List of Tables

List of Tables

List of Tables TABLE 2.1   Contributions by Main Economic Sectors to Palestine’s GDP 24 TABLE 2.2   Basic Data on Syria’s Economy 28 TABLE 2...

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List of Tables TABLE 2.1   Contributions by Main Economic Sectors to Palestine’s GDP

24

TABLE 2.2   Basic Data on Syria’s Economy

28

TABLE 2.3   Youth and Adult Literacy Rates for Males and Females in Mauritania in 2000 and 2007 (Percentage of the Entire Population)

56

TABLE 2.4   Numerical Goals of Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030

77

TABLE 2.5   Vision 2030 Actions and Goals Related to Nonprofit Sectors, Social and Cultural Settings

79

TABLE 2.6   Distribution of Populations and Annual GDP Across Groups as Percentages of Totals for All the Arab Countries

98

TABLE A.2.1  Population, Surface Area, and GDP Data for the Arab Countries

100

TABLE 3.1    Percentages of Females Among Staff Members With Qualifications at the BSc Level and Above, Among Researchers and With Respect to Totals129 TABLE 3.2   Order of Importance Assigned by Groups of Responding Research Institutions to Categories of Obstacles

131

TABLE 3.3    Objectives and Programs of Jordan’s National Science, Technology, and Innovation (STI) Policy Covering the Period 2013–17

135

TABLE 3.4   Numbers of Issues and Projects Listed as Top Priorities Within the National Research Priorities Document for the Period 2011–20

136

TABLE 3.5    Actual and Targeted Performance Indicators for Science, Research, and Innovation140 TABLE 3.6   Societal Needs and Action Points

149

TABLE 3.7   Programs and Projects Run by the Syrian Enterprise and Business Center

186

TABLE 3.8   Higher Commission for Scientific Research Ranking of Research Domains With Respect to Economic, Scientific, Strategic, and Social Importance

191

TABLE 3.9   Indicators to Be Used in Monitoring Progress of Implementing the Third Pillar of Egypt’s Vision 2030

204

TABLE 3.10  Suggested Additional Indicators for Use in Monitoring Progress of Implementing the Third Pillar of Egypt’s Vision 2030

205

TABLE 3.11  Essential Programs Designed With View to implementing Egypt’s Knowledge, Innovation and Scientific Research Strategy

208

TABLE 3.12  Sectors Selected for Particular Support by Morocco’s “National Strategy for the Development of Scientific Research Toward Horizon 2025”

239

TABLE 3.13  Tunisia’s key agricultural research Indicators 2002–12

259

TABLE 3.14   Tunisian Science Parks and Technopoles

262

TABLE 3.15  Core Issues Addressed by Five-Year Plans Adopted by the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) 274

xxi

xxii  List of Tables TABLE 3.16  Strategic Goals, Objectives and Related Targets Set by Kuwait University’s Strategic Plan for the Years 2013–16

279

TABLE 3.17  Research and Development Programs Funded by the Research Council (2009–13)283 TABLE 3.18  Examples of Research projects Undertaken at the College of Applied Science285 TABLE 3.19  Satellite Branches of Foreign Universities established Within Qatar Education City

292

TABLE 3.20  Numbers of projects Supported by the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan’s Strategic Technologies Program and Budgetary allocations in 2014

302

TABLE 3.21  Institutes and Constituent National Research Centers established by KACST304 TABLE 3.22  Research Centers and Academic Research Divisions Established by King Abdullah University for Science and Technology

306

TABLE 3.23  Components and Objectives of World Bank’s 2010 Project in Support of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Yemen

321

TABLE 3.24  Scientific Publications by Researchers in Comoros, Djibouti, and Somalia and International Research Collaboration 2008–14

326

TABLE 3.25  Gross Enrolment Ratio for Education in Comoros, Djibouti and Somalia in 2012

328

TABLE A.3.1  Egypt’s Grant Programs, Values, and Durations

329

TABLE A.3.2  Algerian Public and Corporate Research Centers

330

TABLE A.3.3  Research Networks Established by Moroccan Scientists and Engineers332 TABLE A.3.4  Distribution of Allocations to Research Supported by the Agricultural Research and Higher Education Institute in Tunisia (Tunisian Dinars Thousands)333 TABLE A.3.5  National Research Centers of the Water and Energy Institute and Their Activities (Saudi Arabia)

335

TABLE A.3.6  National Research Centers of the Materials Science Research Institute and Their Activities (Saudi Arabia)

336

TABLE A.3.7  National Research Centers of the Communication and Information Technology Research Institute and Their Activities (Saudi Arabia)

337

TABLE A.3.8  National Research Centers of the Nuclear Sciences Research Institute and Examples of Their Activities (Saudi Arabia)

338

TABLE A.3.9  National Research Centers of the Life Science and Environment Research Institute and Examples of Their Activities (Saudi Arabia)

338

TABLE A.3.10 National Research Centers of the Space and Aeronautics Research Institute and Examples of Their Activities (Saudi Arabia)

339

TABLE A.3.11 Policy Enablers and Associated Goals for the United Arab Emirates Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy

340

TABLE 4.1   H-index Values and Country Rankings for Arab Countries as Well as Five Neighboring Countries in the Middle East

383

TABLE 4.2   Shares of Worldwide Publications by Three Arab Countries Compared to Those by Iran and Turkey Within 10 Research Disciplines in Which the Individual Countries Are Best Represented (%)

388

List of Tables  xxiii TABLE 4.3   Research Publications Produced by Arab Countries During May 1, 2015–April 30, 2016 Within Four Broad Areas

392

TABLE 4.4   Journals Published by Universities and Other Institutions in the Arab Countries

398

TABLE 4.5   Summary of Saudi Research Output and Share of Global Output During 2003–12 in “Strategic Technologies”

402

TABLE 4.6   Number of Instances Where an Overseas Country Occupied a Position Among the Top 10 Collaborators With Three or More Arab Countries in 2015

403

TABLE 4.7   Top 10 Collaborating Countries Across the World With Four Neighboring Countries (Percentages)

404

TABLE 4.8   Number of USPTO Patents Granted to Selected Arab and Neighboring Countries Compared to Numbers of Patents Granted Across the World and Timeframes

409

TABLE 4.9   EPO Patents Granted to Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Israel as well as all Arab and Five Neighboring Countries; Numbers and Comparisons

414

TABLE 4.10  Comparing the Rates of Growth of Patents Filed From All Arab Countries Within Selected Patent Classes Over Two 5-Year-Periods During 1999–2013 and for the Entire Period 1999–2013

423

TABLE A.4.1  Journals Published in 2015 by Institutions in the Arab Countries and Three of Their Closest Neighbors; Distribution Across Countries and Areas of Specialization

431

TABLE A.4.2  Top 10 Collaborating Countries Across the World With 17 Arab Countries (Percentages)432 TABLE A.4.3  Collaboration Among Seven Developed Countries With Their Top 10 Partners in Publishing Scientific Articles. (During the Period May 1, 2015 and April 30, 2016)

436

TABLE A.4.4  Percentages of Collaboration Between Seven Arab Countries With Their Top 10 Partners in Publishing Scientific Articles. (During the Period May 1, 2015 and April 30, 2016)

436

TABLE A.4.5  Percentages of Collaboration Between Cyprus, Iran, Israel, and Turkey With Their Top 10 Partners in Publishing Scientific Articles. (During the Period May 1, 2015 and April 30, 2016)

436

TABLE A.4.6  Percentages of Collaboration Between 26 Countries Around the World With Their Top 10 Partners in Publishing Scientific Articles. (During the Period May 1, 2015 and April 30, 2016)

438

TABLE A.4.7A  P  ublications and Citations by Arab Countries Throughout the Period 1996–2015440 TABLE A.4.7B Publications and Citations by All Countries

442

TABLE A.4.8  Patents Granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) to Arab Countries, Five of Their Closest Neighbors, and Worldwide Before 2002, During 2002, and 2015 and Corresponding Ratios 444 TABLE A.4.9  Arab Countries That Published in Excess of 10 Papers in Highly Regarded Journals Tracked by Nature’s Index During 2015

446

TABLE A.4.10 Patents Granted by the European Patent Office to Nationals and Residents in Arab Countries and Their Closest Neighbors

448

TABLE 5.1    Global Innovation Index; Scores and Rankings, and Efficiency Ratio for Fourteen Arab Countries and Five of Their Closest Neighbors (2016)

461

xxiv  List of Tables TABLE 5.2    Coefficient of Determination (R2) Values Correlating the Values of the Innovation Index With Those for 11 Other GCI Indices

465

TABLE A.5.1  Rankings of Arab Countries and Five of Their Closest Neighbors According to the Global Competitiveness Index and Its Pillars (2016–17) 484 TABLE A.5.2  Scores of 14 Arab Countries on the Composite Innovation Index and Component Indices (2012–13 and 2016–17)

486

TABLE A.5.3  Rankings of 16 Arab Countries on the Composite Innovation Index and Component Indices (2012–13 and 2016–17)

488

TABLE A.5.4  Scores of 14 Arab Countries on Technological Readiness and Its Component Indices (2011–12 and 2016–17)

490

TABLE A.5.5  Rankings of 14 Arab Countries on Technological Readiness and Its Component Indices (2011–12 and 2016–17)

492

TABLE A.5.6  Ease of Doing Business Rankings for Arab and Five of Their Closest Neighboring Countries

494

TABLE A.5.7  Internet Users and Internet Penetration in the Arab Countries and Five of Their Closest Neighbors

498

TABLE A.5.8  Top 10 Languages Used on the Web (Number of Internet Users by Language)499 TABLE 6.1   Expenditure on Education in the Arab Countries

516

TABLE 6.2   UNDP-MBRF Index of Preuniversity Education in the Arab Countries

520

TABLE 6.3   A Snapshot of Arab Students’ Performance in Science, Reading, and Mathematics Compared to OECD and Neighboring Country Averages (2015)

522

TABLE 6.4   Internet Access in Schools in 14 Arab Countries and Five of Their Closest Neighbors

525

TABLE 6.5   Values Given to Individual Criteria Used in Ranking Arab Universities Among the 800 Top Universities Across the World

532