cent of all reported eases are congenital; the acquired cases are usually from trauma and exposure to cold and may appear at any age. In most cases unilateral ptosis is the rule. Males are more frequently affected than’ females. The ptosed eyelid is subjected to the involuntary jerking upward by some associated movement of the mandible. The most frequently observed movement accompanies up-and-down mastication. Excessive and excited conversation is another up-and-down movement which may precipitate the sudden upward jerking of the drooping eyelid. In most instances, contraction of the external pterygoid muscle on the same side as the ptosis accompanies the jerking movement. The cause of this condition is not known.
About the Relation Between Vitamin (3 and Dental Caries: By T. Sandberg and H. Dagulf,
1: 75-83,1939. In spite of much apparent evidence to the contrary, the authors show that it is extremely uncertain as to whether vitamin C deficiency can give rise to caries and contrarily whether the administration of vitamin C can prevent the rise of dental caries in man. The amount of ascorbic acid in the blood and the frequency of caries were determined in 186 persons from 7 to 20 years of age. No basis for correlation between vitamin C and caries could be found. The experiments showed that vitamin C is not an etiologic factor in caries causation. Even the very low vitamin C standard in tuberculous patients did not seem to provoke increased occurrence of caries. Molasses in Anemia:
Science, Oct. 27, 1939.
Experiments concluded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology show that old-fashioned molasses is about the best food known for treating nutritional anemia, the kind of anemia due to improper diet. Spinach as a source of iron was thoroughly debunked by the research conducted by Dr. Robert A. Harris, Dr. John W. M. Bunker, and L. Malcolm Mosher. Whereas molasses has 6.1 parts of usable iron per 100,000 parts by weight, spinach has only 0.5. Beef liver has 5.6; oatmeal, 4.6; apricots, eggs, and raisins following in that order. Usable iron was computed, not total content, for only that iron which the body can use to manufacture hemoglobin is valuable. Both chemical and biologic tests on rats were used. It is also reported that recent medical studies indicate that nutritional anemia is far more prevalent than had been suspected. More than 40 per cent of infants have it and the figure for adult women is as high as 70 per cent. It is also fairly widespread among growing children.
The Frenum Labii Superioris: 26, May, 1938.
J. A. D. A. and D. Cos.
Shirazy found the literature on the frenum as well as on the lips, of man scant and scattered. The frenum may be abnormally developed from hypertrophy with or without a diastema between the first maxillary incisors. At birth, the frenum reaches the incisive pad (papilla palatina) which is situated in the midline in the anterior aspect of the palate. With the erup-