List of tables

List of tables

List of tables TABLE 1.1 TABLE 1.2 TABLE 1.3 TABLE 1.4 TABLE 1.5 TABLE 1.6 TABLE 1.7 TABLE 3.1 TABLE 3.2 TABLE 3.3 TABLE 3.4 TABLE 4.1 TABLE 4.2 TABLE...

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List of tables TABLE 1.1 TABLE 1.2 TABLE 1.3 TABLE 1.4 TABLE 1.5 TABLE 1.6 TABLE 1.7 TABLE 3.1 TABLE 3.2 TABLE 3.3 TABLE 3.4 TABLE 4.1 TABLE 4.2 TABLE 5.1 TABLE 5.2 TABLE 5.3 TABLE 5.4 TABLE 5.5 TABLE 5.6 TABLE 5.7 TABLE 5.8 TABLE 5.9 TABLE 5.10 TABLE 5.11 TABLE 5.12 TABLE 5.13 TABLE 5.14 TABLE 6.1 TABLE 6.2 TABLE 6.3 TABLE 6.4 TABLE 6.5 TABLE 6.6 TABLE 6.7 TABLE 6.8 TABLE 6.9 TABLE 6.10 TABLE 6.11 TABLE 6.12 TABLE 6.13 TABLE 6.14 TABLE 6.15 TABLE 6.16 TABLE 6.17 TABLE 6.18



Industrialization of biology—benefits. 2 Color code differentiating the main areas of biotechnology. 2 Some historical developments in industrial biotechnology. 3 Environmental and economic benefits of biotechnology. 5 Defining technologies of modern biotechnology. 5 A vision for 2025. 8 Advantages of biotechnology in chemical production. 11 Renewable energy. 24 Fossil fuels. 24 Average world market price of some fossil and renewable resources. 27 Industrial sectors supplying the most important renewable raw materials. 29 Products from the chemical industry in 2014 by category (%). 33 Subsegments of the chemical industry. 33 Advantages of bioprocesses. 38 Different types of sparger. 43 Advantages of submerged fermentation over surface fermentation. 44 Disadvantages of submerged fermentation over surface fermentation. 44 Advantages of solid-state fermentation over submerged fermentation. 46 Disadvantages of SSF. 47 Traditional SSF processes. 48 Products produced by SSF technology. 48 Types of solid-state fermenters. 49 Major factors affecting microbial synthesis of enzymes in a SSF system. 50 Advantages of using enzymes. 51 Specificity of enzymes. 52 A selection of enzyme types used in industrial processes. 53 Enzyme classes and types of reactions. 54 Important bioprocessing systems for the production of commodity chemicals. 59 Product groups currently produced commercially using fermentation. 59 Products in developmental stage. 60 Uses of citric acid. 62 Microorganisms with the ability to produce citric acid. 63 Speciality foods produced by lactic acid fermentation. 65 Uses of lactic acid. 66 Uses of L-lysine. 71 Companies producing glutamic acid. 75 Enzymes used in food industry. 77 Environmental benefits of using glucoamylase enzymes for the conversion of starch to glucose. 80 Type of feed enzymes. 84 Advantages of supplementing feed with enzymes. 84 Prerequisite of enzymes used in animal nutrition. 84 Mode of action of different feed enzymes. 86 Biofertilizers and soil conditioners used in agriculture. 87 Biopesticides. 88 Types of biopesticides. 89

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xii TABLE 6.19 TABLE 6.20 TABLE 6.21 TABLE 6.22 TABLE 6.23 TABLE 6.24 TABLE 6.25 TABLE 6.26 TABLE 6.27 TABLE 6.28 TABLE 6.29 TABLE 6.30 TABLE 6.31 TABLE 6.32 TABLE 6.33 TABLE 6.34 TABLE 6.35 TABLE 6.36 TABLE 6.37 TABLE 6.38 TABLE 6.39 TABLE 6.40 TABLE 6.41 TABLE 6.42 TABLE 6.43 TABLE 6.44 TABLE 6.45 TABLE 6.46 TABLE 6.47 TABLE 6.48 TABLE 6.49 TABLE 6.50 TABLE 6.51 TABLE 6.52 TABLE 6.53 TABLE 6.54 TABLE 6.55 TABLE 6.56 TABLE 6.57 TABLE 6.58 TABLE 6.59 TABLE 6.60 TABLE 6.61 TABLE 6.62 TABLE 6.63 TABLE 6.64 TABLE 6.65 TABLE 7.1 TABLE 7.2 TABLE 7.3 TABLE 7.4 TABLE 8.1 TABLE 8.2 TABLE 9.1

List of tables

Biopesticides of botanical origin. Biopesticides from microorganisms. Advantages of using biopesticides. Few commercial biocontrol products for use against soilborne crop diseases. Substances with pest control properties. Possible reasons for the use of colorants in food substances. Naturally derived colors from plants sources. Naturally derived colors from microorganisms. Microorganisms producing pigments. Application of biocolors. Application of bacterial pigments. Production of food colors from plants using biotechnological methods. Important features of some biocolors. Benefits of biocolorants. Limitations of biocolorants. Flavors from plant cell culture. Food aroma compounds produced by microorganisms. Enzymes used for the production of aroma compounds. Solid-state fermentation applications in food aroma production. Use of solvents in different sectors. Organic chemicals utilized as solvents. Methods to produce solvents from biomass. Biobased solvents. Industrial biodegradable solvents. Advantages of using biobased solvents. Few established fermentation products. Vitamins produced by biotechnological methods. Microorganisms producing vitamin B12. Few selected biopharmaceuticals. A few examples of enzymes in industry. Use of enzymes in cosmetics. Four classes of enzymes are generally used in detergents. Advantages of using enzymes in detergents. Enzymes used in detergents (laundry and dishwash). Types of bioplastics. Market drivers. Bioplastic opportunities. First-generation and second-generation feedstocks for bioethanol. Enzymes involved in biofuel production. Enzymes used in the processing of fats and oils. Advantages of bioremediation. The disadvantages of bioremediation. Microbial enzymes involved in bioremediation. Biotechnological processes for removing VOCs from gases. Enzymes used in the bioremediation of different harmful chemical compounds. Advantages of transgenic plants. Major commercial players in plant biotechnology. The impact of industrial biotechnology on the environment. The impact of industrial biotechnology on the economy. The impact of industrial biotechnology on society. Companies using industrial biotechnology for improving manufacturing processes. Recent investments and developments in biotechnology sector in India. Major initiatives taken in India. Reasons for slow commercialization of biotechnology.

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TABLE 9.2 TABLE 9.3 TABLE 9.4

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Challenges facing industrial biotechnology. 211 Comparison of industrial biotechnology and chemical technology. 212 Problems to be solved for making industrial biotechnology competitive to chemical technology. 212 TABLE 10.1 Industrial biotechnological applications with a high probability of reaching the market by 2030. 219