MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN DERMATOLOGY Karan K. Sra, MD, Center for Clinical Studies, Houston, TX, United States, Katie R. Pang, MD, Center for Clinical Studies, Houston, TX, United States, Jashin J. Wu, MD, Center for Clinical Studies, Houston, TX, United States, Stephen K. Tyring, MD, PhD, MBA, Center for Clinical Studies, Houston, TX, United States The molecular diagnosis of infectious disease has been growing considerably over the past decade. Nucleic acid amplification techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), ligase chain reaction (LCR), transcription-medicated amplification (TMA), and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), provide highly accurate diagnosis of numerous bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections involved in a variety of dermatological disease. In addition, signal amplification with hybrid capture, branched-DNA assays, and in-situ hybridization have been used for the detection of numerous viral pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity. New technology using DNA and protein microassays have also enabled the detection of a variety of genes and gene mutations. With time, these diagnostic assays are decreasing in cost, gaining FDA approval, and becoming easier and more efficient to use. In the future, these assays will be able to deliver rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases within a single clinic visit.
SUNSCREEN MARKET ANALYSIS: THE EVOLUTION AND USE OF UVA-1 ACTIVES J F Nash, PhD, Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH, United States, Paul Tanner, BS, Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH, United States, Tracy Grosick, BS, Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH, United States, Mary Zimnawoda, Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH, United States Protection from solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation remains a top priority of the dermatological community. Daily application of sunscreen products is recommended by health care professionals as part of a strategy to reduce skin damage from exposure to solar light. However, such routine use of sunscreens by patients and consumers varies and depends on many factors including skin type, beliefs regarding skin care, habits and practices, and knowledge about exposure to the sun and long term effects on skin. These inconsistencies in awareness, attitude and practice suggest that consumers do not necessarily follow the same linear logic that sunscreen manufacturers use to develop and promote such products. Despite this apparent difference, consumers have benefited from the considerable growth and variety of sunscreen products. Moreover, key regulatory decisions such as the approval of avobenzone and zinc oxide, alone and in combination with other UV filters, have played a very important role in providing consumers much needed protection against long wavelength (i.e. UVA-1 or 340-400 nm) solar UV. While the progression of the UV protection marketed is noteworthy, our previous work in 1997 found that sunscreen products differ radically in claims and expression of efficacy, particularly UVA protection. Thus, we conducted an extensive examination of the US sunscreen market evaluating efficacy and performance claims. A total of 188 currently marketed US sunscreen products, including mass and department store products, recreational and daily sunscreens, and a variety of forms (lotions, creams, oils and sprays) were analyzed for label claims (SPF, UVA, photoaging), active ingredients (i.e. UV filters), and efficacy (SPF and UVA). This poster will review the key findings of our survey that reveal the common use of nine sunscreen actives and the large increase in long wave UVA (UVA-1) ingredients. In contrast, we will also present the significant need for UVA method/claims guidelines as many products currently claim UVA efficacy, yet do not contain UVA-1 filters. Based on our evaluation, there remains a clear and urgent need for a reproducible test to measure UVA efficacy and a consumer understandable means of communicating this information.
Disclosure not available at press time.
Disclosure not available at press time. 100 percent sponsored by Procter & Gamble Company
P134 MAKING SENSITIVE SKIN LESS SENSITIVE Tracy L Grosick, BS, Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH, United States, Victoria Hollis, BSc, Procter & Gamble Company, Egham, Surrey, England The epidermal skin barrier is responsible for regulating the overall health of the skin. Skin sensitivity and susceptibility to exogenous insult can result from a deficient stratum corneum barrier function. As will be described, maintenance of barrier function plays a critical role in mitigating the most prevalent sensitive skin symptoms. A significant subset of the population associates with having sensitive skin and complain of hyperirritability. The condition of sensitive skin is broadly defined, relating to a variety of external stimuli, and is manifested as a range of clinical symptoms. Most notably, individuals experience transient and recurring skin dryness and redness without satisfactory resolve. Hence, many sensitive skin sufferers attempt to relieve symptoms by seeking moisturizers formulated without allergens or known irritants (e.g. fragrance, dyes, harsh surfactants). Many of these moisturizers act through acute stratum corneum hydration, alleviating dry skin and improving skin properties such as softness and suppleness. While these products certainly elicit no harm to the patient, their primary mechanism of effect is acute, resulting in a temporary effect. There is a growing body of literature and data suggesting moisturizers with niacinamide play a more proactive, chronic role in skin repair by maintaining normal barrier function. Thus, moisturizers with niacinamide not only provide basic moisturization and dry skin relief, they also improve barrier properties that help defend against factors contributing to sensitive skin symptoms. Disclosure not available at press time. 100 percent sponsored by Procter & Gamble.
J AM ACAD DERMATOL
P136 METHODS OF ASSESSING DESQUAMATION AND SCALINESS IN HUMAN SKIN USING BIOENGINEERING TECHNIQUES Iqbal Sadiq, MS, S.K.I.N. Incorporated, Conshohocken, PA, United States, Tracy Stoudemayer, BS, S.K.I.N. Incorporated, Conshohocken, PA, United States, Albert Kligman, MD, PhD, S.K.I.N. Incorporated, Conshohocken, PA, United States Dry, irritated skin show increased scaliness as well as higher desquamation rates, as evidenced by the collection of scales on the adhesive disc. After moisturizing treatments, improvement can be evidenced. We have used a variety of bioengineering methods to record and follow changes in scaliness and desquamation. A number of imaging modalities were used along with image analysis routines. Repeated sampling, on a specific site, by the adhesive discs (serial stripping) was helpful in showing the dynamics of desquamation. We chose a method of collecting three sequential samples of scales from the same spot, and then imaging and analyzing these samples. The slope of these curves were used to assess the integrity of stratum corneum (SC). This method showed us improvements in skin after moisturizer use. The distribution of scales on skin surface was imaged by videomicroscopy. The sites were illuminated from a narrow angle with either a visible light or ultraviolet-blue light. We also used a fluorescent stain, 2% aqueous pyranin, to visualize the distribution of scales on the skin. Confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography were used to image stratum corneum. By using several bioengineering techniques we get a fuller picture of the state of SC integrity. Changes in skin caused by topically applied products can be understood better. Disclosure not available at press time.