m with 0.22 m wall thickness. Total eighty building models were designed with different building materials (laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick) and with different window glass materials (clear glass, bronze glass, green glass and bronze-reflective). The floor was designed with dense concrete with 0.15 m thickness and the roof was designed with reinforced concrete of 0.15m thickness. The walls of the building models were covered inside and outside, by 0.0125 m plaster. Table 1. shows the solar thermal properties of glass materials. The window glass allows sun’s shortwave infrared radiation into the building. The radiation entered through window glass will be trapped inside the building and will increase the heat gain in buildings. The heat gain in buildings through window glazing can be reduced by using appropriate glasses for windows. Window to wall ratio is the ratio of the net glazing area to the gross exterior wall area [14]. The window to wall ratios maintained for building models are 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. In this study window glass for all the building models is placed in south orientation due to less solar radiation in the South direction of the building as compared to the other directions. The thermal analysis of the building models with the above building dimensions and materials were carried out using licensed Energy plus 8.1 simulation software in different climatic zones of India. The major city is selected in the each climate zone. India has mainly five types of climatic zones such as hot and dry (Ahmedabad (23.07ON, 72.63OE)), moderate (Bangalore (12.97ON, 77.58OE)), cold (Guwahati (26.10ON, 91.58OE)), warm and humid (Madras (13ON, 80.18OE)) and composite (New Delhi (28.57ON, 77.12OE)). The heat gain in buildings of five different cities on the peak summer day was computed. Fig. 2. (a) shows the images of building materials and Fig. 2. (b) shows the images of glass materials. Table 2. shows the thermo physical properties of building materials. Thermo physical properties of building materials are as per the Indian standards [15]. Thermo physical properties of laterite stone are taken from the literature [16,17]. Fig. 3. Shows sun path diagram of five climatic regions of India. The Sun path diagram is a graphical illustration of sun paths in the sky for various days in the year. The thermal simulations were carried out on the peak summer day of each city in four different climatic zones. The peak summer days in Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Guwahati, Madras and New Delhi are May 15th, April 15th, June 21st, April 15th and June 21st, respectively.

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Table 1. Solar thermal properties of glass materials. Glass material

Transmittance ( ) (%)

Reflectance ( ) (%)

Absorptance ( ) (%)

Clear glass (CGW)

77

11

12

Bronze glass (BGW)

48

9

43

Green glass (GGW)

43

9

48

Bronze-reflective glass (BZRGW)

35

34

31

Fig. 2. (a) Images of building materials; (b) Images of glass materials.

Table 2. Thermo physical properties of building materials. Building material

Thermal conductivity k (W/mK)

Specific heat Cp (J/kgK)

Density D (kg/m3)

Laterite stone

1.3698

1926.1

1000

Dense concrete

1.74

880

2410

Burnt brick

0.811

880

1820

Mud brick

0.75

880

1731

Reinforce cement concrete

1.58

880

2288

Cement plaster

0.721

840

1762

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Fig. 3. Sun path diagrams on peak summer day: (a) Ahmedabad region on May 15th; (b) Bangalore region on April 15th; (c) Guwahati region on June 21st; (d) Madras region on April 15th ; (e) New Delhi region on June 21st.

4. Results and Discussions 4.1 Heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 20% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities Fig. 4. shows heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 20% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities. In hot and dry (Ahmedabad) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 39.89 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 35.43 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with

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four window glass materials. In moderate (Bangalore) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 24.26 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 21.64 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In cold (Guwahati) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 26.94 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 23.06 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In warm and humid (Madras) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 23.58 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 20.45 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In composite (New Delhi) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 46.01 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 39.93 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. From the results, it is observed that for all five climatic zones of India and at 20% WWR, mud brick with bronze-reflective glass window glass buildings were observed to be energy efficient from the least heat gain point of view among studied material combinations.

Fig. 4. Heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 20% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities.

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4.2 Heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 40% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities

Fig. 5. Heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 40% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities.

Fig. 5. shows heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 40% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities. In hot and dry (Ahmedabad) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 41.93 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 36.56 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In moderate (Bangalore) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 26.96 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 23.29 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In cold (Guwahati) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 29.23 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 24.20 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In warm and humid (Madras) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 25.75 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 21.60 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In composite (New Delhi) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 48.08 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 40.82 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. From the results, it is can be

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noticed that for all five climatic zones of India and at 40% WWR, mud brick with bronze-reflective glass window glass buildings were observed to be energy efficient from the least heat gain point of view among studied material combinations. 4.3 Heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 60% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities

Fig. 6. Heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 60% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities.

Fig. 6. shows heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 60% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities. In hot and dry (Ahmedabad) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 44.10 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 37.72 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In moderate (Bangalore) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 29.79 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 24.95 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In cold (Guwahati) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 31.67 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 25.39 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In warm and humid (Madras) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum

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heat of 28.08 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 22.80 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In composite (New Delhi) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 50.34 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 41.74 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. From the results, it is noticed that for all five climatic zones of India and at 60% WWR, mud brick with bronze-reflective glass window glass buildings were observed to be energy efficient from the least heat gain point of view among studied material combinations. 4.4 Heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 80% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities

Fig. 7. Heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 80% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities.

Fig. 7. shows heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 80% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities. In hot and dry (Ahmedabad) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 46.39 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 38.91 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In moderate (Bangalore) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 32.75 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 26.64 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window

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glass materials. In cold (Guwahati) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 34.23 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 26.60 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In warm and humid (Madras) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 30.54 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 24.02 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In composite (New Delhi) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 52.73 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 42.72 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. From the results, it is noticed that for all five climatic zones of India and at 80% WWR, mud brick with bronze-reflective glass window glass buildings were observed to be energy efficient from the least heat gain point of view among studied material combinations. 4.5 Heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 100% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities

Fig. 8. Heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 100% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities.

Fig. 8. shows heat gain in buildings of various building and window glass materials at 100% WWR in five different Indian climatic zone cities. In hot and dry (Ahmedabad) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 46.74 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 39.09 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In moderate (Bangalore) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 33.20 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 26.89 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window

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glass materials. In cold (Guwahati) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 34.65 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 26.80 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In warm and humid (Madras) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 30.92 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 24.22 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. In composite (New Delhi) climatic zone, dense concrete with clear glass window glass buildings gain maximum heat of 53.11 kWh and mud brick with bronze-reflective window glass buildings gain 42.88 kWh of heat among studied laterite, dense concrete, burnt brick and mud brick buildings with four window glass materials. From the results, it is noticed that for all five climatic zones of India and at 100% WWR, mud brick with bronze-reflective glass window glass buildings were observed to be energy efficient from the least heat gain point of view among studied material combinations. 5. Conclusions The mud brick with reflective glass window glass buildings are found to be energy efficient from the least heat gain point of view among studied buildings. Hence, this combination of building and window glass materials is recommended for reducing cooling loads in buildings. The order of preference of window glass materials from the least heat gain point of view are reflective, green, bronze and clear, respectively among studied window glass materials. The order of choice of building materials for reducing cooling loads are mud brick, burnt brick, laterite and dense concrete, respectively among studied materials. Acknowledgements We acknowledge our sincere thanks to UGC DAE consortium scientific research Indore and SAIF Cochin, India for providing the necessary facilities to carry out experimental work at their research center for measuring the spectral optical properties of the glass materials. References [1] ECBC, Energy Conservation Building Code. Bureau of Energy Efficiency, New Delhi, 2009, India. [2] A.M. Taleb, A.J.H. Al-Wattar, Solar Wind Technol. 5 (1988) 503-515. [3] G, Kirankumar, S, Saboor T.P. Ashok Babu, Effects of single, double, triple and quadruple window glazing of various glass materials on heat gain in green energy buildings. 45-50. [4] I. Singh, N.K. Bansal, Int. J. Ambient Energ. 23(2011) 201–211. [5] G, Kirankumar, S, Saboor T.P. Ashok Babu Design. Key. Engg. Mater. 692 (2016) 9-16. [6] IS 11907 Recommendations for calculation of solar radiation on buildings CED 12: Functional Requirements in Buildings. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1986, India. [7] NBC (2005). National Building Code of India 2005, Section 1 Building and Services Lighting and Ventilation. Part 8, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India. [8] A. Mani, Solar radiation over India. Allied publishers private limited, India, 1982. [9] P. Sujoy, R.Biswanath, N. Subhasis, Energ. Build. 41 (2009) 654–661. [10] S. Saboor, T.P. Ashok Babu, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 23 (2015) 9334–9344. [11] J. Mohelnikova, A. Hasim, Wseas Trans. Environ. Develop. (2009) 86-93. [12] ASTM E424, Test for Solar energy Transmittance and Reflectance (terrestrial) of sheet materials. Washington DC, 1971, USA, 1320-1326. [13] BS EN 410 Glass in Building-Determination of luminous and solar characteristics of the glazing. British Standards, 1998, 1-24. [14] GRIHA. Green rating for integrated habitat assessment. .Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, New Delhi, India, 2011. [15] SP: 41. (S&T) Handbook on functional Requirement of Buildings other than industrial buildings. Bureau of Indian Standards, India, 1987, 33-40. [16] S. Saboor, T.P. Ashok Babu, 30th Int. Plea Conf. (2014) 516-523. [17] S, Saboor, T.P. Ashok Babu, Build. Environ. 99 (2016) 170-183.