Microbiological Investigations on Cryopreserved Human Semen

Microbiological Investigations on Cryopreserved Human Semen

1256 PEDIATRIC UROLOGY Microbiological Investigations on Cryopreserved Human Semen C. SCHONBORN AND M. RYTTER, Department of Dermatology, Karl-Marx-...

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Microbiological Investigations on Cryopreserved Human Semen C. SCHONBORN AND M. RYTTER, Department of Dermatology, Karl-Marx-University, Leipzig, Switzerland


Int. J. Androl., 6: 358-366 (Aug.) 1983 Cryopreserved human semen may become contaminated with bacteria and/or fungi before (primary contamination) or during cryopreservation (secondary contamination). This contamination may result in genital infections of the female recipient after artificial insemination as well as damage to the spermatozoa. It is common practice to add antibiotics to the cryoprotective medium to prevent such contamination. The authors conducted a study on cryopreserved human semen to evaluate the incidence and effects of primary and secondary bacterial and fungal contamination. They also studied the efficacy of some antibiotics in the prevention of infection under the conditions of cryopreservation. Random ejaculates of 565 clinically healthy men were used for evaluation of primary mycologic contamination, whereas secondary mycologic contamination was studied in 55 ejaculates after cryopreservation. Secondary bacterial contamination was investigated in 25 ejaculates that were divided into 2 portions: 1 was cryopreserved with and 1 without antibiotics. Both specimens were studied bacteriologically before and after several phases of cryopreservation. A study also was conducted on the influence of the cryopreservation process on inoculated fungi and bacteria using a suspension of various concentrations of yeasts, and the test bacteria Escherichia coli K 12 and Staphylococcus aureus SG 511. The results of microbiological studies before and after cryopreservation were compared. Primary mycologic contamination occurred in 9.8 per cent of 565 specimens studied. However, pathologically significant fungi, namely Candida albicans and Rhodotorula species, were found in only 12 specimens (2.1 per cent). Cryopreservation resulted in a decrease in the concentration of fungi by >90 per cent. These observations suggest that an antifungal agent is not necessary in the cryoprotective medium. The bacteriologic investigations show that the incidence of primary and secondary contamination is low, and that the addition of antibiotics to the cryoprotective medium did not influence the test bacteria. The authors conclude that the incidence of primary as well as secondary mycological and bacterial contamination of semen is low. Fungi are sensitive to the freezing process. Under the conditions of cryopreservation antibiotics added to the cryoprotective medium are not effective against clinically relevant bacterial concentrations. N. S. D. 2 tables, 22 references

Carnitine and Short-Chain Acylcarnitines in the Lumen of the Human Male Reproductive Tract R. GOLAN, Y. SOFFER, S. KATZ, R. WEISSENBERG, 0. WASSERZUG AND L. M. LEWIN, Department of Chemical Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Hashomer, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Assaf HaRofe Hospital, Zerifin, Department of Urology, Ichilov Hospital, Tel Aviv and Institute of Endocrinology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel

Int. J. Androl., 6: 349-357 (Aug.) 1983

Several carnitine derivatives are secreted by various anatomical components of the male genital tract. To identify the organ of origin of these carnitine derivatives, the authors measured the concentration of these compounds in semen before and after vasectomy, split ejaculate samples and fluids obtained from various parts of the male genital tract during some unrelated diagnostic or operative procedures. Quantitative analysis of semen obtained before and after vasectomy showed a significant change in the concentration of various carnitine derivatives. After vasectomy there was a marked decrease in the level of L-carnitine and a slight decrease in acetyl carnitine concentration. However, there was no change in the concentration of propionylcarnitine and butyrylcarnitine. The earlier portion of the split ejaculate, which was comprised of fluids from the epididymis, vas deferens and prostate, revealed higher levels of carnitine and its propionyl and butyryl derivatives, and a lower level of acetylcarnitine compared to the later portion, which represents seminal secretions. Analysis of the fluid from the lumen of the vas deferens revealed a high concentration of carnitine and its short chain derivatives, while only small amounts were found in the prostatic fluid. Analysis of ethanol extracts of human spermatozoa showed that the concentration of acetylcarnitine was higher than that of free carnitine. Furthermore, only traces of the other acylcarnitines were present. The authors conclude that the primary source of carnitine in the semen is the epididymis. Acetylcarnitine is derived from the epididymis and seminal vesicle. Propionylcarnitine and butyrylcarnitine seem to originate from the ampulla of the vas deferens. The authors believe that the presence and concentration of acylcarnitine in spermatozoa reflect their metabolic activity. N. S. D. 3 tables, 23 references

PEDIATRIC UROLOGY Growth in Children With Various Therapies for EndStage Renal Disease R. S. FENNELL, III, J. K. 0RAK, T. HUDSON, E. H. GARIN, A. IRAVANI, W. J. VANDEUSEN, R. HOWARD, W.W. PFAFF, R. D. WALKER, III AND G. A. RICHARD, Departments of Pediatrics, Radiology, Surgery and Urology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida

Amer. J. Dis. Child., 138: 28-31 (Jan.) 1984 Growth failure is a major problem in children with end stage renal disease. The growth of children undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for end stage renal disease was compared to that of children undergoing hemodialysis or successful kidney transplantation. All 58 patients in the study were <15.5 years old and 33 were <11 years old. Hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis had been used for i;;;6 months. The post-transplant children had a functioning allograft for i;;;l years and average serum creatinine levels <2.5 mg./dl. The bone age of the children was used to predict expected growth velocities and the actual growth velocities observed then were expressed as percentages of the predicted rates. Patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or kidney transplantation grew better than those