Mayer, H.B., and Lane, J.C. Monocular pilots - a followup study A e rospa ce Medicine S ep. 1973, 44.9, 1 0 7 0 - 1 0 7 4 . A prospective survey was made of 203 pilot applicants with defective or absent vision in one eye and 408 matched controls. The monocular pilots' achievement in securing and retaining licences, acquiring endorsements on different aircraft types, and accumulating flying hours, was equal to or better than that of the controls. There is a possibility, which cannot be entirely rejected, that the monocular pilots were involved in more hazardous events than the controls.
MaeLeod, S., and Hilgendorf, R.L. Air-to-ground target acquisition with night vision devices, Aerospace Medical Research Lab, WrightPatterson AFB Ohio, 1973. Abstr in Government Reports Announcements (Report No. AD-769 345/OGA). Three hand-held image intensifiers were studied. Two were passive visual aids (Starlight Scope and Uniscope) and one was an IR viewer (Find-RScope). These devices were evaluated in terms of number o f targets (trucks, boats, village) recognized on a 1000:1 scale terrain model. Simulated air-to-ground views of 20 observers were provided as t h e y circled the model at a simulated 520 mile/h (837 kin/h) and 8500 ft slant range under a moonlight illumination level. Although all targets were visible through the devices when observers were shown when and where to look, almost no target recognition occurred when any of the aids were used in a search viewing mode under the conditions of the study.
Central processes in man 5.3.105 (64638)
Wilson, W.B. The effect of prolonged non-flying periods on pilot skill in performance of a simulated carrier landing task, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey California, Sep. 1973. Abstr in Government Reports Announcements (Report No. AD-769 696/6GA) An experiment was undertaken to determine if a significant loss of basic pilot skill occurs during prolonged non-flying periods. 'Current', 'oneyear stagnant' and 'two-year stagnant' groups of jet qualified Naval aviators
were tested on a computer simulation of a carrier approach and landing. Performance by 'currency' groupings was then signed to 'experience' groups, according to total actual flight hours accrued b y each pilot. 'Least experienced', 'intermediate' and 'most experienced' group performance was then compared. Significant variables and important parameters in retention of pilot skills are discussed. In light of the experimental results, some possible 'real-world' implications and suggestions are made.
5.3.106 (64638) Fink, P. Defects in textiles: their significance and recognition (In German.) Textilveredlung 1973, 8 . 1 1 , 5 3 8 - 5 4 1 . Abstr in Worm Textile Abstracts. Problems related to the detection of defects in textiles are outlined. The author points out that the term defect is closely related to the quality of the textile product. Not only visible defects, but also hidden faults, which may present potential hazards and which are usually inherent in the material itself, have to be considered. The definition and the causes of defects influence strongly the process of fault detection and require careful control at all production levels. The question of full quality control compared with spot checks as well as the use of mechanized processes in addition to visual controls are discussed. The consequences of defects, refunds and downgradings, directly affect profits. Since faults are costly, quality control is worth the expenditure.
I nformatio n processing and transmission, by man 5.3.107 (64668) Collins, R.D. Jr., Case, K.E., and
Kemble Bermet, G. The effects of inspection error on single sampling inspection plans International Journal o f Production Research, Jul. 1973, 1 1 . 3 , 2 8 9 - 2 9 8 . Acceptance sampling plans are designed under the assumption of perfect inspection. However, inspection tasks are not, even under ideal inspection conditions, free of error. In this paper the effects of inspection error on probability of acceptance were considered together with average outgoing quality, and average t o t a l inspection. These measures are examined under b o t h replacement and non-replacement assumptions. A method is presented
Applied Ergonomics September 1974
whereby an acceptance sampling plan may be designed which explicitly considers inspection error.
5.3.108 (64669) Cox, J.J. Train control, stress and vigilance. Human Factors in Transportatien. Proceedings of 10th Annual Conference of the Ergonomics Society of Australia and New Zealand, Sydney, Nov, 1973, 16.1, 1 6 - 2 2 . Modern railway operation, due to the control exerted on the manmachine-pathway combination, is the safest form of transportation available. The vehicle pathway is continuously monitored and both front and rear end protection is provided to prevent collisions. Man, although extremely versatile, is known to be the weak link in the man-machine system. Consequently, his duties need to be arranged to match his capabilities. An examination is made of human factors research, levels of arousal, driving efficiency and driver stress, fatigue, diurnal b o d y rhythm and vigilance. Accident rates have been progressively reduced b y various safeguards instituted to guard against human failure. Measurements of driver stress under various conditions of high speed train operation have been carried out and changes in stress in accordance with train speed, hours of duty, periods of rest, and day and night operation determined. There are a series of railway signalling and vigilance control devices which successively reduce the effect of the human element. These have further developed into semi-automatic and automatic train operation.
Milner, C.J., and Bolin, J.W. A night-driving simulator for driversomnolence studies. Human Factors in Transportation. Proceedings of 10th Annual Conference of the Ergonomics Society of Australia and New Zealand, Sydney, Nov, 1973. pp 1 2 . 1 - 1 2 . 9 . Visual (and aural) simulation is provided of the m o n o t o n o u s task of following (t~e silhouette of) a car ahead, in darkness complete except for one's owr. lights and those of the car ahead, while the latter pursues a sinuous course over an infinite smooth textured surface. A "moving r o a d " is simulated as devised by G.G.Denton; the present apparatus also includes mechanisms for varying the directions of the relative-velocity of t h e simulated road-surface, and of the bearing at which the simulated car ahead is seen. A preliminary quantitative study is being undertaken