04 By-products related to fuels 03/00559 Manufacture of fuel-grade dimethyl ether from hydrocarbons Uchida, K. et al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2002 186,855 (C1. C07C41/09), 10 Jul 2002, Appl. 2000/392,439, 25 Dec 2000. 6. (In Japanese) Me20 is manufactured by (a) reaction of hydrocarbons with steam and optional O to give syngas, (b) reaction of the syngas on catalysts to give crude MeOH, (c) distillation of the crude MeOH to remove dissolved gas and low-boiling compounds from the top and to give aq. MeOH from the bottom, (d) manufacturing of Me20 from the aq. MeOH, and (e) separation of MezO from H20 and MeOH by distillation, where HzO separated from Me20 is used for saturation of the hydrocarbons.
03100560 Manufacture of synthesis gas by automatic thermal reforming Okado, H. et al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2002 173,304 (Cl. C0IB3/ 40), 21 Jun 2002, Appl. 2000/371,462, 6 Dec 2000. 9. (In Japanese) Composite oxides aM.bCo.cNi.dMg.eCa.fO, where M = Mn, Mo, or Rh, are used as reforming catalysts in manufacturing of synthesis gas from hydrocarbons at a (COz + steam)/C ratio=0.5-3.0, an Oz/C ratio=0.2-1.0, 900-1100 °, and 5-60 kg/cm 2 to prevent C deposition.
03/00561 Method for pressurized entrained bed gasification of biomass and coal Kaiho, M. et al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2002 194,363 (CI. CIOJ3/ 00), 10 Jul 2002, Appl. 2000/398,393, 27 Dec 2000. 7. (In Japanese) In the gasification, coal particles are introduced in a lower part of a pressurized entrained bed gasification furnace for formation of hot coal gas. Biomass fuels are introduced in an upper part of the hot coal gas for gasification of the biomass fuels by contact with the hot coal gas. Since the temperature of the coal gas decreases with biomass gasification, accumulation or deposition of ash on the furnace can be suppressed.
03/00562 Production of syn gas/high Btu gaseous fuel from the pyrolysis of biomass derived oil Panigrahi, S. et al. Preprints ~f Symposia American Chemical Society. Division of Fuel Chemistry, 2002, 47, (1), 118 122. Clean fuels including hydrogen, high Btu gaseous fuel and synthesis gas were produced via pyrolysis of biomass-derived oil (BDO). The reactor temperature and inert gas flow rate were varied from 650 to 800 °, and from 18 to 54 mL/min, respectively. The pyrolysis of BDO as a source of gaseous fuel yielded the product gases primarily consisted of Hz, Co, CO2, CH4, C2H4, C2H6, C3, and C,~~- components. The composition of the product gas from BDO could be adjusted in the desired direction by altering the parameters such as inert gas flow rate and reactor temperature At 800 ° and 30 mL/min nitrogen flow rate, composition of various product gas components ranged between 16 and 30 tool% synthesis gas, 19 and 27 tool% C H 4 and 23 and 31 tool% C~,H,,. Heating values ranged between 1300 and 1700 Btu/SCF.
03/00563 Production of synthesis gas from hydrocarbons in the presence of carbon dioxide by Fischer-Tropsch process Nakashizu, S. et al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2002 181.280 (CI. CIOG2/00), 4 Jun 2002, Appl. 2000/357,848, 24 Dec 2000. 12. (In Japanese) Synthesis gas containing mainly H2 and CO is produced from lower hydrocarbons (especially, CH4) by reduction over the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts containing 0.1-50 wt% of Ru, and 0.1-20 weight% of the compounds of -> 1 alkali metals or alkaline earth metal on porous Mn oxide supports having sp. surface area 4-200 mZ/g and average grain diameter 0.5-150 lain in the presence of 0.5%-50% C O 2 under reducing gas atmosphere of 200-350 ° and 1-10Mpa. The method is superior in olefin selectivity, high CO conversion and catalyst activity.
The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction was studied under supercritical hexane conditions in a continuous, high pressure, fixed bed reactor using a cobalt catalyst. The effect of supercritical fluid (SCF) conditions on synthesis gas conversion, product distribution and olefin selectivity was evaluated to show improvements in process parameters under SCF-FT operation against gas phase operation. The CO conversion and olefin content were higher in SFC-FT reaction than in conventional FT synthesis (FTS) due to the increased diffusion and desorption rate of reactants and products in SCF phase FTS. An optimum operating pressure of 950 psi maximized the conversion and the olefin activity. The better heat removal in SCF-FT than in gas phase reaction allowed the catalyst bed temperature to be well controlled. A minimal effect of synthesis gas residence time on the synthesis gas conversion and on olefin selectivity was detected, indicating that the SCF-phase based FT reaction is not diffusion controlled.
03/00566 Reforming device with heat shields for fuel gas manufacturing Brueck, R. PCT Int. Appl. WO 02 46,094 (Cl. C01B3/38), 13 June 2002, DE Appl. 10.061,084, 8 Dec 2000. 17. (In German) This paper examines a reformer device for the production of a Ha-rich fuel gas from a hydrocarbon-containing fluid, which is used in fuel cells. The reformer device is equipped with a housing with at least one reforming zone placed in the internal chamber of the housing, a supply line, and a ceramic honeycomb body, which is thermal decoupled from the housing. Furthermore the reformer device has a heat shield for thermal insulation purposes which is configured in such a way that the operation temperature is decreased around 50% in >8 h, preferably 20% in _>8 h. Thus an improved cold start performance of the reformer device is obtained, since a quick cooling is prevented. The heat shield is provided with a heat storage which is arranged with a phase change material. The heat shield of the three reforming zones has different thermal conductivities.
Syngas in perspective
Rostrup-Nielsen, J. R. Catalysis Today, 2002, 71, (3-4), 243-247. Syngas manufacture is an important part of a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plant as it is responsible for around 60% of the investments. The developments of syngas technologies are summarized. The present choice for large-scale FT plants based on natural gas is autothermal reforming. The main costs of an ATR unit are related to the manufacture of oxygen. Air-blown technologies are discussed and compared with ATR.
03100568 Thermodynamic analysis of a partial gasification pressurized combustion and supercritical steam combined cycle De, S. and Nag, P. K. Proceedings ~f the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal (?f Power and Energy, 2002, 214, (A6), 565574. The aim of this paper is to study the thermodynamic performance of a new combination of a partial gasification pressurized combustion gas cycle and a supercriticai steam cycle as means of advanced 'clean coal' power generation. Energy and exergy analyses of the proposed power cycle are presented. The effects of pressure ratio of the gas cycle, the turbine inlet temperature and amount of coal gasification on the thermodynamic performance of the combine cycle are discussed. The optimum pressure ratio has to be detected on the basis of a judicious compromise between the net power and the overall efficiency. Overall efficiency is the maximum for an optimum turbine inlet temperature. The relative coal feeds for partial gasification and pressurized combustion may be adjusted with a compromise between net power and overall efficiency. The power output of the cycle can be increased by more coal gasification. However, this yields a lower overall efficiency.
03•00564 Production of synthesis gas in combination with the maintenance of the energy balance for a pulp mill Lindblom, M. and Landaelv, I. Pet. Int. Appl. WO 02 40,768 (CI. D21Cll/00), 23 May 2002, SE Appi. 2000/4,185, 15 Nov 2000. 32. In a process of pulp and paper, recycling of cooking chemicals, combustion of biomass and generation of heat and electric energy, the part of the process which is recycling cooking chemicals is adjusted from combustion to gasification to generate synthesis gas; and biomass is added in an amount sufficient for compensating for the decrease in heat and electricity generation as a consequence of the generation of synthesis gas.
03•00565 Reaction behavior of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in near critical and supercritical hexane media Huang, X. et al. Preprints Of Symposia - American Chemical Society, Division qfFuel Chemistry, 2002, 47, (1), 150 153.
Fuel and Energy Abstracts
BY-PRODUCTS RELATED TO FUELS
03/00569 Atmospheric behavior of oil-shale combustion fly ash in a chamber study Teinemaa, E. et al. Atmospheric Environment, 2002. 36, (5), 813-824. There are huge world deposits of oil shale, however, little is known about the fate of atmospheric oil-shale combustion fly ash. In the present work, oil-shale combustion fly-ash aerosol was investigated under simulated daytime and night-time conditions. Fly-ash particles collected from the Baltic Power Plant (Estonia) were injected directly to a 190 m 3 outdoor Teflon film chamber. The initial concentration of