Measuring the impact of diet and environment on infant metabolism and the microbiome

Measuring the impact of diet and environment on infant metabolism and the microbiome

NBTS / INA 2015 Abstracts for covariates. Blood lead was also related to a greater likelihood of early sexual intercourse (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.4–4.7...

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NBTS / INA 2015 Abstracts

for covariates. Blood lead was also related to a greater likelihood of early sexual intercourse (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.4–4.7, p b .002). There was no PCE by gender interaction on early sexual behavior. However, significant gender by externalizing behavior interaction was noted (p b .05). Separate logistic regressions indicated that externalizing behavior assessed at 12 years fully mediated the effects of PCE on early sexual intercourse in girls, but not in boys. For boys, greater violence exposure was associated with early sexual behavior (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1–2.2, p b .02). Conclusions: PCE is related to early sexual intercourse, and externalizing behavior problems mediate PCE effects in female adolescents. Interventions targeting externalizing behavior will reduce early sexual initiation and thereby reduce HIV risk behaviors and early, unplanned pregnancy in girls with PCE. doi:10.1016/j.ntt.2015.04.122

NTX117 Measuring the impact of diet and environment on infant metabolism and the microbiome Carolyn Slupsky University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA The long- and short-term health benefits of breast-feeding have long been recognized. Indeed, breast-feeding is associated with lower incidences of necrotizing enterocolitis and diarrhea in early life, in addition to lower incidences of inflammatory bowel diseases, type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease later in life. The mechanism by which breast-feeding imparts these protective measures is poorly understood partly due to a lack of available analytical methods to measure the comprehensive effects of feeding practices on infant metabolism. Previously, we reported profound differences between breast-fed and formula-fed infants on growth trajectory, immunological development, succession of the gut microbiome and metabolism that suggests that early imbalances in the pediatric microbiome may influence the development of diseases and disorders in adulthood. It is unknown whether the difference between breast feeding and formula feeding is related to the specific diet used, or whether other diets or formula additives will cause the same effect. To investigate the response of different diets on the gut microbiome and host metabolism, fecal microbial ecology, measured through 16 s rRNA sequencing, and comprehensive metabolic profiling of serum, urine, and feces measured through 1H NMR metabolomics, have been analyzed in the context of high and low protein formula diets, and with the addition of probiotics. These results will be discussed in an effort to highlight the links between diet, development of the infant microbiome, host metabolism, and health. doi:10.1016/j.ntt.2015.04.123

NTX118 Impact of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis and other perinatal interventions on the infant gut microbiome Anita Kozyrskyj University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Up to 40% of newborns are exposed to perinatal antibiotics, either directly with intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin for early-onset sepsis, or indirectly with administration of maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). In Canada and the US, these treatment

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patterns adhere to clinical practice guidelines for the prophylaxis of vaginal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and caesarean section (CS) delivery. With rising rates of CS delivery and GBS colonization during pregnancy, IAP has become a routine part of the birthing process in North America. However, these practices are not universal in Norway, Denmark, Australia and the UK. While effective in preventing earlyonset neonatal sepsis, maternal GBS prophylaxis has been linked to amoxicillin-resistant late-onset E. coli infections in infants. Longer-term, infant antibiotic use has been associated with childhood obesity, asthma, and allergy, conditions linked to gut microbiota aberrancies during early life. The presentation will draw from data on gut microbiota profiles of 198 healthy term infants in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) pregnancy cohort study. In the CHILD cohort, maternal IAP exposures and birth method were documented from hospital records and breastfeeding was reported by mothers. Infant gut microbiota were characterized by Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing of faecal samples at 3 and 12 months. IAP for Group B Streptococcus prophylaxis or pre-labour rupture of membranes was administered to 21% of mothers; another 23% received IAP for elective or emergency CS. Infant gut microbiota community structures at 3 months differed significantly with all IAP exposures, and differences persisted to 12 months for infants delivered by emergency CS. Taxonspecific composition also differed, with the genera Bacteroides and Parabacteroides under-represented, and Enterococcus and Clostridium over-represented at 3 months following maternal IAP exposure. Compositional differences were especially evident following IAP with emergency CS, with some changes persisting to 12 months, particularly among nonbreastfed infants. Intrapartum antibiotics in CS and vaginal delivery are associated with infant gut microbiota dysbiosis, and breastfeeding modifies some of these effects. doi:10.1016/j.ntt.2015.04.124

NTX119 Maternal stress and the neonate gut microbiome: Effects on early life programming and neurodevelopment Eldin Jasarevic University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA The neonate is exposed to the maternal vaginal microbiota during parturition, providing the primary source for normal gut colonization, host immune maturation, and metabolism. These early interactions between the host and microbiota occur during a critical window of neurodevelopment, suggesting early life as an important period of cross talk between the developing gut and brain. As perturbations in the prenatal environment such as maternal stress increase neurodevelopmental disease risk, disruptions to the vaginal ecosystem could have significant and long-term consequences for the offspring. During this talk, I will describe a series of experiments to examine the hypothesis that changes in the vaginal microbiome are associated with effects on the offspring gut microbiota and on the developing brain. Using multivariate modeling, we identified broad changes to the maternal vaginal environment that influences offspring microbiota composition and metabolic processes essential for normal neurodevelopment. Maternal stress altered proteins related to vaginal immunity and microbiota composition. Transmission of a stress-altered vaginal microbiota altered colonization in neonates and resulted in long-term disruption of gut microbiota composition in these offspring. Further, altered microbiota composition in the neonate gut corresponded with changes in metabolite profiles involved in energy balance, and with region- and sexspecific disruptions of amino acid profiles in the developing brain. Lastly, I will discuss results from experiments examining whether