concrete is sprayed water is spontaneously drawn out of the concrete by the silica and the temperature of the mixture is increased by at least 2 K immediately after application to a surface. Continuous process for producing reinforced resin laminates Oizumi, M., Uekira, M., Goto, M., Azumi, U., Uozumi, S., Abe, M., Fushiki, Y., Isshiki, M. and Kawasaki, K. (Kanegafuchi Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Osaka, Japan) US Pat 4 994 133 (19 February 1991) A fibrous cellulosic substrate is impregnated with lo-90 weight% of volatile solvent free liquid unsaturated polyester resin capable of being cured without generating liquid and gaseous by-products. A number of these substrates are laminated together; sandwiched between a pair of covering sheets, at least one is a metal foil capable of permenantly bonded to the substrates ; partially cured and cut into lengths with a guillotine or moveable slicer before fully curing at an elevated temperature. Any distortion in the configuration of the fully cured laminate is corrected by geometrically modifying the warp in two perpendicular directions to form a flat, strain free product. Tubular autoclave for curing composite parts Newsom, C.M. (15517 S. Seaforth Ave, Norwalk, CA, USA) US Pat 4 997 521 (5 March 1991) A cylindrical autoclave for holding and curing a laminate or wound filament workpiece. The autoclave consists of an outer tube with a resilient inner tube and covers at either end, one of which allows access to the inner tube. The workpiece is placed in the inner chamber so formed and subjected to a pressure differential which is applied by means attached to the apparatus. Molybdenum disilicide matrix composite Petrovic, J.J., Carter, D.H. and Gac, F.D. (United States, Department of Energy, Washington, DC, USA) US Pat 5 000 896 (19 March 1991) A homogeneous mixture of molybdenum disilicide powder and silicon carbide whiskers which are 0.1-0.5 pm in diameter and l-5 pm long is placed under 30.5 MPa pressure at a temperature of 1700°C for a time between 5 min and 1 h to form a coherent product.
One piece moulded composite part and method of manufacture Freeman, R.B. (The Budd Company, Troy, MI,USA)USPat5000990(19March1991) A method of manufacturing a moulded vehicle
door which consists of attaching a number of fibrous preforms to a hollow one-piece, thin walled pressurisable support. The whole is placed in a mould and the mould is shut (the support is sufficiently deformable to allow easy shutting of the mould). The support is pressurised and the fibrous pieces are impregnated with resin. The resin is cured and the door removed from the mould.
Process for making reinforce magnesium phosphate fast-setting cements Sherif, F.G. and Gallagher, R.E. (RhonePoulenc Basic Chemicals Co., Shelton, CN, USA) US Pat 5 002 610 (26 March 1991) A porous material is mixed with a liquid P,O, material, dried and milled and then mixed with one ofmagnesium oxide, hydroxide, carbonate or mixtures thereof; 0.25-5 weight% fibres and at least 40 weight% of an aggregate selected from silica, granite, basalt, dolomite, andesite, feldspar, amphibole, pyroxene, olivine, gabbro, rhyolite, syenite, diorite, doleriate, peridolite, trachyte, obsidian, quartz, slag, cinders, flyash, glass cullet, wood chips or mixtures thereof.
Method of production of fibre-reinforced cellular concrete King, J.B. (Pace Technologies, Inc., WinstonSalem, NC, USA) US Pat 5 002 620 (26 March 1991) A first layer of fibre containing relative dense concrete is formed and before it is cured a second layer of fibre and gas bubble containing relatively lightweight concrete is formed on its surface such that the fibres in the two layers are intermingled at the interface. The whole is allowed to cure and cut into sheets and pairs of these sheets are joined by first planing the outer surface of the relatively lightweight concrete, such that the gas bubbles are opened up, then applying a resin and mating the two sheets such that the resin is forced into the open gas bubbles.
Method of producing tyre reinforcing member Ikeda, K. (Bridgestone Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) US Pat 5 002 621 (26 March 1991) Soft chemical fibre cords are passed through a guide plate containing a number of small positioning apertures. They are then wound about a braking means so that they are put under tension after which they extending round a dancer roller. They are then passed through a reciprocatingly moving guide plate into a calendar for rubber coating so that the cords are thus coated with rubber sheets to form the tyre reinforcing member.
Manufacturing composite materials Goldmann, G. and Lindner, W. (Bayer Aktiengesellschaft, Leverkusen-Bayerwerk, Germany) US Pat 5 002 7I2 (26 March 1991) An apparatus and method for manufacturing continuous moulded fibre reinforced thermoplastics comprised of a pressure chamber. The chamber is at least 30 mm long, has an inlet and an outlet end and is maintained at 0.1-80 MPa interior pressure. A fibre structure is introduced through the inlet, impregnated by the thermoplastic melt and shaped by the outlet. Method for forming a fibre composite sealing element Bemis, S. and Stocker, E.E. (The Gates Rubber Company, Denver, CO, USA) US Pat 5 004 513 (2 April 1991) A method for forming a cylindrical piston rubber sealing element comprised of a low stiffness lip portion and a reinforced base portion. The method is as follows: a stock of uncured elastomer and discrete reinforcing fibres with an aspect ratio of l-10 is formed into a unidirectional sheet. This sheet is rolled on itself on a mandrel with the fibres orientated in the direction of rolling to form a volute roll ; a separate mass of uncured elastomer is formed and the two are placed in a mould cavity of the desired shape where the whole is pressurised and heated to form the component. Method of making a composite structural element Sandt, H. (2425 Dogwood La., Orange Park, FL, USA) US Pat 5 004 574 (2 April 1991) A hollow external solid walled tube is filled with a plastic in liquid form whilst dispersing elongated strands of unidirectional fibre reinforcement parallel to the length of the casing. The plastic is then allowed to solidfy to produce the composite structural element. Method for making fibre reinforced plastic tubing Fish, E.B. (Plas/Steel Products, Inc., Walkerton, ID, USA) US Pat 5 006 291 (9 April 1991) A first layer of strands about a stationary mandrel are braided with second and third sets, which have had a layer of a liquid plastic matrix applied to them, are wound oppositely about the mandrel whilst the first set is being stretched longitudinally. The braided layer is drawn through a die orifice whilst a liquid plastic material is applied under pressure so that the strands are fully compacted onto the mandrel. The liquid is confined between the mandrel and an outer die and it is cured whilst the braid is moved along the mandrel to form self-supporting tubing.