monitoring pore pressures and lateral deformations. Total settlements were similar to those predicted by conventional consolidation theory, but pore pressures did not dissipate as rapidly as predicted, and the degree of consolidation indicated by pore pressures was less than that indicated by settlements.
Hydraulic structures 871241 Field observations and analysis of soil-culvert bridges Brown. S F Ground Engng V19, N5. July 1986, P7 A report of the British Geotechnical Society Informal Discussion at the Institution of Civil Engineers. 23 April 1986. Although a large number of these large culverts have been successfully installed, gaps still exist in engineers' knowledge of their actual behaviour and, hence, of the most effective way to design and construct them. Particular topics requiring further investigation are noted. It was concluded that properly designed and constructed long span culverts provide an economically viable option for transportation systems.
Slopes See a~o: 871004, 871012. 871032, 871117. 871118. 871122. 871124,
871242 Characteristics of a planar rock slide: Hamersley Range, Western Australia Wyrwoll, K H Engng Geoi V22. N4. July 1986, P335-348 A large planar rock slide is described and analysed for possible causes of failure. The general characteristics o f the slide are determined by the major joint sets. The rock mass consists predominantly of alternating massive chert members and argillaceous horizons. Field evidence suggested that the necessary conditions for failure were due to weathering out of shale horizons which could have led to 'adjustments" of the rock mass, giving rise to dynamic loading conditions along potential failure planes.
871243 Kinematics of axisymmetric vertical slopes at collapse Drescher. A Int J Num Anal Meth Geomech V10, N4. July-Aug 1 9 8 6 . P431-441 The limit analysis kinematic method is applied to the collapse of the walls of a vertical and cylindrical opening in a frictional material. The material around the opening can be considered infinite, modelling, for example, an unsupported shallow borehole or shaft, or confined by a rigid circular boundary, modelling a channel formed during discharge of granular material from a site. The kinematic method of limit analysis is used to determine the critical height ofaxisymmetric vertical slopes at collapse, in materials such as rocks or soils which can be described by the Mohr-Coulomb yield conditions.
871244 Example of a submarine slope failure during installation of piles. Technical note Steger, E H Proc Symposium on Failures in Earthworks, London, 6 -7 March 1985 P428-431. Pub/L~mdon. Thomas Te/ford. 1985 The failure of a marine slope ~n recent layered estuarme and deltaic deposits is described. After analysis, failure was attributed in part to overestimation of the geotechnical parameters of the sediments. It is suggested that. in the design of marine slopes where high pore water pressures will develop during pile driving, a 10% reduction be made in shear strength to allow for driving, sample disturbance and other effects. It is also vital to use parameters known to work. not those obtained under difficult or questionable conditions.
871245 Use of reticulated Pali Radiee structures to solve slope stability problems. Technical note Ellis, I W Proc Symposium on Failures in Earthworks, London, 6-7 March 1985 P432-435. Publ London: Thomas Telford, 1985 The Reticulated Pali Radice Structure is a method of providing in situ reinforcement, based on a network of grouted piles arranged such that any critical slip plane is intersected by a configuration of piles. The natural resistive forces on the slip plane are improved by the combined shear resistance of the piles together with the soil mass A gradual improvement is achieved as the piles are installed and the treatment may be applied to slips in a cost effective way. Two case studies illustrated are stabilisation of a slope covered with fill materials. and the remedial treatment following sliding of a bridge abutment.
871246 Incidence of highway slope stabifity problems in Lower Lias and Weald Clay. Technical note Perry, J Proc Symposium on Failures in Earthworks, London, 6-7 March 1985 P439-441. Publ London." Thomas Telford, 1985 Failures in motorway earthworks in Lower Lias and Weald clay, of age 13 and 9 years respectively, have been surveyed. They show the same types of shallow slip failure as earthworks in other geological strata, but not to such an extent as other overconsolidated clay embankments. Failure rate increases as slope height and angle increase. No failures were observed in cuttings in Weald clay and only one. at severe geometry, in Lower Lias. Embankments in either material showed similar failure rates at the same geometry.
871247 Safety of footings on slopes Harrop-Williams. K O; Grivas. D Proc 5th Engineering Mechanics Division Speciality Conference, Wyoming, 1-3 Aug 1984 V2. P1249-t252. Publ New York: ASCE. 1984 An alternative measure of safety to the factor of safety is the reliability, defined as the probability of the resistance exceeding the load. Unlike factors of safety, reliabilities can be combined. The overall reliability can be computed for a structure with more than one mode of failure. The safety of a footing on a slope is evaluated as a function o f the individual refiabitities and on the conditional reliability of the footing, given the slope failed.
1986 Pergamon Journals Ltd. Reproduction not permitted