96/02506 Liquefaction of coals and its apparatus Nakagawa, A. and Sakawa, M. (Assigned to) Shinnippon Seitetsu KK, JAP. Pat. JP.07,238,287, Sep. 1995. The apparatus consists of vibration generators on a part of the Pd fine tubes. The coal slurries containing coal and solvents are supplied with molecular H in Pd fine tubes by pressing to generate atmospheric Hand reacted for liquefaction, where the process comprises vibrating the Pd fine tubes. The method prevents formation of precipitate on Pd surfaces and gives products with high efficiency. 96/02507 Local density ot acid sites as a controlling factor of deactivation of mordenlte In methanol conversion Into hydrocarbons Satsuma, A. et al., Prepr.-Am. Chern. Soc., Div. Pet. Chem., 1995,40, (4), 570-575. Discusses MeOH conversion to gasoline over H-mordenite, and the effects of alkaline earth metal incorporation and dealurnination on coking deactivation and time-onstream. Dealumination decreased the number and strength of the strong acid sites and retarded deactivation; Ba-exchange further decreased the number of strong acid sites and increased the amount of medium acid sites. However, the slower deactivation observed with Baexchanged dealuminated mordenite could not be interpreted only in terms of the total amount and strength of acid sites. 96/02508 Mathematical modeling ot drying of liquids/solid slurries In steady state one-dimensional flow Levi-Hevroni, D. et al., Drying Technol., 1995, 13, (5), J 187-1201. Describes the development of a mathematical model of simultaneous mass, heat and momentum transfer for two-phase flow of a gas and a solid/liquid slurry. The model was applied to calculation of the drying process of coalwater slurry droplets in a gas medium in a steady one-dimensional flow. The model was based on the well-known two-stage drying process for slurry droplets. 96/02509 Method for the hydro isomerization processing of feedstocks from the Flscher·Tropsch process Mignard, S. et al., (Assigned to) lnstitut Francais du Petrole, PCT. Int. WO.95,27,020, Oct. 1995. A method for the hydroisomerization processing of feedstocks from the Fischer- Tropsch process.
Liquid fuels (derived liqUid fuels)
96/02515 Production ot synthetic liquid fuel from coals Osipov, A. M. and Shendrik, T. G. Ekotekhnol. Resursosberezhenie, 1995, (1), 3-11. (In Russian) Discusses the direct and indirect coal liquefaction processes and their economic and environmental aspects. Concludes that in 5-10 years some of the coal technologies will be capable of replacing petroleum products. 96/02516 Promoting coal hydroliquefactlon through co-use of water and dispersed molybdenum sulfide catalyst Byrne, R. and Song, C. Prepr. Pap.-Am. Chern. Soc., Div. Fuel Chem., 1995,40, (3), 537-441. The authors found that there were strong synergistic effects between water and a disperse molybdenum sulphide catalyst (2 wt.% Mo) for promoting the low temperature (350°C) liquefaction of both Wyodak subbituminous and Pittsburgh No.8 bituminous coals. Relative to the catalytic runs of the dried coal, the co-use of catalyst and water (at water-coal 0.46: 1) can more than double the coal conversion at 350°C for 30 min from 29.8 to 66.5 wt.% for Wyodak coal. In the case of Pittsburgh No.8 coal, under the same prevailing conditions, the overall improvement in conversion on addition of water to the catalytic run is less dramatic, i.e. from 25.1 to 48.0 wt.%. 96/02517 Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels Srivastava, R. D. et al., Prepr. Pap.-Am. Chern. Soc., Div. Fuel Chem., 1995, 40, (3), 513-519. The paper discusses how in the foreseeable future, liquid hydrocarbon fuels will playa significant role in the transportation sector of both the USA and the world. Factors favouring these fuels include convenience, high energy density, and the vast existing infrastructure for their production and use. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports from countries with developing economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be alleviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base.
96/02510 Microbially formed catalysts for enhancement of direct coal liquefaction Kermode, R. I. et al., Chern. Eng. Commun., 1995,131,173-187. The paper examines the potential to biologically precipitate active catalytic compounds on the surface of coal particles in a water slurry. These compounds could be active forms of iron, as element abundant in coal, or active forms of molybdenum added as a soluble salt.
96/02518 Rheology of coal-water mixtures containing petroleum coke Vitolo, S. et aI., Fuel, Feb. 1996,75, (3), 259-261. The influence of the addition of petroleum coke as a micronized fraction to coal-water mixtures (CWM) was observed by rheological characterization at different temperatures. The addition of petroleum coke in this form improves the rheological properties of CWM at room temperature.
96/02511 Molecular diffusion coefficients and effective dlffusivities of 1-octene in supercrltical ethane in relation to Fischer·Tropsch synthesis Eaton, A. et al., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1995,40, (6),1293-1297. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis employing supercritical fluid reaction media offers mass transfer advantages over conventional processes. Data are needed to calculate effective diffusivities in catalyst pores, for which molecular diffusion coefficients in the supercritical media as well as the catalyst porosity and tortuosity are required. The Taylor dispersion technique was used to measure the molecular diffusion coefficients.
96/02519 Sodium metalcarbonylates as potential catalysts for coal liquefaction involving CO/H 20 or H2 Burgess, C. E. et al., Prepr. Pap.-Am. Chern. Soc., Div. Fuel Chem., 1995, 40, (3), 564-568. Discusses how the use of sodium cobalt tetracarbonyl with LYROM coal does increase coal conversions from baseline conditions for both COlHzO reactions and hydrogenation reactions; but adding cobalt acetate and alkali as separate precursors gives much higher conversion.
Molybdenum hexacarbonyl as a catalyst precursor
tor direct coal liquefaction Warzinski, R. P. and Bockrath, B. C. Prepr. Pap. -Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Fuel Chem., 1995, 40, (3), 569-573. The results presented show that MO(CO)6 forms a finely divided active catalyst for coal liquefaction even in the absence of added liquids or special impregnation procedures. Experiments with MO(CO)6 in an H/H2S mixture shows that the onset of hydrogenation activity related to methanation in the microautoclave system begins near 280°C and increases dramatically at about 350°C. Primary dissolution of coal assisted by the catalyst follows the same pattern; a small catalytic effect is observed at 325°C that increases in magnitude with temperature.
96/02513 Process design of a novel continuous-mode minipilot plant, for direct liquefaction of coal and upgrading of coal liquids Vijay, P. et al., Prepr. Pap.-Am. Own. Soc., Div. Fuel Chem., 1995,40, (3), 542-546. Describes the pilot plant for studying coal liquefaction and coal liquids upgrading. 96/02514 Process for the conversion of natural gas Into hydrocarbons Chaumette, P. and Boucot, P. (Assigned to) lnstitut Francais du Petrole, EUR. Pat. EP.679,709, Nov. 1995. Describes a process where natural gas is separated in methane and ethane and the methane-rich fraction is partially oxidized to form a synthesis gas. The ethane-rich fraction and water are then added to the synthesis gas to quench it, and the mixture is then cracked.
96/02520 Solubilization of lignite with superacid (trifluoromethanesulfonic acid)(isopentane at the mild conditions Shimizu, K. et aI., Fuel Process. Tecllllol., 1995, 45, (2), 85-94. Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMS) was found to solubilize lignite and subbituminous coal in the presence of isopentane at temperatures as low as 150° for three h under autogenous pressure (6.1-6.9 MPa) without hydrogen. Yallourn coal gave 63 wt.% pyridine solubles and required more TFMS to achieve the maximum solubility, but the treated Taiheiyo coal could be 90% solubilized in pyridine by the same reaction with TFMS. 96/02521 Status of coal liquefaction technology in Japan Kuznetsov, P. N. et al., Khim. Tverd. Topl. (Moscow), 1995, (4), 18-28. (In Russian) The paper discusses the status of coal liquefaction in Japan.
96/02522 Strategy for large scale solubilization of coal characterization of Neurospora protein and gene Patel, A. et al., Prepr. Pap.-Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Fuel Chem., 1995,40, (3), 547-549. The authors describe a method for the large scale purification of protein from a genetically characterized fungus capable of solubilization of coal. The availability of purified proteins in abundant amount will help in determining the N·terminus sequence of the protein required for the generation of oligonucleotides for the cloning of the gene encoding this protein capable of coal solubilization.
Fuel and Energy Abstracts May 1996