Jolly, M., Negaty-Hindi, G. and Haour, G. (Battelle Memorial Institute, Geneva, Switzerland) US Pat 4 995 444 (26 Fehruao' 1991) A self-supporting preform consisting of a porous body or network of cross-linked building constituents with particles or fibres of reinforcing material in the pores is provided and the reinforcing material bonded to the preform with a binder. The whole is placed in a mould where it is infiltrated with a molten metal or alloy. After solidification the resulting composite is separated from the mould.
Method of reinforcing a structural member Wycech, J. (Essex Composite Systems, Roseville, MI, USA) US Pat 4 995 545 (26 February 1991 ) 5 99 weight% of a liquid thermosetting resin, 0.5 90 weight% of a first filler and 0.1 20 weight% of unexpanded, thermally expandable microspheres are combined and blended to form a dough. A n o t h e r dough is similarly formed from 1 0 9 0 weight% of liquid curing agent, 0.5 90 weight% of a second filler and a colourant. These doughs arc blended to form a reactive third dough which is packed into the cavity of the hollow structural member to reinforce it. This dough reacts cxothermicall 5 thereby causing the microspheres and thus the dough to expand until a cross-linked rigid reinforcement is formed. Method for composites from fibre-reinforced thermoplastic materials Duthie, A.C. (Westland Helicopters Ltd, Ycovil, U K ) US Pat 4 995 931 ~26 February 1991) Individual sheets of fibre-reinforced thermoplastic incorporating a co-moulded adherent polymer layer in those areas that are eventually to be joined together are preconsolidated. The sheets are placed and registered in the female part of a mould and the male part of the mould is located in place. The sheets are heated to their melt temperature, the mould is heated at the fusion bonding temperature of the adherent polymer layers and the whole is brought together with pressure being applied to the areas incorporating the adherent polymer layers. The temperature is maintained I\~r a suflticient time for fusion bonding to occur, the inoukl is cooled and the component removed.
Zirconia mullite/boron nitride composites Shafl'er, G.W. (Union Carbide Corporation. Danbury, CT, USA) ('S Pat 4 997 605 (5 March 1991) 10 74 weight% of particulate fused zirconia mullite (containing 25 45 weight% zirconia and 55 75 weight% mullite) and 26 90 weight% of particulate boron nitride are blended and placed in a mould at a temperature of 1680 1710°C and a pressure of 12.8 17.8 MPa. The resulting composite has good thermal shock resistance and is resistant to erosion/corrosion bv lnolten alloys.
Method of producing shaped articles from reinforced composites Cattanach, J.B. and Nield, E. (Imperial Chemical Industries plc, London, UK) US Pat 4 997615 (5 March 1991) Prepregs of continuous, collimated filaments in a thermoplastic matrix are laid up to give a 2D muhidirectional reinforced body. The
body is contained within a pair of thermoplastic sheets, with a m i n i m u m forming temperature that is greater than the m i n i m u m forming temperature of the prepregs, which are restrained about their edges. The whole is heated to a temperature sufficient to allow forming of the sheets and a pressure is applied across the assembly such that the body is shaped, the filaments rearranged and at least one of the sheets adheres to the body.
Method of making metal matrix composites Dwivedi, R.K. and Dick, V. (Lanxide Technology Company, LP, Newark, DE, USA) US Pal 4 998 578 (12 March 1991) A permeable preform of alumina or silicon carbide with a cavity in it is brought into contact with molten aluminium. An oxidation reaction occurs between the aluminium and an oxidant, with the oxidation reaction product being laid down continuously away from the aluminium reservoir to produce an impermeable mould around the cavity. At least some of the excess unreacted metal is removed from the cavity and replaced with a permeable filler of silicon carbide. This filler is brought into contact with either molten aluminium or magnesium and the mould is hermetically sealed for sufficient time to ensure infiltration of the filler with the molten metal. The metal is then allowed to solidify to produce the metal-matrix composite. Reinforced ceramic investment casting shell mould and method of making such a mould Lane, J.M., Corrigan, J. and Crouch, P.D. (Howmet Corporation, Greenwich, CT, USA) US Pat 4 998 581 (12 March 1991) A method of producing a reinforced ceramic shell mould is described. The pattern is dipped into a ceramic slurry to form a coating on the pattern and a stucco is then applied. This is repeated until a certain thickness has been reached. Fibrous reinforcing material is then distributed round the mould before further dipping and stucco application to produce a mould of the desired thickness. The mould is then fired and the reinforcing material remains an integral part of the mould after firing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the reinforcing fibres is less than that of the ceramic.
Inverse shape replication method for forming metal matrix composite bodies and products produced therefrom White, D.R. and Urquhart, A.W. (Lanxide Technology Company, LP, Newark, DE, USA) US Pal 5 000 245 (19 March 1991 A shaped ingot of matrix metal is at least partially surrounded by a non-reactive filler. The ingot is then heated until it is m o h e n and allowed to infiltrate the filler, giving a composite material with a cavity which corresponds, at least in part, to the shaped ingot. Flotation process for the formation of metal matrix composite bodies Dwivcdi, R.K. and Burke, J.T. (Lanxide Technology Company, LP. Newark, DE, USA) US Pat 5 000 246 :'19 March 199l) A permeable preform of non-reactive filler is floated on top of a pool of molten matrix metal so that the molten metal infiltrates the preform to form a composite. Method for forming metal matrix composite bodies with a dispersion casting technique and
products produced thereby Burke, J.T. (Lanxide Technology Company, LP, Newark, DE, USA) US Pat 5 000 247 ( 19 March 1991) At least a portion of a substantially nonreactive filler is spontaneously infiltrated with a molten matrix metal. Additional matrix metal is then supplied to the infiltrated filler.
Method of modifying the properties of a metal matrix composite body Newkirk, M.S., Urquhart, A.W., Aghajanian, M.K. and Mortenson, M.G. (Lanxide Technology Company, LP, Newark, DE, USA) US Pat 5 000 248 (19 March 1991) At least part of a body comprising either a shaped or a loose mass of non-reactive filler is infiltrated with a molten matrix metal. At least part of this body or the matrix metal is then brought into contact with a second metal, thereby modifying at least one property of the infiltrated body. The whole is then cooled to form the metal-matrix composite. Method of forming metal matrix composites by use of an immersion casting technique and product produced thereby Burke, J.T. (Lanxide Technology Company, LP, Newark, DE, USA) US Pat 5000 249 ( 19 March 1991 ) An infiltration-enhancing precursor is supplied to one molten source of parent metal or a preform of substantially non-reactive filler. An infihratiola atmosphere is also supplied and the precursor is reacted with at least one of the species in this atmosphere or a material added to the preform to fl)rm the infiltration enhancer in at least a portion of the preform. The preform is then immersed into the molten metal so thai it is spontaneously infiltrated by the molten metal.
Method of making ceramic composite articles by inverse shape replication of an expendable pattern LaRoche, E.A. and Weinstein, J.G. (kanxide Technology Company, LP, Newark. DE, USA) US Pal 5 000 892 : 19 March 199l) An expendable pattern of a lov, melting metal is packed in a permeable bed o f a conl\)rmable filler which it does not wet. This pattern is removed by melting and replaced with molten parent metal, Maintaining the temperature, the parent metal is progressively reacted with an oxidant whilst it infiltrates the filler. The product is composite comprising the oxidation reaction product and the filler with a cavity in it corresponding the shape of the pattern. Centrifugal casting of metal matrix composites Noordegraaf, J., Alsem. W.H.H., Groenenberg, C.J.R. and Rensen C. (Shell lmernationale Research Maalschappij BV, The Hague, The Netherlands) ('S Pat 5 002 115 (26 March 199l: A molten metal or allo,, is introduced into a mould containing a dispersed filler and the whole is subjected to centrifugal acceleration.
Method of surface bonding materials together by the use of a metal matrix composite, and products produced thereby Park, E.S., Aghajanian, M.K. and Kennedy, C.R. (Lanxide Technology Company, LP, Newark, DE, USA) US Pal 5 004 034:2 AFril 1991) A method for bonding at least two bodies together is claimed, wherein a substantially non-reactive filler is placed between at least a