Meat, Poultry, and Meat Products: Nutritional Value

Meat, Poultry, and Meat Products: Nutritional Value

MEAT, POULTRY, AND MEAT PRODUCTS Nutritional Value PA Lofgren, Oak Park, IL, USA r 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This article is a revision...

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MEAT, POULTRY, AND MEAT PRODUCTS

Nutritional Value PA Lofgren, Oak Park, IL, USA r 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This article is a revision of the previous edition article by P. A. Lofgren, volume 2, pp. 230–237, r 2005, Elsevier Ltd.

Glossary Glycerides Glycerol with fatty acids attached.

Introduction

omega-3 and trans fatty acids, glutathione, vitamin D activity, and other vitamin-like compounds).

Animal source foods are major contributors to the nutrients in the food supply in many countries. Of these foods, animal muscle (or meat) foods and products are excellent examples of nutrient-dense, naturally nutrient-rich foods, which provide a relatively large amount of many nutrients per the amount of calories provided in a typical serving. For the purposes of this review, discussion will be limited to the muscle foods: beef, pork, lamb, veal, poultry, and some of the processed products made from these muscle species. Fish/seafood will be covered in a separate article. Milk and dairy products, eggs, and major nonmuscle animal source foods, will also be covered separately. For meat and meat products there are extensive and comprehensive nutrient databases available for reference for particular products of interest. Thus, this review will provide a sampling of the data available for representative meats and meat products. One of the best and most comprehensive listings of the nutrient values of all meat, poultry, and other meat products is the extensive nutrient database developed and maintained by the United States Department of Agriculture. In this database complete nutrient profiles are listed for more than 700 beef, 200 pork, 195 lamb, 85 veal, 140 poultry, and 130 turkey products. This database can be accessed and searched on-line from the link/website: http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl and continues to be updated as new data become available for various food products. The most recent version of this database is USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23, published 2010. For another extensive listing of the nutrient values of many meat and meat products, including some by brand name, the reader is referred to Bowes & Church’s Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 19th edn. This reference, although not as extensive in terms of products listed, does provide data directly on common serving sizes and on some additional nutrient and nutrient-related components of meat products (e.g.,

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Lipids Fats, glycerides, fatty acids, cholesterol, sterols. Muscle foods Meat and meat products.

Nutritional Value The nutritional value of foods, including meat and meat products, can be defined in a number of different ways, from simply listing the quantities of various nutrients contained in the foods, to considering biological factors that affect the utilization of these nutrients by the body. Some foods may contain nutrients in forms that the body cannot readily utilize. Thus, nutrient bioavailablilty, or availability becomes important. Other articles and sections of this book will discuss some of these bioavailability issues and subsequent metabolism of food and nutrient sources. The nutritional value of meat and meat products is related to the quantity and utilization of nutrients and the potential for these products to either enhance or restrict nutrient utilization by the body. There are five major classes of nutrients: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. The nutrient content of meat (muscle foods) is fairly similar among the various mammals, birds, and fish. However, differences in the levels of the various nutrients may result from differences in the carcass composition among species and within species due to differences in the ratio of fat to muscle in the edible portion. As fat percentage increases, nutrient concentration of the muscle portion decreases. Also, to a certain extent, the fat profile/composition and other nutrient content levels may be modified/affected by the animal’s diet and genetic makeup. In general, cooking or heat processing has only minimal effects on the nutritional value of muscle foods. In most cases, cooking usually decreases moisture content and concentrates other nutrients, including fat content, especially in lower fat products. This is due to moisture loss. However, in some intensely heated meat products fat content may also be reduced significantly with negligible loss of other nutrients.

Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, Volume 3

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-375083-9.00184-7

Meat, Poultry, and Meat Products: Nutritional Value

Classes of Nutrients and Meat Products Protein Proteins comprise the structural unit of all muscle cells and connective tissues. As such, meat and meat products (muscle foods) are major protein sources. Further, muscle foods, as a group, are excellent sources of high-quality protein that supplies all the essential amino acids in desirable proportions for human consumption. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and those provided by meat match or exceed the profile required by humans. The protein content of most muscle foods, on a wet basis, is between 15% and 35%. This figure will change due to the moisture and lipid content of the specific product. On a raw weight basis as purchased at the store, the protein content is generally less than 20%. However, people do not eat muscle foods raw and visible fat in red meat products and skin in poultry products is usually trimmed away. Therefore muscle foods, as consumed, have a much higher protein content, in the range of 30%.

Lipids The lipid component of meat and meat products includes a diverse group of substances such as glycerides (glycerol with fatty acids attached), phospholipids, and sterols. The basic component of most meat lipids is the fatty acids, which can be saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated. The relative amount of lipid in muscle foods is probably the most variable aspect of the nutritional profile. Within the lipid components, the relative amount of the different forms of fatty acids present is another variable among meat products. Despite the common reference to animal fats (and especially meat and meat products) as ‘saturated’, less than half of all the fatty acids of meats are saturated. The largest proportions of fatty acids in meats are monounsaturated, followed by saturated and then polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among meat products, poultry has a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and slightly less saturated fatty acids. The fat in meat products provides much of the flavor associated with these foods and also contributes to the palatability and overall acceptability by consumers. In addition, the fats in meat and meat products also contain several essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids) and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.

Carbohydrates Meat and meat products are not significant sources of dietary carbohydrates. Almost all dietary carbohydrates come from plant sources. The only naturally occurring carbohydrate in muscle foods is glycogen. In some processed meat products, such as those that are ‘sugar-cured’, there may be additional sucrose or glucose added.

Vitamins Meat and meat products are especially good sources of most of the water-soluble vitamins. In general, meat is the major

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dietary source of vitamin B12 and is an excellent source of many of the other B-vitamins, such as pyridoxine (B6), biotin, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and thiamin. For vitamin B12, red meat products such as beef and lamb are especially good sources. Pork products are one of the very best sources of thiamin. Although present in muscle foods, the fat-soluble vitamins are less abundant than in plant foods. Vitamins E and K are present, but at lower levels. Vitamin D activity may be present in some meat products, but at low levels. This is reflected in the latest update to the USDA Nutrient database (http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ ndl), where vitamin D activity is listed for some beef, pork, lamb, veal, chicken/turkey, and processed meat products; however, such data is not consistently available. In recent years there has been production research with beef, pork, and lamb to determine if added vitamin D3 or its metabolites, fed to the animal for a brief period of time before slaughter, can result in improved meat tenderness. Although the results are inconsistent, and commercial application is premature, there is some indication that tenderness may be improved with relatively low levels of vitamin D supplementation, but these seem to leave very little residual vitamin D3 or its metabolites in the muscle. Research in Denmark found that the more biologically active 25-OH D is present at low levels in meat; however there is as yet no consensus on the conversion factor for 25-OH D to calculate vitamin D activity. Also, there is currently very little data on the vitamin D and 25-OH D levels in many meat products. This represents a potential future area of research regarding the nutrient composition of meat. Meat products are a very good source of choline, second only to whole eggs. In recent years a database for the choline content of common foods has been updated and expanded, http:// www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid ¼ 6232.

Minerals Meat and meat products are good to excellent sources of most minerals. Among the macrominerals, calcium is not high in muscle foods although phosphorus and potassium are prominent. In natural meat products, sodium is present, but not a significant contributor to the diet. However, processed meat products may contain significantly higher levels of sodium (added as part of curing, preserving, or flavor-enhancing ingredients). Some of the microminerals (trace elements) are especially abundant in meat and meat products. Iron is of the greatest significance from meat sources because it is present in the heme form, which is more bioavailable than the nonheme form. Of meat products, beef is an especially rich source of iron in this bioavailable form. Muscle tissue is an especially rich source of minerals such as phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, and selenium. For instance, pork, poultry, and beef are especially good sources of selenium.

Bioavailability of Nutrients and Efficiency for Child Development Muscle foods have been shown to contain ‘‘intrinsic’’ factors that improve the bioavailability of a variety of nutrients.

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Meat, Poultry, and Meat Products: Nutritional Value

Moreover, the bioavailability of these nutrients from muscle foods is high; often exceeding the availability of the same nutrients in foods derived from plants. Heme iron is one example. Zinc and copper have been shown to be more available from meat sources than from plant sources. Several of the B-vitamins may also be more bioavailable from meat sources than from plant sources. Another interesting aspect of meat products is the ability to promote the bioavailability of nutrients in nonmuscle foods when the two are eaten together. This has been referred to as the ‘meat factor’. Perhaps the best example of this is the positive effect of meat in the diet on nonheme iron sources, also in the diet. The efficacy of meat in the diet for its benefits for child growth and development and micronutrient status continues to be demonstrated. Studies with school children in Kenya have shown that animal-source foods, including meat, improve dietary quality, micronutrient status, growth, and cognitive function. In the US, studies with breastfed infants have shown that feeding meat as an early complementary food is feasible and associated with improved zinc status. On a larger scale, a multi-site, multi-national study is underway to further determine the impact of a daily intake of 1/2 oz of meat in 6–18-month-old infants on linear growth, zinc and iron status, brain growth and neurocognitive development, and infectious disease morbidity. This is being done in populations traditionally dependent on nonmicronutrient fortified plant foods for complementary feeding.

Nutrient Density of Meat and Meat Products The nutrient density of meat is high. Muscle foods have high levels of essential nutrients per unit of weight and per amount of calories provided. Meat and meat products (muscle foods) provide significant amounts of essential nutrients at levels/ concentrations higher than from most other foods relative to the calorie content also provided. The United State Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) food labeling guidelines allow a food to be designated a ‘good’ source of a nutrient if it contributes 10% or more of the Daily Value (DV), and an ‘excellent’ source, if it contributes 20% or more of the DV, for that nutrient, per 3 oz serving. Most meat products are good or excellent sources of many nutrients. It is generally recognized that in diets that lack muscle foods, greater care is required in diet/menu selection to ensure that adequate levels of essential nutrients are present and bioavailable.

Meat Sources and Nutritional Values Beef Beef is an excellent source of high-quality protein, along with significant contributions of many B-vitamins and minerals. In macronutrient terms, the lean to fat ratio of the particular beef product influences the calorie and nutrient composition. In general, as the fat content decreases the concentration of other nutrients (especially protein, B-vitamins, and minerals) in beef tend to increase. Most beef products available to the consumer are much leaner than they were 20 or 30 years ago.

This is a result of changes due to feeding and genetics to produce leaner animals, and also due to closer trim levels on the products that consumers see in the meat case. Whereas in the past, beef cuts with 1/400 of fat trim were common, now the same products have only 1/800 fat trim, or in some cases even 000 fat trim. In the case of ground beef products, 10 or 20 years ago, 17% fat ground beef was considered as ‘extra lean’. Now ground beef is commonly available at fat levels as low as 5% or 10%. Other common fat levels for ground beef are 15%, 20%, and 25%; however, a large proportion of current ground beef sales are now in the 5–15% fat level range. The fat content of beef contains a varied fatty acid profile, with the largest proportion being contributed by monounsaturated fat, followed by saturated fat and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, being a ruminant product, beef is an excellent source of the naturally occurring fatty acid, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which has been demonstrated to provide anticarcinogenic properties among other health benefits. Table 1 provides the energy, protein, and lipid profile of beef along with other meat sources. For a comparison of the mineral composition of beef products versus that of other common meat sources, see Table 2. For a comparison of the vitamin composition of beef products versus that of other common meat sources, see Table 3.

Pork Pork, like beef, is an excellent source of high-quality protein and contributes significant amounts of many B-vitamins and minerals. As for other muscle foods, pork’s nutrient composition is greatly affected by its fat and water content. As fat percentage decreases, the concentration of other nutrients increases. In addition, as pork is cooked, and moisture is removed, the concentration of nutrients also increases. Pork is an excellent source of minerals, such as selenium, iron, zinc, phosphorus, and potassium. Compared to other muscle foods, the contribution of pork to selenium in the food supply is especially significant. In terms of the B-vitamins, pork is an excellent source. Pork is an especially good source of thiamin (vitamin B1), being the single best source of this vitamin among commonly eaten foods. The fat profile of pork can be influenced by feeding regimes such that it is more, or less, saturated or firm. However, overall the fatty acid profile of pork is largely monounsaturated, followed by saturated and then polyunsaturated fatty acids. Table 1 provides the energy, protein, and lipid profile of pork along with other meat sources. For a comparison of the mineral composition of pork products versus that of other common meat sources, see Table 2. For a comparison of the vitamin composition of pork products versus that of other common meat sources, see Table 3.

Lamb Although representing a smaller portion of overall muscle food consumption, lamb still provides a nutrient profile with significant benefits for the human diet. As a source of

Table 1

Energy, protein, and lipid profile of meats and meat productsa (amount per 3 oz/85 g, lean only, cooked, except as noted) Serving size (g)

Energy (kcal kj1)

Total protein (g)

Beef Composite, Ln 000 , ckd, all grades Top Round, Ln 000 , brld, all grades Top Loin, Ln 000 , brld, all grades Shoulder Pot Roast, Ln 000 , brsd, all grades 95% Ln Ground Beef, brld

85 85 85 85 85

179/751 158/662 155/649 167/697 145/609

25.4 27.0 24.9 26.8 22.4

Pork Composite, fresh, Ln, ckd Tenderloin, fresh, Ln, rstd Center Loin Chop, fresh, Ln, pan-fried Shoulder, blade steak, fresh, Ln, brld Ham, fresh, Ln, rstd

85 85 85 85 85

171/713 122/510 190/796 193/808 179/751

Lamb Composite, Australian, Ln 1/800 , ckd Loin, Australian, Ln 1/800 , brld Leg, Australian, Ln 1/800 , rstd Foreshank, Australian, Ln 1/800 , brsd Composite, New Zealand, Ln, ckd Composite, US Domestic, Ln 1/400 , ckd

85 85 85 85 85 85

Veal Composite, Ln, ckd Cutlet, leg top round, Ln, pan-fried Loin chops, Ln, rstd Shoulder, blade, Ln, brsd

Total SFA (g)

Total MUFA (g)

Total PUFA (g)

7.9 4.8 5.4 6.6 5.6

3.01 1.67 2.06 2.21 2.53

3.32 2.02 2.16 2.84 2.31

0.27 0.18 0.20 0.40 0.28

73 65 54 83 65

23.4 22.2 23.5 22.7 25.0

7.8 3.0 10.0 10.7 8.0

2.63 1.02 3.66 3.78 2.80

3.32 1.13 4.51 4.79 3.78

0.73 0.43 1.27 0.92 0.72

71 62 60 80 80

171/715 163/683 162/676 140/586 175/733 175/733

22.7 22.6 23.2 23.4 25.2 24.0

8.2 7.4 6.9 4.4 7.5 8.1

3.44 3.13 2.80 1.60 3.28 2.89

3.28 2.97 2.81 1.99 2.96 3.54

0.36 0.31 0.32 0.25 0.44 0.53

74 69 76 78 93 78

85 85 85 85

167/697 156/651 149/622 168/704

27.1 28.2 22.4 27.8

5.6 3.9 5.9 5.5

1.56 1.10 2.19 1.54

2.00 1.40 2.12 1.96

0.50 0.35 0.48 0.49

100 91 90 134

Chicken/turkey Broilers, meat only, rstd Broilers, Lt meat only, rstd Broilers, Dk meat only, rstd Turkey, all classes, meat only, rstd Turkey, all classes, Lt meat only, rstd Turkey, all classes, Dk meat only, rstd

85 85 85 85 85 85

162/676 147/615 174/729 145/604 133/558 159/665

24.6 26.3 23.3 24.9 25.4 24.3

6.3 3.8 8.3 4.2 2.7 6.1

1.73 1.08 2.26 1.39 0.88 2.06

2.26 1.31 3.03 0.88 0.48 1.39

1.44 0.83 1.92 1.22 0.73 1.84

76 72 79 65 59 72

Processed meats Bacon, pork, cured, pan-fried, 1 slice Sausage, pork, fresh, ckd, 2 links Bologna, beef & pork, low fat, 1 slice Salami, beef, ckd, 1 slice

7.9 48 28 26

42/176 163/680 64/269 68/284

3.0 9.3 3.2 3.3

3.2 13.6 5.4 5.8

1.05 4.38 2.05 2.56

1.42 5.94 2.56 2.77

0.35 1.79 0.46 0.27

9 40 11 18

a

Total fat (g)

USDA, ARS (2010) USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl brld, broiled; brsd, braised; ckd, cooked; Dk, Dark; Ln, lean and trim level; Lt, Light; rstd, roasted; SFA, saturated fatty acids; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Total cholesterol (mg)

Meat, Poultry, and Meat Products: Nutritional Value

Meat species/cutb

b

163

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Table 2

Mineral composition of meats and meat productsa (amount per 3 oz/85 g, lean only, cooked, except as noted)

Meat species/cutb

Ca (mg)

Fe (mg)

Mg (mg)

P (mg)

K (mg)

Beef Composite, Ln 000 , ckd, all grades Top Round, Ln 000 , brld, all grades Top Loin, Ln 000 , brld, all grades Shoulder Pot Roast, Ln 000 , brsd, all grades 95% Ln Ground Beef, brld

85 85 85 85 85

7 6 16 11 6

2.54 2.28 1.56 3.06 2.41

22 18 21 21 19

196 172 195 199 175

302 223 314 305 296

Pork Composite, fresh, Ln, ckd Tenderloin, fresh, Ln, rstd Center Loin Chop, fresh, Ln, pan-fried Shoulder, blade steak, fresh, Ln, brld Ham, fresh, Ln, rstd

85 85 85 85 85

15 5 4 28 6

0.85 0.98 0.66 1.33 0.95

21 25 23 20 21

196 227 201 187 239

Lamb Composite, Australian, Ln 1/800 , ckd Loin, Australian, Ln 1/800 , brld Leg, Australian, Ln 1/800 , rstd Foreshank, Australian, Ln 1/800 , brsd Composite, New Zealand, Ln, ckd Composite, US Domestic, Ln 1/400 , ckd

85 85 85 85 85 85

14 18 8 12 11 13

1.74 1.85 1.83 1.62 2.00 1.74

20 22 21 19 19 22

Veal Composite, Ln, ckd Cutlet, leg top round, Ln, pan-fried Loin chops, Ln, rstd Shoulder, blade, Ln, brsd

85 85 85 85

20 6 18 34

0.99 0.74 0.72 1.25

Chicken/Turkey Broilers, meat only, rstd Broilers, Lt meat only, rstd Broilers, Dk meat only, rstd Turkey, all classes, meat only, rstd Turkey, all classes, Lt meat only, rstd Turkey, all classes, Dk meat only, rstd

85 85 85 85 85 85

13 13 13 21 16 27

Processed meats Bacon, pork, cured, pan-fried, 1 slice Sausage, pork, fresh, ckd, 2 links Bologna, beef & pork, low fat, 1 slice Salami, beef, ckd, 1 slice

7.9 48 28 26

1 6 3 2

a

Zn (mg)

Cu (mg)

Mn (mg)

Se (mcg)

56 36 51 52 55

5.76 4.67 4.56 8.02 5.47

0.11 0.07 0.07 0.11 0.08

0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

18.1 30.8 28.6 32.4 18.4

303 358 386 292 317

47 48 44 63 54

2.46 2.06 1.82 4.27 2.77

0.07 0.09 0.06 0.05 0.09

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03

37.6 32.5 38.6 33.4 42.4

176 187 182 150 209 178

270 289 277 217 160 292

68 68 61 85 42 65

4.37 2.96 4.11 6.74 3.65 4.48

0.13 0.13 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.11

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.02

9.3 8.8 5.0 7.7 1.7 22.2

24 27 22 24

212 246 189 214

287 376 289 259

76 65 82 86

4.33 2.87 2.75 6.28

0.10 0.05 0.10 0.15

0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

11.1 8.8 9.9 12.3

1.03 0.90 1.13 1.51 1.15 1.98

21 23 20 22 24 20

166 184 152 181 186 173

207 210 204 253 259 247

73 65 79 60 54 67

1.78 1.05 2.38 2.63 1.73 3.79

0.06 0.04 0.07 0.08 0.04 0.14

0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

18.7 20.7 15.3 31.3 27.3 34.8

0.11 0.65 0.18 0.57

3 8 3 3

44 78 51 53

47 141 44 49

192 360 310 296

0.29 1.00 0.42 0.46

0.01 0.04 0.02 0.05

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01

5.1 0.0 3.1 3.8

USDA, ARS (2010) USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl brld, broiled; brsd, braised; ckd, cooked; Dk, Dark; Ln, lean andtrim level; Lt, Light; rstd, roasted.

b

Na (mg)

Meat, Poultry, and Meat Products: Nutritional Value

Serving size (g)

Table 3

Vitamin composition of meats and meat productsa (amount per 3 oz/85 g, lean only, cooked, except as noted)

Meat species/cutb

Vit. E (mg)

Vit. K (mcg)

7 9 8 7 6

2.64 1.49 1.39 2.88 2.10

0.14 0.34 0.32 0.09 0.31

1.50 1.30 1.20 1.36 1.10

0.49 0.63 0.33 0.26 0.38

3 0 7 4 10

0.58 0.48 0.52 0.96 0.61

0.09 0.07 0.19 0.23 0.22

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.75 0.71 0.84 0.56 0.49 0.59

0.34 0.44 0.39 0.22 0.12 0.14

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

0 20

2.56 1.71 2.71 2.72 2.51 2.22

0.16 0.16

c

7.16 10.74 8.04 4.83

1.13 1.04 1.08 1.35

0.28 0.43 0.32 0.21

14 14 14 13

1.40 1.28 1.11 1.71

0.36 0.36 0.42 0.38

5.60 4.20 4.70 5.80

0.15 0.10 0.19 0.16 0.11 0.21

7.80 10.56 5.57 4.63 5.81 3.10

0.94 0.83 1.03 0.80 0.58 1.09

0.40 0.51 0.31 0.39 0.46 0.31

5 3 7 6 5 8

0.28 0.29 0.27 0.31 0.31 0.31

0.23 0.23 0.23 0.28 0.08 0.54

2.00 0.30 3.30 3.10 0.00 3.30

0.02 0.10 0.04 0.05

0.91 3.00 0.71 0.84

0.10 0.35

0.03 0.16 0.05 0.05

0 1 1 1

0.10 0.57 0.37 0.80

0.02 0.26 0.06 0.05

0.00 0.20 0.10 0.30

Thiamin (mg)

Riboflavin (mg)

Beef Composite, Ln 000 , ckd, all grades Top Round, Ln 000 , brld, all grades Top Loin, Ln 000 , brld, all grades Shoulder Pot Roast, Ln 000 , brsd, all grades 95% Ln Ground Beef, brld

85 85 85 85 85

0.08 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.04

0.20 0.15 0.13 0.23 0.15

Pork Composite, fresh, Ln, ckd Tenderloin, fresh, Ln, rstd Center Loin Chop, fresh, Ln, pan-fried Shoulder, blade steak, fresh, Ln, brld Ham, fresh, Ln, rstd

85 85 85 85 85

0.57 0.81 0.65 0.64 0.59

Lamb Composite, Australian, Ln 1/800 , ckd Loin, Australian, Ln 1/800 , brld Leg, Australian, Ln 1/800 , rstd Foreshank, Australian, Ln 1/800 , brsd Composite, New Zealand, Ln, ckd Composite, US Domestic, Ln 1/400 , ckd

85 85 85 85 85 85

Veal Composite, Ln, ckd Cutlet, leg top round, Ln, pan-fried Loin chops, Ln, rstd Shoulder, blade, Ln, brsd

Niacin (mg)

Pantothenic acid (mg)

Vit. B6 (mg)

3.40 4.84 7.12 4.01 5.05

0.33 0.53 0.49 0.70 0.55

0.30 0.36 0.53 0.46 0.35

0.26 0.33 0.29 0.37 0.30

5.53 6.32 4.35 3.66 4.20

0.62 0.86 0.66 0.69 0.57

0.11 0.15 0.12 0.08 0.11 0.09

0.31 0.28 0.36 0.24 0.43 0.24

4.94 6.93 4.87 4.58 6.53 5.37

85 85 85 85

0.05 0.06 0.05 0.05

0.29 0.32 0.26 0.31

Chicken/turkey Broilers, meat only, rstd Broilers, Lt meat only, rstd Broilers, Dk meat only, rstd Turkey, all classes, meat only, rstd Turkey, all classes, Lt meat only, rstd Turkey, all classes, Dk meat only, rstd

85 85 85 85 85 85

0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05

Processed meats Bacon, pork, cured, pan-fried, 1 slice Sausage, pork, fresh, ckd, 2 links Bologna, beef & pork, low fat, 1 slice Salami, beef, ckd, 1 slice

7.9 48 28 26

0.04 0.14 0.05 0.03

c

0.25

Folate (mg)

c c c

c

Meat, Poultry, and Meat Products: Nutritional Value

Vit. B12 (mg)

Serving size (g)

a

USDA, ARS (2010) USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl brld, broiled; brsd, braised; ckd, cooked; Dk, Dark Ln, lean and trim level; Lt, Light; rstd, roasted. c Comparable data not available. b

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Meat, Poultry, and Meat Products: Nutritional Value

high-quality protein, lamb is also a good source of many minerals and B-vitamins. Vitamin B12 is especially abundant in lamb. It is also a good source of the minerals iron and zinc. In addition, as a ruminant, lamb is another naturally occurring dietary source of CL, A a unique fatty acid with anticarcinogenic and other health benefits (from animal model studies). Table 1 provides the energy, protein, and lipid profile of lamb along with other meat sources. For a comparison of the mineral composition of lamb products versus that of other common meat sources, see Table 2. For a comparison of the vitamin composition of lamb products versus that of other common meat sources, see Table 3.

Veal Although representing a smaller proportion of overall meat consumption, veal still provides a nutrient profile that is very beneficial. As with all meat sources, veal provides high-quality protein in a product that may be slightly leaner (in terms of fat) than other red meat sources. Compared to other meat sources, veal would have a lower iron content. Table 1 provides the energy, protein, and lipid profile of veal along with other meat sources. For a comparison of the mineral composition of veal products versus that of other common meat sources, see Table 2. For a comparison of the vitamin composition of veal products versus that of other common meat sources, see Table 3.

Poultry The nutrient composition of poultry (chicken and turkey) is similar to that of red meat animals (beef, pork, lamb, veal) with a few exceptions. Poultry is lower in iron content, and thus heme iron, than beef. Turkey is slightly higher in several minerals (Ca, Fe, P, K, Zn, and Cu) than chicken. As in red meats, there are significant amounts of several B-vitamins (e.g., niacin, B6, pantothenic acid) compared to other meat sources, and these are not significantly reduced during cooking. The fat content of poultry is predominantly monounsaturated fat, followed by saturated fat and polyunsaturated fat. Poultry fat, like pork fat, is somewhat more unsaturated than beef fat. Poultry is significantly higher in polyunsaturated fat compared to beef, pork, lamb, and veal. Table 1 provides the energy, protein, and lipid profile of chicken and turkey along with other meat sources. For a comparison of the mineral composition of chicken and turkey products versus that of other common meat sources, see Table 2, and of the vitamin composition of chicken and turkey products versus that of other common meat sources, see Table 3.

Table 1 provides the energy, protein, and lipid profile of several processed meat products along with other meat sources. For a comparison of the mineral composition of these processed products versus that of other common meat sources, see Table 2, and for the vitamin composition of these processed products versus that of other common meat sources, see Table 3.

Summary Muscle foods (meat and meat products) provide significant amounts of essential nutrients at levels/concentrations higher than from most other foods relative to the calories provided. Most of all the essential nutrients are present in muscle foods at some level. Furthermore, muscle foods provide nutrients in a form that enhances the bioavailability of nutrients from both the meat itself and from other dietary sources. It is generally recognized that in diets that lack muscle foods, greater care is required in diet/menu selection to ensure that adequate levels of essential nutrients are present and bioavailable.

See also: Amino Acids: Chemistry and Classification; Metabolism; Specific Functions. Bioavailability. Biotin: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements. Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Classification; Regulation of Metabolism; Requirements and Dietary Importance. Cholesterol: Factors Determining Blood Levels; Sources, Absorption, Function, and Metabolism. Choline and Phosphatidylcholine. Copper. Dietary Surveys: Surveys of Food Intake in Groups and Individuals. Eggs. Energy: Adaptation; Balance. Energy Metabolism. Energy Requirements. Fats and Oils. Fatty Acids: Health Effects of Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids; Health Effects of Saturated Fatty Acids; Metabolism. Fish and Seafood: Nutritional Value. Folic Acid. Food Composition Data. Iron: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements. Magnesium. Manganese. Niacin and Pellagra. Nuts and Seeds. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Nutrigenetic and Nutrigenomic Aspects in the Determination of Dietary Requirements, Development, and Chronic Diseases. Pantothenic Acid. Phosphorus: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements. Potassium. Protein: Quality and Sources; Requirements and Role in Diet; Synthesis and Turnover. Protein Deficiency. Protein Digestion and Bioavailability. Riboflavin. Salt: Epidemiology. Selenium. Sodium: Physiology. Thiamin: Beriberi; Physiology. Trans-Fatty Acids: Health Effects, Recommendations, and Regulations. Ultratrace Elements. Vegeterian Diets. Vitamin A: Deficiency and Interventions; Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements. Vitamin B6: Physiology. Vitamin E: Metabolism and Requirements; Physiology and Health Effects. Vitamin K. Zinc: Deficiency Disorders and Prevention Programs; Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements

Processed Meats Processed meats represent a diverse array of products that have undergone additional treatment from the fresh meat form to the point of consumption. Some of these processing/treatments might include curing with other ingredients added, addition of salt or other flavor or preservative mixtures, etc. Also, these products often represent combined meat sources.

Further Reading Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (1997) Contribution of Animal Products to Healthful Diets. Task Force Report No. 131. Ames: CAST. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (1999) Animal Agriculture and Global Food Supply. Task Force Report No. 135. Ames: CAST.

Meat, Poultry, and Meat Products: Nutritional Value

Foote MR, Horst RL, Huff-Lonergan EJ, Trenkle AH, Parrish FC Jr., and Beitz DC (2004) The use of vitamin D3 and its metabolites to improve beef tenderness. Journal of Animal Science 82(1): 242–249. Godber JS (1994) Nutritional value of muscle foods. In: Kinsman DM, Kotula AW, and Breidenstein BC (eds.) Muscle Foods – Meat, Poultry, and Seafood Technology, pp. 430–455. New York: Chapman & Hall. Krebs NF, Westcott JE, Butler N, Robinson C, Bell M, and Hambidge KM (2006) Meat as a first complementary food for breastfed infants: feasibility and impact on zinc intake and status. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 42: 207–214. Neumann CG, Bwibo NO, Murphy SP, et al. (2003) Animal source foods improve dietary quality, micronutrient status, growth and cognitive function in Kenyan school children: background, study design and baseline findings. Journal of Nutrition 133(11 Suppl): 3941S–3949S. Neumann CG, Murphy SP, Gewa C, Grillenberger M, and Bwibo NO (2007) Meat supplementation improves growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes in Kenyan children. Journal of Nutrition 137(4): 1119–1123.

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