Metal–Matrix Composites$ M Haghshenas, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada r 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction The possibility of mixing different material systems, i.e., metals, ceramics, and polymers, provides the opportunity for inﬁnite variations and functioning properties. Human beings have been making these combinations for thousands of years. One early example is mud bricks. Mud can be dried out into a brick shape to give a building material. It provides good compressive strength but it breaks quite easily under bending due to poor tensile strength. Straw seems very strong in stretching, but it can be crumpled up easily. By mixing mud and straw together it is possible to make bricks that are resistant to both squeezing and tearing and make excellent building blocks. Concrete is another example of an ancient compound. It is a mixture of aggregate cement and sand. Concrete provides good compressive strength (being resistance to squashing). In recent times, by adding metal rods or wires to the concrete, its tensile (and bending) strength increases (reinforced concrete). Beside human beings, Mother Nature has developed natural compounds in both animals and plants. Almost all natural materials which must bear load, i.e., wood, bone, muscle, are indeed compound materials. Wood is a natural compound, made from long cellulose ﬁbers (a polymer) held together by a much weaker substance called lignin. Cellulose is found in cotton, but without the lignin to bind it together it is much weaker. The two weak substances, lignin and cellulose, together form a much stronger structure. The bone in human and animals' body is also a natural compound (Figure 1). It is made from a hard but brittle material called hydroxyapatite (which is mainly calcium phosphate) and a soft and ﬂexible material called collagen (which is a protein). Collagen is found in hair and ﬁnger nails as well. On its own it would not be much use in the skeleton but it can combine with hydroxyapatite to give bone the properties that are needed to support the body.
Figure 1 The structure of bone in human and animals' body as a natural composite (www.classes.mst.edu).
A compound (composite) material is a macro-physical combination of, physically and/or chemically, distinct materials (phases) where the aim is to combine beneﬁcial properties of the constituent materials (Figure 2). Hence, very clear and abstract knowledge of properties of the constituent materials are needed in order to select compatible materials for composite fabrication. The end product is a unique and new material which possesses superior characteristics than those of each of the individual components. The properties of the newly born materials are basically dependent upon the properties of their single components.
☆ Change History: July 2015. M. Haghshenas added an ‘Abstract’ and a detailed ‘Introduction’ including Figures 1–3. ‘Types of MMCs’ were extended and updated including classiﬁcation based on matrix material, Figures 5–7, and reinforcement material, Figures 12–15. ‘Properties of MMCs’ extended to physical and mechanical properties of MMCs and new Figures 21–28 and Table 1 were added in this Section. Two new Sections, ‘Strengthening methods in MMCs’ and ‘Fabrication of MMCs’ were added including Figure 29. Also, MMCs were classiﬁed based on matrix materials and most commonly used matrix materials including Al-, Mg, Ti-, Cu-, and Ni-supper alloy matrixes were discussed in detail and Figures 6–11 were added here. Beside these other new sections including ‘Developing trends of MMCs,’ ‘Microstructure of MMCs,’ and ‘Design consideration’ containing Figures 16–20 were added. ‘Application of MMCs’ was updated with novel applications of MMCs in different industries, i.e., aerospace, automotive, trains, Electronic and sport. New ﬁgures, Figures 30–40 and new Tables 4–6 were added as well in this Section.
Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering
Figure 2 The family of composites among metals/ceramics/polymers.
This distinguishes a composite from other multiphase materials which are produced by bulk processes where one or more phases result from phase transformation. Composite materials are, indeed, like sandwiches. A good sandwich contains a variety of ingredients to yield a taste that no single ingredient could provide by itself. Similarly, composite materials are those which are formed from two or more materials producing properties or characteristics that could not be obtained from any one material. Having said this, many common materials like metals, alloys, and processed polymers are not considered as composites even though various amounts of dispersed phases exist in their structure. Why? The reason is that their properties are similar (or very close) to those of their base constituents. Many ‘in situ composites.’ such as directionally solidiﬁed eutectics (i.e., Al–Si alloys) or alloys from which a ceramic phase is precipitated, are thus considered to be alloys and not composites. Why use composites? The biggest advantage of the composite materials is that they are light as well as strong (Figure 3). By choosing an appropriate combination of matrix and reinforcement material, a composite can be made that exactly meets the requirements of a particular application. Composites also provide design ﬂexibility because many of them can be molded into complex shapes. The most applicable properties of composite materials include, Kainer (2006):
• • • • • • •
High stiffness and high strength High Young's modulus High fatigue strength, especially at elevated temperatures High corrosion resistance Low density High thermal and electrical conductivity High wear resistance
Figure 3 Physical and mechanical properties of composites as compared with two most commonly used alloys, i.e., steel and aluminum.
Figure 3 shows common physical and mechanical properties of the composites as compared with aluminum and steel. The composite materials have been shown in purple color.
Matrixes and Reinforcements The terms of matrix and reinforcement are very often used when talking about composites. Matrix is a relatively ‘soft’ phase with speciﬁc physical and mechanical properties, i.e., ductility, formability and thermal conductivity (Figure 4). In the matrix, ‘hard’ reinforcements with high strength, high stiffness, and low thermal expansions are embedded (Figure 4). Reinforcement phase is,
Figure 4 Schematic and actual illustration of matrix and reinforcement within a composite structure, Kainer (2006).
therefore, a second phase (or phases) which is usually stronger and stiffer than the matrix and mainly carries the applied load to the composite. That is, composites are demonstrated by two or more phases, one of which is stronger and stiffer that the others and serves as the primary load carrying component. For example, in some composites, we take the advantage of combining toughness of metals with, in most cases, high intrinsic strength of reinforcing phases (i.e., ceramics). Therefore, matrix is the primary phase with a continuous character which holds the reinforcement phase and shares applied load with it. Matrix and reinforcement dictate the performance of a composite depending on:
• • • •
Physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of matrix and reinforcement Size and distribution of constituents Morphology of constituents Interface between constituents
Fiberglass is an example of a composite that clearly transfer the concept of matrix and reinforcement phases. Nowadays, it is widely used for boat hulls, sports equipment, building panels and many car bodies. The matrix is a plastic and the reinforcement is glass that has been made into ﬁne threads and often woven into a sort of cloth. Glass, by itself, is strong but brittle and will break if bent sharply. The plastic matrix holds the glass ﬁbers together and also protects them from damage by sharing out the forces acting on them. Some advanced composites are now made using carbon ﬁbers instead of glass. These materials are lighter and stronger than ﬁberglass but more expensive to produce. They are used in aircraft structures and expensive sports equipment such as golf clubs. Carbon nanotubes and graphene have also been used successfully to make new class of composites. The potential of graphene composites includes medical implants, engineering materials for aerospace and renewables and much more. These are even lighter and stronger than composites made with ordinary carbon ﬁbers but they are still very expensive. They do, however, offer possibilities for making lighter cars and aircraft (which will use less fuel than the heavier vehicles we have now). For instance, the new Airbus A380, the world's largest passenger airliner, makes use of modern composites in its design. More than 50% of the A380 is made of composite materials, mainly plastic reinforced with carbon ﬁbers. This design is the ﬁrst large-scale use of glass-ﬁberreinforced aluminum, a new composite that is 25% stronger than conventional airframe aluminum but 20% lighter.
Matrix The purpose of the matrix is to bind the reinforcements together by virtue of its cohesive and adhesive characteristics, to transfer load to and between reinforcements, and to protect the reinforcements from environments and handling. The matrix also provides a solid form to the composite, which aids handling during manufacture and is typically required in a ﬁnished part. This is particularly necessary in discontinuously reinforced composites, as the reinforcements are not of sufﬁcient length to provide a handle-able form. Because the reinforcements are typically stronger and stiffer, the matrix is often the ‘weak link’ in the composite, from a structural perspective. As a continuous phase, the matrix therefore controls the transverse properties, inter-laminar strength, and elevated-temperature strength of the composite. However, the matrix allows the strength of the reinforcements to be used to their full potential by providing effective load transfer from external forces to the reinforcement. On the basis of matrix, composites are classiﬁed to:
• • •
Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC) PMCs are composed of a thermoset or thermoplastic matrix embedded dispersed reinforcement phases, i.e., carbon, glass, metal, Kevlar ﬁbers. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) CMCs are composed of a ceramic matrix (i.e., SiC, Al2O3, SiN) and embedded ﬁbers of other ceramic materials. Metal–matrix composites (MMC) MMCs are the most widely used composites in the industrial scale. The main advantages of MMCs over PMCs and CMCs are (Clyne, 2001; Matthews and Rawlings, 1996):
4 J J J J J J J J
Higher temperature capabilities Better radiation resistance Higher transverse stiffness and strength Less moisture absorption Higher thermal and electrical conductivity Better process-ability Less out gassing Higher ﬁre resistance
However, in some aspects, MMCs have some drawbacks as compared with metals and PMCs: J Higher end cost J Relatively immature technology J Complex fabrication methods Table 1 presents representative properties of selected materials in each category of matrixes. The properties of the four types vary noticeably causing profound effects on the properties of the composites using them.
Properties of selected matrix materials
Density (g/ cm3)
Tensile strength (MPa) Tensile failure strain (%) Thermal conductivity (W/ m K)
CTE (ppm/ K)
Epoxy Al 6061 Ti (6Al-4V) SiC Al2O3 Borosilicate Carbon
Polymer Metal Metal Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Carbon
1.8 2.7 4.4 2.9 3.9 2.2 1.8
3.5 69 105 520 380 63 20
70 300 1100 – – – –
60 23 9.5 4.9 6.7 5 2
3 10 10 o0.1 o0.1 o0.1 o0.1
0.1 180 16 81 20 2 5–90
Source: Zweben (2006).
In this Chapter, the main focus will be on characteristics of MMCs. The MMCs are composed of a continuous metallic matrix (i.e., aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium) and a reinforcement phase which can be either dispersed ceramics (i.e., oxides, carbides) or metallic phases (i.e., tungsten, molybdenum, lead) that constitutes a few percent to around 50% of the total volume of the material. The objective of developing MMCs is to combine desirable properties of metallic materials and second phase (reinforcement). The prime reason for using MMCs in structural applications is their improved speciﬁc strength and speciﬁc stiffness relative to unreinforced alloys. Most structural metals (i.e., steel, aluminum, titanium, magnesium) have strength/density ratios of 26–27 MN m kg1. Reinforcing aluminum with 25% of particulate silicon carbide increases this to nearly 40 MN m kg1; reinforcing steel with 25% titanium di-boride gives an increase to around 35 MN m kg1. Increases in the speciﬁc properties can be exploited through weight savings and/or improved fatigue resistance, Akhtar (2014). The main beneﬁts exhibited by MMCs, i.e., lower density, increased speciﬁc strength and stiffness, increased high-temperature performance limits, and improved wear-abrasion resistance, are dependent on the properties of the matrix alloy and of the reinforcing phase. The selection of the matrix is empirical based, using readily available alloys, and the major consideration is the nature of the reinforcing phase. When selecting materials for a MMC, it is critical that the materials selected for matrix and reinforcement are evaluated on their individual characteristics, as well as on their interactivity with each other during the forming process. The interaction between reinforcement material and matrix material, quite often, imposes restrictions on the type of materials that can be intermixed together to produce a MMC.
Classiﬁcation of MMCs based on the matrix material MMCs are classiﬁed into different categories depending upon their matrix materials. Some examples of most commonly used metallic matrix conﬁgurations are:
• • • • •
Aluminum-based composites; aluminum as matrix can be either cast alloy or wrought alloy (i.e., AlMgSi, AlMg, AlCuSiMn, AlZnMgCu, AlCu, AlSiCuMg) Magnesium-based composites Titanium-based composites Copper-based composites Super alloy-based composites
Figure 5 shows the usage volume of different matrix materials in MMCs. As seen, aluminum is the most commonly sued matrix material in MMCs.
Figure 5 Usage of matrix materials in MMCs, Adebisi et al. (2011).
Aluminum–matrix composites are most commonly studied MMC as they are widely used in the automotive and aerospace industries. Reinforcement compounds such as SiC, Al2O3, and B4C can be mixed easily and effectively in molten aluminum. Magnesium–matrix composites have similar advantages, but due to limitations in fabrication and lower thermal conductivity, they are not widely used as compared with aluminum-based MMCs. Magnesium–matrix composites have been developed for the space industry thank to the low density of magnesium and its alloys. Titanium alloys are used as matrix material in fabricating MMCs due to their good strength at elevated temperatures and excellent corrosion resistance. Compared with aluminum, titanium alloys hold their strength at higher temperature, which is advantageous in manufacturing aircraft and missile structures, whose operating speeds are very high. However, their main problem lies with processing of highly reactive titanium with reinforcement materials. Fiber-based titanium composites are widely used in developing aircraft structures. In terms of thermal conductivity and hightemperature strength properties, copper–matrix composites are superior compared with other MMCs. Super alloys are commonly used as candidate materials for manufacturing gas turbine blades, where they operate at higher temperatures and speeds.
Aluminum-based MMCs Aluminum-based MMCs are the most commonly used MMC in the automotive and aerospace applications. This is mainly due to its unique properties like greater strength, improved stiffness, reduced density, improved temperature properties, controlled thermal expansion and improved wear resistance. In aluminum-based MMCs, one of the constituent is an aluminum/aluminum alloy (i.e., Al–Si, Al–Cu, Al–Si–Mg alloys), which forms percolating network and is termed as matrix phase. The other constituent is embedded in this aluminum/aluminum alloy matrix and serves as reinforcement, which is usually non-metallic and common ceramic such as SiC, Al2O3, C, B, B4C, AlN, and BN. Figure 6 shows the microstructure of a SiC-particle reinforced aluminum–matrix composite material. Properties of aluminum-based MMCs can be tailored by varying the nature of constituents and their volume fraction.
Figure 6 SiC-particle reinforced aluminum-matrix composite material (SiC-volume content: 70%), Sorensen (2011).
Aluminum-based MMCs are intended to substitute monolithic materials including aluminum alloys, ferrous alloys, titanium alloys and polymer based composites in several applications. The major advantages of aluminum-based MMCs compared to unreinforced materials are as follows:
• • • • • • • • • •
Greater strength Improved stiffness Reduced density (weight) Improved high-temperature properties Controlled thermal expansion coefﬁcient Thermal/heat management Enhanced and tailored electrical performance Improved abrasion and wear resistance Control of mass (especially in reciprocating applications) Improved damping capabilities.
These advantages can be quantiﬁed for better appreciation. For example, elastic modulus of pure aluminum can be enhanced from 70 GPa to 240 GPa by reinforcing with 60 vol% continuous aluminum ﬁber. On the other hand, incorporation of 60 vol% alumina ﬁber in pure aluminum leads to decrease in the coefﬁcient of thermal expansion from 24 ppm/1C to 7 ppm/1C. Similarly it is possible to process Al–9% Si–20 vol% SiCp composites having wear resistance equivalent or better than that of gray cast iron. All these examples illustrate that it is possible to alter several technological properties of aluminum/aluminum alloy by more than two to three orders of magnitude by incorporating appropriate reinforcement in suitable volume fraction. Figure 7 superimposes curves for the three primary aluminum-based MMCs, ceramic particulate, boron ﬁlament, and graphite tow reinforcements, on the curve for conventional 6061-T6. Although these curves are somewhat idealized, the two uniaxially reinforced continuous ﬁber composites are markedly stiffer and stronger but also show very low ductility-to-fracture. The DWA1 20, ceramic particulate-reinforced composite (25 vol% 6061-T6) shows a more conventional stress–strain response (exhibiting ductility), but shows mechanical properties intermediate between those of the unreinforced material and those of the continuous ﬁber composites. The exact positions and shapes of the composite stress–strain curves can be varied by matrix heat treatment, reinforcement volume percent (vol%), or reinforcement orientation effects. It must also be kept in mind that all continuously reinforced composite material exhibits anisotropic characteristics. In Figure 7, if the transverse direction stress–strain curves for the boron–aluminum material were to be included, it would be relegated to the extreme lower left-hand corner of the chart: strength 152 MPa, modulus B145 GPa, erB0.4%. Similarly, the graphite–aluminum composite transverse stress–strain response shows even lower mechanical characteristics.
Figure 7 Comparative stress–strain curves of a 6061 aluminum alloy and the aluminum-based composites, Chawla (2012).
Over the years, aluminum–matrix composites have been used in numerous structural, non-structural and functional applications in different engineering sectors. Driving force for the utilization of aluminum–matrix composites in these sectors include performance, economic and environmental beneﬁts. The key beneﬁts of aluminum-based MMCs composites in transportation
sector are lower fuel consumption, less noise and lower airborne emissions. With increasing strict environmental regulations and emphasis on improved fuel economy, use of aluminum-based MMCs in transportation sector will be inevitable and desirable in the coming years, Capel et al. (2000). The aluminum-based MMCs are very attractive for their isotropic mechanical properties (higher than their unreinforced alloys) and their low costs (cheap processing routes and low prices of some of the discontinuous reinforcement such as SiC particles or Al2O3 short ﬁbers).
Magnesium-based MMCs The increasing demand for lightweight and high-performance materials is likely to increase the need for magnesium-based MMCs. The MMCs based on magnesium alloys, in particular Mg–Al system, are excellent candidates for engineering light structure materials, and have great potential in civic, military and aerospace applications. The potential applications of magnesium–matrix composites in the automotive industry include their use in disk rotors, piston ring grooves, gears, gearbox bearings, connecting rods, and shift forks. One of the drawbacks of magnesium MMC is higher production costs due to more complicated manufacturing processes. To address this, the use of low cost materials, alloys and reinforcements can provide room for this class of low density materials into the market. The development of a wide range of reinforcing materials and new processing techniques are among top interests in highperformance magnesium materials. The magnesium-based MMCs uni-directionally reinforced with continuous carbon ﬁber can readily show a bending strength of 1000 MPa with a density as low as 1.8 g cm3 (Capel et al., 2000; Ottinger et al., 1995; Hausmann et al., 1998). The superior mechanical property can be retained at elevated temperatures of up to 350–400 1C (Kagawa and Nakata, 1992; Diwanji and Hall, 1992; Ottinger et al., 1997). In some magnesium alloys, formation of a composite may be the only effective approach to strengthening. Mg–Li binary alloys with eutectic composition, for instance, are composed of HCP (a) and BCC (b) solid solution phases. The dissolution of Li into Mg causes a partial solid solution strengthening effect without the formation of any Mg–Li precipitates during the cooling process, Ye and Liu (2004). Therefore, heat treatment is not an effective way to improve mechanical properties of these alloys. Considering this, the incorporation of thermally stable reinforcements into composite materials makes them applicable for elevated-temperature applications. Mg–Al alloys such as AM60 and AZ91 are presently the most prevalent magnesium alloys utilized in the automotive industry. They are also the most widely studied matrix for magnesium-based composites. Other magnesium materials, such as pure magnesium, Mg–Li alloy, and Mg–Ag–Re (QE22) alloys, have also been employed as a matrix material, though less frequently. Ceramic particles are the most widely studied reinforcement for magnesium–matrix composites. Some common properties of ceramic materials make them desirable for reinforcements. These properties include low density and high levels of hardness, strength, elastic modulus, and thermal stability. However, they also have some common limitations such as low wettability, low ductility, and low compatibility with a magnesium matrix. Among the various ceramic reinforcements, SiC is the most popular one because of its relatively high wettability and its stability in magnesium melt, as compared to other ceramics. Figures 8 and 9 show optical image of the as-cast AZ91D-based composite with 50 vol% Mg2B2O5 whiskers and scanning electron micrograph of AZ91 based composite reinforced with SiC particles, respectively.
Figure 8 Optical image of the as-cast AZ91D-based composite with 50 vol% Mg2B2O5 whiskers, Chen et al. (2010).
Copper-based MMCs When Al2O3 particles are dispersed in copper matrix, unique characteristics can be achieved (i.e., high thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as high strength and excellent resistance to annealing), Motta et al. (2001). The applications encompass resistance welding electrodes, lead frames and electrical connectors, Nishi et al. (1998). The materials for electronic packaging and thermal management applications should have compatible coefﬁcients of thermal expansion (CTE) with those of semiconductors or ceramic substrates, high thermal conduction and excellent mechanical properties. Due to the high thermal conductivity of copper and low CTE of SiC, CuSiC MMC can be made to serve as a good solution for thermal management. Semiconductors and ceramics have CTE in the range of 2–7 ppm/1C. Traditional low-CTE materials like copper/tungsten (Cu/W), copper/molybdenum (Cu/Mo), copper–Invar–copper (Cu/I/Cu) and copper–molybdenum–copper (Cu/Mo/Cu) have high densities and thermal conductivities that are little or no better than that of aluminum; Bukhari et al. (2011). Density, thermal conductivity and CTE concerns mentioned above can be copped by using copper silicon carbide (CuSiC)
Figure 9 Scanning electron micrograph of AZ91 metal matrix composite reinforced with SiC particles, Trojanová et al. (2011).
based MMCs. Copper silicon carbide composites provide a good compromise between thermo-mechanical properties and high conductivity. They have lower density than copper, very good thermal conductivity, low CTE and good machinability. A CuSiC based MMC heat spreader will offer high thermal conductivity between 250 W/m K and 325 W/m K and corresponding adjustable CTE between 8.0 ppm/1C and 12.5 ppm/1C; Zweben and Schmidt (1989). However, the primary challenge of CuSiC manufacturing is to prevent reaction between copper and silicon carbide during high-temperature densiﬁcation, which dramatically degraded the thermal conductivity.
Titanium-based MMCs Ti-MMCs reinforced by continuous SiC ﬁber are being developed for aerospace applications in several countries, including the USA, UK, France, and China, Peng (2005). Ti-MMCs provide outstanding mixture of stiffness, speciﬁc strength, fatigue and creep resistance at elevated temperatures, Hooker and Doorbar (2003). Owning to the active nature of Ti, several solid-state processing techniques have been developed to date for manufacturing Ti-MMCs, Guo and Derby (1995); Guo (1998), including the foil-ﬁberfoil (FFF) method, matrix-coated mono-tape (MCM) method and the matrix-coated ﬁber (MCF) method. A maximum ﬁber volume fraction up to 80% has been achieved with very uniform ﬁber distribution in MCF. The research on the MCF method has been mainly concentrated on the consolidation behavior of MCFs with the aim to optimize the processing parameters. Table 2 compares physical and mechanical properties of a Ti alloy and a Ti-MMC. Figure 10 shows the microstructure of an SiC reinforced titanium matrix composite. Table 2
Physical and mechanical properties of a Ti alloy and a Ti-MMC
Density, gr/cm3 Tensile strength (longitudinal), MPa Young's modulus (longitudinal), GPa Tensile strength (transverse), MPa Young's modulus (transverse), GPa Compression strength, MPa High cycle fatigue (longitudinal), R ¼0.1 and 30 Hz Tensile strength at 315.5 1C, MPa
4.54 931 117 931 117 931 107 cycles @ 482 MPa 552
3.93 1689 200 400 145 44481 107 cycles @ 531 MPa 1379
Super alloy-based MMCs The primary application for super alloy matrix composites is gas turbine blades. By enhancing the material operating temperatures and stresses of turbine blades, an increase in the performance and a reduction in the operating cost can be achieved. Several composites have been chosen for developments of the next generation of turbine blade materials. Refractory alloy wire reinforced super alloys have been investigated, for instance, for elevated-temperature applications. Solid state diffusion bonding and liquid phase inﬁltration techniques have been used to produce composite samples. Mono-layers tape has been produced using techniques and equipment similar to that used for Ti–matrix composites.
Figure 10 Microstructures of a SiC reinforced titanium matrix composite, Poletti et al. (2008).
In the ﬁeld of super alloy matrix composites, there have been several recent extensive reviews of progress in the development of Nb-silicide-based composites (Figure 11 shows the microstructure of a Nb-silicide-based composites). In the elevated-temperature applications, for the next generation of jet engines, Nb- and Mo-silicide-based composites are among the best candidates, Bewlay et al. (2003). The melting points of the silicide containing composites based on these systems are in excess of 1750 1C. Densities of the Nb-silicide-based composites are in the range of 6.6–7.2 g/cc The ambient-temperature fracture toughness of Nb-silicide-based composite systems has been reported as being above 20 MPa m1/2 (Bewlay et al., 2003) while values for the preliminary creep and oxidation properties indicate that Nb-silicide-based composites could, with further development, be integrated into blade designs with substantial payoffs in weight and cooling-air savings, relative to fourth generation super alloy blade designs.
Figure 11 Backscattered electron image of a Nb-silicide composite (a two-phase composite of Nb and Nb3Si), Bewlay et al. (2003).
Oxide (ceramic)-ﬁber-reinforced super alloys are another important class of composites being studied for high-temperature applications. Single crystal aluminum-oxide super alloys based composites are produced commercially for research activity purposes. Productions rates are relatively slow and ﬁber unit cost is quite high and composite properties suitable for industrial applications have yet to be demonstrated.
Reinforcement Reinforcement phase is stronger than the matrix, and it is why it is called reinforcing phase. Reinforcement (reinforcing phase) is generally supposed to possess following characteristics (Chawala, 2012):
• • • • • • •
Low density Good mechanical and chemical compatibility Good thermal stability High Young's modulus High compression and tensile strength Good process ability Economic efﬁciency
Generally, non-metal inorganics components (i.e., ceramic particles, carbon ﬁbers) can provide acceptable combinations of above properties. Continuous, aligned ﬁbers are the most efﬁcient reinforcement form and are widely used, especially in highperformance applications. However, for ease of fabrication and to achieve speciﬁc properties, such as improved through-thickness strength, continuous ﬁbers are converted into a wide variety of reinforcement forms using textile technology. Most of the ﬁbrous reinforcements are made of brittle ceramics or carbon, i.e., glass ﬁber, carbon (graphite) ﬁber, boron ﬁbers, silicon carbide ﬁbers,
alumina ﬁber, aramid ﬁbers, and high density polyethylene ﬁbers. Figure 12 shows most commonly used reinforced materials and their usage volume in MMC.
Figure 12 Main reinforced materials and their usage volume in metal–matrix composites, Adebisi et al. (2011).
On the basis of reinforcement, composites are classiﬁed to (Figure 13):
Figure 13 Classiﬁcation of composites based on reinforcement phases, Singh et al. (2014).
Particulate Composites Particulate Composites consist of a matrix reinforced by a dispersed phase in form of particles. (i) Composites with random orientation of particles. (ii) Composites with preferred orientation of particles; dispersed phase of these materials consists of two-dimensional ﬂat platelets (ﬂakes), laid parallel to each other. Fibrous composites (i) Short-ﬁber reinforced composites; these composites consist of a matrix reinforced by a dispersed phase in form of discontinuous ﬁbers (length o 100 diameter). Short-ﬁber reinforced composites are further classiﬁed to randomly oriented ﬁbers and preferably oriented ﬁbers. (ii) Long-ﬁber reinforced composites; these composites consist of a matrix reinforced by a dispersed phase in form of continuous ﬁbers. Long-ﬁber reinforced composites are further classiﬁed to unidirectional oriented ﬁbers and bidirectional oriented of ﬁbers (i.e., woven). laminated Composites
In laminar composites the layers of reinforcement are stacked in a speciﬁc pattern to obtain required properties in the resulting composite piece. These layers are called plies or laminates. Laminates can be composed of reinforcement material which may be non-woven, braided, ﬁber reinforced, matt, 2D-woven, 3D-woven, and unidirectional ﬁbers (Figure 14).
Figure 14 Various conﬁgurations of ﬁber reinforcements, Singha and Singha (2012).
MMCs are generally distinguished by characteristics of the reinforcement. The reinforcing phase can be ﬁbrous, plate like, or equiaxed (having equal dimensions in all directions), and its size can also vary widely, from about 0.1 mm to more than 100 mm. In particular, reinforcements used MMCs fall in ﬁve categories (Figure 15): continuous ﬁbers, short ﬁbers, whiskers, equiaxed particles, and interconnected networks. Table 3 displays typical reinforcements used in MMCs.
Figure 15 Types of reinforcement ﬁbers used in MMCs (A) Continuous ﬁbers (B) discontinuous ﬁbers (C) whiskers (D) particulates.
Typical reinforcements used in metal–matrix composites
Particle Short ﬁber (whisker) Continuous ﬁber Nanoparticle Nanotube
1–4 10–10000 41000 1–4 41000
1–25 mm 1–5 mm 3–150 mm o100 nm o100 nm
Sic, Al2O3, BN, WC C, SiC, Al2O3, SiO2 þ Al2O3 SiC, Al2O3, C, B, W, Nb þ Ti, Nb3Sn C, Al2O3, SiC C
Source: Chawla, 2012.
Developing Trends and Design Consideration of MMCs The need for developing MMCs for use in high-performance structural and functional applications, i.e., aerospace and defense industries, automotive and transportation sectors have signiﬁcantly raised recently. This trend is expected to increase steadily in the coming years (Figure 16). The need to develop new materials with combinations of low density, improved stiffness and high
strength, in order to overcome the limitations of existing alloys, improves the design procedures and results in improvements in overall efﬁciency, reliability and performance. This can be achieved by reducing either absolute weight or increases in strength-toweight ratio. For this purpose, materials of high ultimate tensile strength, high stiffness, high yield strength and low density are required.
Figure 16 The global MMC market (USDOC, USCAR, Composite World, Composite UK, Transparency Market Research), Researchmoz Global Pvt. Ltd. All the products and end-user segments have been analyzed based on present and future trends and the market has been estimated from 2012 to 2019. Regional segmentation includes the current and forecast demand for North America, Europe, Asia Paciﬁc and Rest of the world.
By proper selection of MMCs, as multiphase materials, it becomes possible to meet the challenging needs of speciﬁc designs. Within broad limits, for instance, it is possible to specify mechanical characteristics, i.e., strength and stiffness in one direction, and physical properties, i.e., CTE in another direction (this is hardly achievable in monolithic (isotropic) materials). Among different classes of MMCs, particulate-reinforced MMCs tend to be isotropic (like metals). However, their ductility and fracture toughness are signiﬁcantly less than monolithic materials due to presence of brittle reinforcements and oxides. The properties of composites reinforced with whiskers depend strongly on their orientation. Randomly oriented whiskers produce an isotropic material. However, processes like extrusion will re-orient whiskers resulting in anisotropic properties. Whiskers also reduce ductility and fracture toughness. MMCs reinforced with aligned ﬁbers have anisotropic properties. They are stronger and stiffer in the direction of the ﬁbers than perpendicular to them. The transverse strength and stiffness of unidirectional MMCs, however, are frequently great enough for use in components such as stiffeners and struts. This is one of the major advantages of MMCs over PMCs, which can rarely be used without transverse reinforcement. As the modulus and strength of metal matrixes are signiﬁcant with respect to those of most reinforcing ﬁbers, their contribution to composite behavior is important. The stress–strain curves of MMCs often show signiﬁcant nonlinearity resulting from yielding of the matrix. Another factor that has a signiﬁcant effect on the behavior of ﬁber-reinforced metals is the frequently large difference in CTE between the two constituents. This can cause large residual stresses in composites when they are subjected to signiﬁcant temperature changes. In fact, during cool down from processing temperatures, matrix thermal stresses are often severe enough to cause yielding. Large residual stresses can also be produced by mechanical loading. Although ﬁbrous MMCs may have stress–strain curves displaying some nonlinearity, they are essentially brittle materials, as are PMCs. In the absence of ductility to reduce stress concentrations, joint design becomes a critical design consideration. Numerous methods of joining MMCs have been developed, including metallurgical and polymeric bonding and mechanical fasteners.
Microstructure of MMCs The microstructure of a MMC comprises the structure of matrix and reinforcement. The key features in the microstructure of a composite material, resulting from the interaction between the matrix and the reinforcement. This usually includes type, size, and distribution of secondary reinforcing phases, matrix grain size, matrix and secondary phase interfacial characteristics, and microstructural defects. The mechanical properties of the composite materials are also strongly inﬂuenced by these factors.
Figure 17 shows typical microstructures of different particle reinforced aluminum-based composite materials. As seen, depending on the processing methods, reinforced particle distributions vary. The option of combining particles and ﬁbers to make a hybrid-reinforced composite with the effects of both reinforcement components is shown in Figure 18. In multi-ﬁlament-strengthened composite materials (Figure 19) the ﬁber/ﬁber contacts and non-reinforced areas are recognizable as a result of the inﬁltration of ﬁber bunch preforms. Structural defects, like ﬁber/ﬁber contacts, pores and non-reinforced areas are visible, which have a substantial inﬂuence on the composite characteristics. Figure 20 shows the optical structure of a SiC monoﬁlament/Ti composite material.
Figure 17 Arrangement of typical structures of different particle reinforced composites, Kainer (2006); (a) SiC-particle reinforced aluminum (mold cast), (b) SiC-particle reinforced aluminum (die cast), (c) SiC-particle reinforced aluminum (extruded powder mixture), (d) SiC-particle reinforced aluminum (cast and extruded).
Figure 18 Structure of formation of hybrid reinforced light metal composite materials with C short ﬁbers and Mg2Si particles, Kainer (2006).
Physical and Mechanical Properties Composite properties depend ﬁrst and foremost on the nature of the composite. Composites are classiﬁed as complex, heterogeneous, and often anisotropic material systems. Their properties are affected by many variables including reinforcement form, volume fraction, geometry, distribution, matrix/reinforcement interface, void content, and manufacturing process. Hereby, representative mechanical and physical properties of MMCs at ambient temperature (i.e., room temperature) are presented for a broad range of mechanical engineering applications.
Mechanical properties of MMCs By reinforcing metals and alloys with continuous/discontinuous ﬁbers, whiskers, and particles, higher strength and stiffness as well as better wear resistance can be achieved. Figure 21 compares the tensile curves for a typical reinforced material, and a conceptual ﬁber-reinforced MMC as well as a matrix material (i.e., a metal or alloy). Adding hard, brittle reinforcement particle to a ductile metal matrix can strengthen the
Figure 19 Structure of a unidirectional endless ﬁber reinforced aluminum composite material (transverse grinding): matrix: AA 1085, 52 vol% 15mm Altex-ﬁber (Al2O3), Kainer (2006).
Figure 20 Structure of a titan matrix composite material of SiC monoﬁlaments, World of MMC asses, http://mmc-assess.tuwien.ac.at/mmc.
Figure 21 Schematic representation of tensile curves of matrix and reinforcement as compared with composite material, Ashby (2005).
metal signiﬁcantly. When tensile stress is applied parallel to the ﬁber direction in a continuous ﬁber MMC, both ﬁber and matrix deform elastically. By keep applying higher stresses, the matrix undergoes plastic deformation while the ﬁbers are still in the elastic regime. If the ﬁbers possess some ductility, both matrix and ﬁbers deform plastically; however, ﬁbers break without experiencing plastic deformation. As the ﬁbers fracture, the load is transferred back to the weaker matrix, and the composite fails immediately.
The MMCs exhibit higher strength because they are able to transfer much of the loads to the strong reinforcement particles, reducing the stress carried by the matrix. The ﬁber–matrix interphase properties must be carefully tailored and maintained over the life of the composite to obtain the desirable behaviors. The strength of MMCs depends upon a much more complex manner on composite microstructure. In this section the main mechanical properties of MMCs including modulus of elasticity, elongation, strength, fatigue, and creep are brieﬂy discussed.
Modulus of elasticity
The stiffness, which is proportional to the elastic modulus, of a MMC increases with introducing of reinforcement. Type and volume fraction of reinforcement are the main factors contributing the elastic behavior of a composite. For instance, in a unidirectional reinforced continuous ﬁber MMC, the longitudinal Young's modulus increases linearly as a function of the ﬁber volume fraction according to: Ec ¼ Vr Er þ Vm Em
where E is the elastic modulus, V is the volume fraction and c, m, and r are indexes for the composite, matrix, and reinforcement, respectively. Figure 22 shows an example of modulus increase as a function of ﬁber volume fraction for an alumina ﬁber-reinforced aluminum lithium alloy matrix composite, Champion et al. (1978). The increase in the longitudinal Young's modulus is in agreement with the rule-of-mixtures value, whereas the modulus increase in a direction transverse to the ﬁbers is much lower. Particle reinforcement also results in an increase in the modulus of the composite; the increase, however, is much less than that predicted by the rule-of-mixtures. This is understandable inasmuch as the rule of mixtures is valid only for continuous ﬁber reinforcement. The relatively high cost of many continuous reinforcing ﬁbers used in MMCs has limited the application of these materials.
Figure 22 Modulus increase as a function of ﬁber volume fraction Vf for alumina ﬁber-reinforced aluminum lithium alloy matrix for (a) E (elastic modulus), and (b) smax, Champion et al. (1978).
The most widely used MMCs are reinforced with discontinuous ﬁbers or particles. For discontinuously reinforced MMCs: Ec ¼
Em ð1 þ 2sqVr Þ 1 qVr
ðEr =Em 1Þ ðEr =Em Þ þ 2s
where s is the particle aspect ratio. Figure 23 shows materials property (Ashby) plot of Young's modulus vs. density for different classes of materials including composites.
Strength The introduction of reinforcements to matrix alloy generally enhances both yield and ultimate tensile strength. The strength of a ﬁber-reinforced composite is determined by fracture processes, themselves governed by a combination of microstructural phenomena and features. These include plastic deformation of the matrix, the presence of brittle phases in the matrix, the
Figure 23 Young's modulus versus density for different classes of materials, Ashby (2005).
strength of the interface, the distribution of ﬂaws in the reinforcement, and the distribution of the reinforcement within the composite. Consequently, predicting the strength of the composite from that of its constituent phases is generally difﬁcult. In some cases, the improvements are dramatic. The greatest increases in strength and modulus are achieved with continuous ﬁbers. Figure 24 shows Ashby plot, strength vs. density for different classes of materials including composites. Elongation Elongation of the MMCs is generally less than matrix alloy. For instance, the elongation of a 6061-T6 aluminum alloy is about 12%; by adding 15 vol% Al2O3 particles to this alloy, the elongation drops to 5.4%. This is mainly due to the fact that the composite failure is associated with particle cracking and void formation in the matrix within the particle clusters. Also, in MMCs, the strain in the matrix is constrained with surrounding reinforcement phases (i.e., particles, ﬁbers). Size, type, distribution of particles, matrix microstructure, and nature of matrix-reinforcement interface are the main contributing factors in MMCs' ductility. Fatigue Fatigue life of composites is signiﬁcantly increased by adding the reinforcements. The range of the stress intensity factor, DK, for Al–SiCp is between 2 and 4 MPa m1/2 which is twice that of unreinforced aluminum (1–2 MPa m1/2). The fatigue resistance of long-ﬁber reinforced MMCs is larger than that of unreinforced metals when loaded in tension along the ﬁber axis. Crack deﬂection and reduction in slip band formation are the main contributing factors to the superior fatigue properties of MMCs. In terms of general S N curve behavior, a composite such as a silicon carbide particle-reinforced aluminum-based MMC shows an improved fatigue behavior compared to the reinforced alloy, Figure 25; Chawla et al. (1998). Such an improvement in stress controlled cyclic loading or high cyclic fatigue is attributed to the higher stiffness of the composite. However, the fatigue behavior of the composite, evaluated in terms of strain amplitude vs. cycles or low cycle fatigue, was found to be inferior to that of the unreinforced alloy; Bonnen et al. (1990). This was attributed to the lower ductility of the composite compared to the unreinforced alloy. At elevated temperatures, particularly close to the aging temperature for age hardenable alloys, the matrix strength decreases resulting in a decrease in fatigue strength, Figure 26; Chawla et al. (1999). Fracture toughness Fracture toughness of particulate composites generally decreases with increase in particle size at a given volume fraction and inter-particle spacing. Fracture toughness decreases with increasing tensile strength for cast composites, whereas it increases by 70–100% for forged ones over that of cast ones. This increase in toughness with increasing amount of particulates is related to blunting of the original crack tip caused by the void nucleated over the particles. While the crack tip radius increases, the stress
Figure 24 Strength versus density for different classes of materials, Ashby (2005).
Figure 25 Stress versus cycles (S–N) behavior of a particle reinforced MMC. With increasing volume fraction of particles the fatigue strength of the composite increases, Chawla et al. (1998).
concentration at crack tip decreases resulting in combined increase in facture toughness values. Unidirectional ﬁbers reinforcement can lead to easy crack initiation and propagation vis-à-vis the unreinforced alloy matrix. Braiding of ﬁbers can make the crack propagation toughness increase largely due to extensive matrix deformation, ﬁber bundle deboning, and pull out. Figure 27 shows Ashby plot of fracture toughness vs. Young's modulus for different classes of materials including composites. Creep It has been reported that the creep resistance of Al9Si3Cu/25 vol% Al2O3 composites at 400 1C increased by 100% compared to that of unreinforced alloys. The dependence of creep rate on both stress level and temperature is more in the composites compared to the matrix metal/alloy. The whisker-reinforced composites are more creep resistance than particulate composites.
Figure 26 Elevated-temperature fatigue behavior of a particle reinforced MMC. With increasing temperature, the matrix strength decreases resulting in decreased fatigue resistance (aging temperature was 175 1C), Chawla et al. (1999).
Figure 27 Fracture toughness vs. Young's modulus for different materials including composites, Ashby (2005).
The addition of short-ﬁber reinforcement enhances the creep strength due to effective load transfer to the ﬁbers; Bhatnagar and Srivatsan (2009). Whisker or particle reinforcement also results in signiﬁcant creep strengthening over the unreinforced alloy, Figure 28; Nardone and Strife (1987). Anomalously high values of the activation energy, Q, and stress exponent, n, have been reported in MMCs; Chawla and Chawla (2013); Nardone and Strife (1987). Nardone and Strife (1987) rationalized this by proposing the concept of a threshold stress sr, for creep deformation, originally used to explain the high values for Q and n in dispersion-strengthened alloys. The physical explanation for the threshold stress in the discontinuously reinforced composite system can be attributed to a variety of reasons, Russell and Lee (2005): (1) Orowan bowing between particles, (2) back-stress associated with dislocation climb, (3)
Figure 28 Steady-state creep rate as a function of applied stress for SiC-particle and SiC whisker-reinforced Al–matrix composites, Nardone and Strife (1987).
attractive force between dislocations and particles, resulting from relaxation of the strain ﬁeld of dislocations at the particle/matrix interface.
Physical Properties of MMCs Density, CTE, and thermal conductivity are among most commonly discussed physical properties of composites. Composites are considered multi-functional materials; among the family of composites, there are an increasing number of material systems than combine superior physical properties including high thermal conductivity along with low density and adaptable CTE as well as excellent mechanical properties. Physical properties of matrix can be signiﬁcantly altered by addition of a reinforcement and chieﬂy depend on the reinforcement distribution. A good example is aluminum–silicon carbide composites, for which the presence of the ceramic increases, substantially, the elastic modulus of the metal without greatly affecting its density. Elastic moduli for 6061 aluminum–matrix composites reinforced with discrete silicon carbide particles or whiskers have been calculated by using the rule of mixtures for the same matrix reinforced with two types of commercial continuous silicon carbide ﬁbers. As a result, several general facts become apparent; ﬁrst, modulus improvements are signiﬁcant, even with equiaxed silicon carbide particles, which are far less expensive than ﬁbers or whiskers. However, the level of improvement depends on the shape and alignment of the silicon carbide. Also, it depends on the processing of the reinforcement: for the same reinforcement shape (continuous ﬁbers), microcrystalline polycarbosilane-derived SiC ﬁbers yield much lower improvements than do crystalline polycarbosilane SiC ﬁbers. These features, which inﬂuence reinforcement shape, orientation, and processing of modules, are quite general; they are also observed, for example, in MMC reinforced with aluminum oxide or carbon. Table 1 includes physical properties of a variety of unidirectional composites reinforced with carbon ﬁbers, along with those of monolithic copper and 6063 aluminum alloy for comparison. As seen, the speciﬁc axial thermal conductivities of the composites are signiﬁcantly greater than those of aluminum and copper.
Strengthening Methods in MMCs Dislocation strengthening Dislocations' density is higher in the composite matrix than in unreinforced metal with the same history. In a composite, dislocations can be generated by (1) straining in response to an applied load, (2) straining to relax residual thermal stresses caused by CTE mismatches between matrix and reinforcement. The increase in dislocations' density can be written as, Russell and Lee (2005): Ds ¼ 12
where Δr is the increase in dislocation density, Δa is the CTE mismatch, ΔT is the temperature difference, b is Burgers vector, f is the reinforcement volume fraction, and d is particle size. From this equation, the change in matrix yield strength can be estimated: pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Ds ¼ Gb Dr
Therefore the dislocation density and hence matrix strengthening increase with decreasing reinforcement particle size and increasing reinforcement volume fraction.
Orowan strengthening This mechanism strengthens the composite by making subsequent dislocation motion more difﬁcult. Although important in dispersion-strengthened systems, Orowan mechanism does not effectively strengthen other MMCs because in other MMCs the reinforcement phases (particles) are too large and to too far to be considered as effective obstacle to the motion of dislocations. However, Orowan strengthening mechanism can be signiﬁcant in discontinuously reinforced aluminum composites where the particles are ﬁner and closer together and causes increase in the strength of the MMC.
Grain reﬁnement strengthening The MMCs usually possess much ﬁner grain size than that of unreinforced matrix metal. Hall–Petch relationship implies that the beginning of plastic ﬂow in the matrix depends on the local magniﬁcation of stress at grain boundaries resulting from dislocation pile-ups. A small grain size results in fewer dislocations in the pile-ups, and hence the applied stress must be higher to cause yielding.
Fabrication of MMCs For a given MMC application, the processing (fabrication) method is a key factor that determines both cost and properties. The main challenges in fabricating MMCs include (1) ﬁnding a cost effective method to distribute the reinforcement phase in the reinforcement phase in the desired conﬁguration, (2) achieving a strong bond between the matrix and the reinforcement to allow an effective load transfer between phases without any failure. The MMCs can be produced by a variety of fabrication techniques including solid state processes, liquid-state processes and deposition processes. In solid-state processes, the most spread method is powder metallurgy; it is usually used for high melting point matrixes and avoids segregation effects and brittle reaction product formation prone to occur in liquid state processes. This method permits to obtain discontinuously particle reinforced aluminum–matrix composites with the highest mechanical properties. The aluminum– matrix composites are used for military applications but remain limited for large-scale productions. In liquid-state processes, one can distinguish the inﬁltration processes where the reinforcements form a preform which is inﬁltrated by the alloy melt (1) with pressure applied by a piston (squeeze-casting) or by an inert gas (gas pressure inﬁltration) and (2) without pressure. MMC fabrication under no pressure can be subdivide to (1) reactive inﬁltration, in which the wetting between reinforcement and melt is obtained by reactive atmosphere, elevated temperature, alloy modiﬁcation or reinforcement coating and (2) the dispersion processes, such as stir-casting, where the reinforcements are particles stirred into the liquid alloy. Process parameters and alloys are to be adjusted to avoid reaction with particles. In deposition processes, droplets of molten metal are sprayed together with the reinforcing phase and collected on a substrate where the metal solidiﬁcation is completed. This technique has the main advantage that the matrix microstructure exhibits very ﬁne grain sizes and low segregation. This technique however has several drawbacks: the technique can only be used with discontinuous reinforcements, the costs are high, and the products are limited to the simple shapes that by obtained by extrusion, rolling or forging. Another widely used fabrication method comprises spray processes. In this case, a molten metal stream is fragmented by means of a high-speed cold inert-gas jet passing through a spray gun, and dispersoid powders are simultaneously injected. A stream of molten droplets and dispersoid powders is directed toward a collector substrate where droplets recombine and solidify to form a high-density deposit. Depending on the process, the desired microstructure, and the desired part, MMCs can be produced to net or near-net shape; or alternatively they can be produced as billet or ingot material for secondary shaping and processing. Figure 29, schematically, shows different techniques for making MMCs.
Application of MMCs The combined attributes of MMCs, together with the costs of fabrication, vary widely with the nature of the material, the processing methods, and the quality of the product. In engineering, the type of composite used and its application vary signiﬁcantly, as do the attributes that drive the choice of MMCs in design. For example, high speciﬁc modulus, low cost, and high weld-ability of extruded aluminum oxide particle-reinforced aluminum are the properties desirable for bicycle frames. High wear resistance, low weight, low cost, improved high-temperature properties, and the possibility for incorporation in a larger part of unreinforced aluminum are the considerations for design of diesel engine pistons. MMCs are being used in various applications including, Chawla and Chawla (2013):
• • •
Aerospace Transportation Electronics
Figure 29 Methods used to make MMCs (www.what-when-how.com).
• • •
Electric power transmission Recreational products and sporting goods Wear-resistance materials
Figure 30 shows the usage of MMCs per year, broken down by market segment (i.e., automotive, aerospace, consumer products). Note that the ground transportation industry is, by far, the major market segment for MMCs. Applications in this segment include drive shafts, engine components, and brake components. The main constraint in the transportation sector is that it is an extremely cost-sensitive sector. Thus, reducing the manufacturing costs of the MMC components will greatly aid in the replacement of conventional parts. The application of MMCs in aerospace industries is due to the fact that materials with enhanced speciﬁc stiffness and strength can signiﬁcantly increase the performance of the aircraft. The MMCs have been used largely in military and commercial aircrafts. In the F-16 aircraft, for instance, aluminum access doors have been replaced with SiC-particle reinforced MMCs resulted in increased fatigue life. Continuous ﬁber-reinforced MMCs have also been used in military applications, due to high speciﬁc strength, stiffness, and fatigue resistance. SiC monoﬁlament reinforced Ti–matrix composites have been used as nozzle actuator controls for the F119 engine in F-16. The MMC replaced a heavier Inconel 718 in the actuator links and stainless steel in the piston rods. MMCs are being used in commercial aircraft as well. Figure 31 shows an application on the MMCs in the fan-exit guide vane of a Pratt & Whitney engine on a Boing 777. The MMC replaced a Carbon/Epoxy composite that had problems with foreign object damage (FOD). Boeing 787 is the ﬁrst commercial jet transport to be manufactured out of predominantly composite materials. Traditional metallic materials are characterized by the isotropic nature of their material properties (no preferred directions in terms of tensile strength) and the fact that the predominant manufacturing method is based on material removal (milling). Composite
Figure 30 The use of MMCs in different market sectors, Business Communications Company (2006).
Figure 31 Application of a SiC-particle reinforced aluminum-based MMC in the fan-exit guide vane of a Pratt & Whitney engine on a Boeing 777, Chawla and Chawla (2006).
materials, on the other hand, frequently are ﬁbrous and anisotropic. Moreover, the predominant manufacturing methods are based on material deposition rather than removal. Boeing 787 makes greater use of composite materials in its airframe and primary structure than any previous Boeing commercial airplane (Figure 32). Undertaking the design process without preconceived ideas enabled Boeing engineers to specify the optimum material for speciﬁc applications throughout the airframe. The result is an airframe comprising nearly half carbon ﬁber
Figure 32 The percentages of materials used in Boing 787 aircraft, Holley (2013).
reinforced plastic and other composites. This approach offers weight savings on average of 20% compared to more conventional aluminum designs. MMCs have been used in a variety of automotive applications as well. An early MMC application in an automotive engine was a hybrid particulate-reinforced aluminum–matrix composite used as a cylinder liner in the Honda Prelude (Figure 33). The composite consisted of an Al–Si matrix with 12% Al2O3 for wear resistance and 9% carbon lubricity. The composite was integrally cast with the engine block, had improved cooling efﬁciency, and exhibited improved wear and a 50% weight savings over cast iron, without increasing the engine package size.
Figure 33 Hybrid particulate-reinforced aluminum-matrix composite used as a cylinder liner in the Honda Prelude; (a) Prelude engine block, (b) magniﬁed view of cylinder liner, and (c) microstructure of composite showing carbon short ﬁbers (black) and Al2O3 ﬁbers (dark gray), Chawla and Chawla (2006).
The automotive market is a high volume and a high technology market, but costs should be as low as possible. However, there are still a lot of reasons to consider the use of light aluminum composites:
• • • • • • •
Reduction of the weight of engine parts; Increase of the operation temperature of engines; Improvement of the tribological properties of moving and contacting; Components (wear resistance, lubrication); Increase of stiffness and strength, Matching coefﬁcient of thermal expansion (i.e., steel or cast iron in connection with aluminum alloys); The use of related manufacturing techniques (especially for discontinuously reinforced aluminum alloys).
A list of typical MMCs, in particular aluminum–matrix composites, for car applications is given in Table 4. Other current applications are piston parts, cylinder liners and connecting rods. The ﬁrst high volume application is the successful aluminum Toyota-piston ring (Figure 34), reinforced with short Safﬁl ﬁbers and produced by squeeze casting. Both Table 4
Aluminum–matrix composites for car applications, Campbell (2012)
Al-shore ﬁber Al-shore ﬁber
Improved durability Improved durability
Piston combustion bowl Selective reinforcement of motor block Cylinder liner
Abrasion resistance performance, lower cost High-temperature performance High-temperature performance
Improve stiffness, wear resistance, better heat conducting, closer tolerances Speciﬁc strength, speciﬁc stiffness Speciﬁc strength, speciﬁc stiffness
weight saving and increasing wear resistance are the main reasons for the success. An important potential replacement of steel by SiC-particle-reinforced aluminum–matrix composites is in the connecting rod (Figure 35). Near-net-shape sinter-forging was used to fabricate MMCs connecting rods with tensile and fatigue properties comparable to those of extruded materials. Table 5 compares the weight of the MMC connecting rod versus that of the steel rod. A 57% weight savings was achieved with the MMC rod, with a moderate increase in cost.
Figure 34 Selectively Reinforced Automotive Piston.
Figure 35 Cross-section of a passenger car engine showing the location of the connecting rod, Chawla and Chawla (2006).
Figure 36 shows particulate MMCs for use in brake drums and brake rotors, as a replacement for cast iron. The high wear resistance and thermal conductivity coupled with 50–60% weight savings make the MMCs quite attractive for this application. Figure 37 shows another example of the MMCs in automotive applications which is a 6061/Al2O3/20 p composite used as driveshaft in the Corvette. The composite exhibits a 36% increase in speciﬁc modulus over steel.
Table 5 (2006)
Mass comparison of connecting rod for steel and an MMC, Chawla and Chawla
Pine weight (gr) Crank weight (gr) Total weight (gr)
65.2 184.0 249.2
144.7 437.7 582.4
Figure 36 Brake drums and brake rotors made of MMC, Chawla and Chawla (2013).
Figure 37 MMC made driveshaft in the Corvette with 36% increase in speciﬁc modulus over steel, Chawla and Chawla (2013).
Railroad brakes The driving force for lightweight railway vehicles has also prompted the use of high-performance MMCs, Chawla and Chawla (2013). A conventional brake system for a railway vehicle consists of four brake disks, calipers, hand brake, and electromagnetic track brake. This makes up about 20% of the total weight of the bogey. A particulate-reinforced aluminum–matrix composite (AlSi7Mg þ SiC particulates, supplied by Duralcan) is fabricated by a multi-pouring process, where alternating layers of the unreinforced alloy and MMC is cast in successive layers (Figure 38). This contributed to reduced cost by using less MMC and placing the composite in the strategically important region (i.e., in contact with the wearing surface). In this application, the weight is reduced from 115 kg for a spheroidal graphite iron disk to 65 kg for the MMC disk, a weight savings of 43%. The steel brake shows signiﬁcant cracking, while the MMC brake is in relatively good condition.
Electronic and communication applications New generation advanced integrated circuits are generating more heat than previous types. Therefore, the dissipation of heat becomes a major concern in electrical applications. Indeed, thermal fatigue may occur due to a small mismatch of the CTE between the silicon substrate and the heat sink (normally molybdenum). This problem can be solved by using the MMCs with exactly matching coefﬁcients (i.e., aluminum with boron or graphite ﬁbers and aluminum with SiC particles). Besides a low CTE and a high thermal conductivity, the aluminum-based MMCs also have a low density and a high elastic modulus. Figure 39 shows cross-section of an electrical conductor for power transmission including alumina ﬁber (Nextel 610)/Al core strands, Al–Zr alloy outer strands. The core consists of individual wires made from a continuously reinforced aluminum MMC produced by 3 M. The MMC core supports the load for the 54 aluminum wires and also carries a signiﬁcant current, unlike competing steel cores. Hermetic package materials are developed to protect electronic circuits from moisture and other environmental hazards. These packages have often glass-to-metal seals. Therefore, materials with an ‘adjustable’ CTE are required. Al-based MMCs are fulﬁlling this condition, as the CTE is depending upon the volume fraction of the ﬁbers or particles.
Figure 38 Brake rotors for German high speed train ICE-2 made from a particulate-reinforced aluminum alloy (AlSi7Mg þ SiC particulates, supplied by Duralcan), developed by Knorr Bremse AG. Compared to conventional parts made out of cast iron with 115 kg/piece the 65 kg of the MMC rotor offers an attractive weight saving potential: each wagon has 8 brake rotors and in combination with the reduction of un-damped masses a highly efﬁcient component is realized with MMC, Chawla and Chawla (2013); Chawla and Chawla (2006).
Figure 39 Aluminum conductor composite reinforced (ACCR), Campbell (2012).
Sports and leisure market applications The already well known advantages of Al-based composites are leading to several applications in various leisure and sporting goods. Typical applications are ﬁshing rods, tennis and squash rackets, bicycle frames, golf club heads, track and ﬁeld shoes, and cheetah ﬂex-foot (Figure 40).
Figure 40 MMCs in track shoes and Cheetah Flex-Foot Carbon Fiber Reinforced composite.
Table 6 summarizes potential and realistic technical applications of MMC in various industries along with their advantages. Table 6
Potential and realistic technical applications of metal–matrix composites
Aluminum–silicon carbide (particle)
Aluminum–silicon carbide (whiskers)
Piston Brake rotor, caliper, liner Propeller shaft Connecting rod
Aluminum–aluminum oxide (short ﬁbers)
Sprockets, pulleys, and covers Piston ring Piston crown (combustion bowl)
Reduced weight, high strength and wear resistance High wear resistance, reduced weight Reduced weight, high speciﬁc stiffness Reduced reciprocating mass, high speciﬁc strength and stiffness, low coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Reduced weight, high strength and stiffness Wear resistance, high running temperature Reduced reciprocating mass, high creep and fatigue resistance Reduced reciprocating mass, improved strength and stiffness Low friction and wear, low coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Call resistance, reduced friction, wear and weight Reduced weight and wear Reduced weight and wear Reduced weight, improved strength and wear resistance Fatigue resistance, impact strength, temperature resistance Superconducting, mechanical strength, ductility Burn-up resistance
Aluminum–aluminum oxide (long ﬁbers) Copper–graphite Aluminum–graphite Aluminum–titanium carbide (particle) Aluminum–ﬁber ﬂax Aluminum–aluminum oxide ﬁbers– carbon ﬁbers Supper alloy-based composite (Ni– Ni3Nb) Cu–Nb, Cu–Nb3Sn Cu–W
Connecting rod Electrical contact strips, electronics packaging, bearings Cylinder, liner platon, bearings Piston, connecting rod Piston Engine block Turbine blades Super conductor Spot welding electrodes
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Further Reading Chawla, N., Shen, Y.L., 2001. Mechanical behavior of particle reinforced metal−matrix composites. Advanced Engineering Materials 3, 357–370. Surappa, M.K., 2003. Aluminum matrix composites: Challenges and opportunities. Sadhana 28, 319–334.
Relevant Websites http://classes.mst.edu/civeng120/lessons/composite/materials/index.html Introduction to Composite Materials. www.what-when-how.com Metal−matrix composites. www.researchmoz.us ResearchmozGlobal Pvt. Ltd. http://siags.siam.org/siaggd/problems/grandine/ Siags. www.classes.mst.edu The human body. http://mmc-assess.tuwien.ac.at/mmc Worldof MMC asses.