Municipal Solid Waste Management

Municipal Solid Waste Management

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Environmental Sciences 35 (2016) 119 – 126 International Conference on Solid Waste ...

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Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect Procedia Environmental Sciences 35 (2016) 119 – 126

International Conference on Solid Waste Management, 5IconSWM 2015

Municipal Solid Waste Management Ajaykumar Soni*,Deepak Patil, Kuldeep Argade* Praj Industries Limited, Pune, India

Abstract Solid waste management all over world is looked as major challenge to civil bodies. Pune corporation has taken initiatives to collect, segregate and treat solid waste and system for handling around 1600 MT / day is operative. Composting, biogas and inert waste recycle are present mode of treatment. Praj Industries limited, Pune has taken the activity further to noticeable level and can integrate overall waste management activities so that from biodegradables, biodiesel, bio CNG, fuel ethanol and liquid manure can be safely produced. No waste is left over. Biodegradable solid waste in Pune has potential to generate Biodiesel-18 to 20 MT/ day, Fuel ethanol-7 to 9 M3/ day, BioCNG-10 to 12 MT/ day and in addition 1100 to 1200 M3 liquid manure / day can be produced. These energy rich compounds can generate electricity, run vehicles and maintain solid fertility. One has to look scientifically in the optimization of collection and segregation from the point where waste generates. © 2016 2016Published The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. © by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of 5IconSWM 2015. Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of 5IconSWM 2015 Keywords: Solid waste, fuel ethanol, bio CNG, biodiesel, liquid manure;

Introduction Unorganized Municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal system, increase in population leads stress on ecosystems and disturbs various nature cycles and human health. Despite having lower waste generation by India than developed countries, the picture of waste management in most of the Indian villages, cities so far shows tremendous scope for improvement. Developed countries are far ahead and have set benchmarks on solid waste management. Pune Municipal Corporation has taken lead and has started addressing various issues. Segregation of MSW is the big challenge; many NGOs and nonprofit organizations are coming forward to give their best so that further processing has become manageable.

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: [email protected]

1878-0296 © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of 5IconSWM 2015 doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2016.07.057

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1.1 Pune Corporation solid waste generation Pune is spread over 250 square KM and has population over 40 lacs. Corporation has taken initiatives to collect, segregate and transport solid waste from various regions to processing units. Many initiatives are also taken to educate citizens to minimize waste generation. Various programs on public awareness and reinforcement are also taken up by Pune Corporation. Besides, corporation has established analytical facilities to understand composition of solid waste from different regions and generated database that monitors day to day operations. Around 1600 MT solid waste is collected per day from Pune city averaging about 400 g/day/capita waste generation. 1.2 The Municipal Solid waste categorization In Pune municipal Corporation 1600 MT/Day MSW generated , It is categorize in following table 1.0 Bio-degradable waste – 720 MT/day

2.0 Non biodegradable– 880 MT/day

Organic waste- 400 MT

Inorganic waste-560 MT

Households waste-320 MT

Inert waste – 320 MT

1.2.1 Treatment methods Organic waste –Bio-composting Household waste- Bioethanation E waste- Recycling Biomedical waste-.Burning Construction and debris, Inorganic waste -Land filling In addition, over 3000 vermicomposting units have been operative in the housing societies, and residential colonies allover Pune. 2.1 Treatment procedure developed by Praj. Praj Industries Limited, Pune, The Global company in the field of distilleries and breweries is also leading in the field of corporate social responsibilities.

Fig. 1 Bio-degradable waste before homogenization

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Fig. 2 Bio-degradable food waste after homogenization

Oil with solvent

Food waste

Fig. 3 Solvent extraction, upper layer contain solvent along with oil and bio-degradable waste in bottom

Fig. 4 Fermentation of food waste in 5 liter Erlenmeyer flasks

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Block flow diagram:MSW collected by Pune Corporation -1600 MT/Day

Segregation of MSW 1.0 biodegradable waste -720/Day MT 2.0 Non biodegradable waste – 880 MT/Day

BSW used for further treatment procedure developed by Praj

Chopping & Grinding of Bio-degradable waste

Oil separation by solvent extraction

Liquefaction of Biodegradable solid waste

Saccharification of Biodegradable solid waste

Fermentation – Achieved ethanol - 4 to 5 %v/v Bio-ethanol- 20000 liter/day

Biomethnation of distilled fermented wash & Bio-degradable solid waste will generate BioCNG- 32000 KG/Day

Liquid manure will generate – 700 m3/day

2.2. “Praj” Technological Developments “Best from waste” no more has remained phrase for the sake and has become reality. Tons of solid waste generated every day in villages, towns, cities and megacities. Praj believes that the waste is no more valid term and need to be termed as raw material / feed stock and can be converted in to value added products. Extensive work has been under taken at Praj Matrix- the R&D center to explore the beneficiary importance of solid waste. 2.2.1. MSW composition Before starting any work, it is most important to understand the raw material and its composition. No of samples were collected from different regions of city garbage collection and analyzed (Table 1.0)

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Table 1. Composition of MSW

Sample No.

Total Solids (%w/w)

TVS (%w/w)

COD ppm

BOD ppm

Starch (%w/w)

Free sugar (%w/w)

Carbohydrates ( %w/w)

1

27.45

26.85

383333

192867

5.76

2.25

0.39

2

20.94

18.66

345000

211203

4.27

2.68

0.59

3

23.03

22.06

530000

278509

5.22

3.6

1.42

4

21.35

19.51

343333

189156

4.09

1.06

0.66

5

21.30

20.50

260000

145242

5.67

1.79

ND

Based on the locality, compositional properties were varied. Significantly as table1.0 shows high BOD, COD and total volatile substances (TVS) . Few samples showed fat content 2 to 4 % w/w and protein content also ranged 2 to 4% w/w. Free sugar, starch and carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) collectively ranged 9 to 10 % v/v. Keeping in mind those values, the experiments were conducted. High volatile organic solid with high BOD and COD values indicate tremendous potential for Bioethanation Composite Sugar concentration 9 to 10 % is adequate to produce ethanol. Nitrogen content is adequate hence of supplementary nitrogen may not be required. Oil can be separated from solid waste and used to make biodiesel.

Fig. 5. MSW from housing societies

2.2.2. Experimental setup to produce ethanol by fermentation After studying composition of various samples experiment was done as follows by taking 5 kg kitchen waste batches. x x

Physicochemical and thermal pre- treatment to make material flow able and susceptible to enzymatic treatment. Separation of oil by centrifugation

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x x x x x

Enzymatic treatment to convert poly saccharides in to simple sugars Initial yeast cell concentration was 150 to160 M cell/ ml using available active dry yeast in market. Fermentation was carried out in 5 lit working volume agitated vessel. Temperature was maintained to 32 deg C. Results were confirmed with 5 repetitions

Fig. 6. MSW mixed from different localities.

2.2.3. Observations and Results x

Fermentation residence time took 24 to 28 hr. to achieve ethanol concentration around 4 to 5 % v/v The ethanol yield was 48 to 52 lit / MT of solid waste.

2.2.4. Interpretation of Results x x

The solid waste sample taken for fermentation experiment was mainly from the area where hotels and restaurants were predominant indicating waste was Kitchen waste. It means, ethanol fermentation can be done from the solid waste that has segregated as kitchen waste. Rest biodegradable waste from MSW having less sugars can be taken for Bioethanation.

2.2.5 Overall MSW management model x x x

Segregation of MSW in to biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste. Non-biodegradable waste is recycled, land filled or burnt. From biodegradable waste further segregation is done as follows

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Kitchen waste and Non kitchen biodegradable waste x

Biodiesel production

From kitchen waste, using physical treatment, waste cooking oil is separated out. This cooking oil is processed to get biodiesel. x Ethanol production After separating out oil, rest is fermented using yeast and ethanol is produced. From fermented mash hydrous ethanol is distilled out. Hydrous alcohol is ethanol having around 95 % v/v ethanol concentration. It is dehydrated by removing moisture using molecular sieve dehydration and used as fuel ethanol ( for blending in gasoline) x

Bioethanation

Spent wash generated after distilling out hydrous ethanol is mixed with non-kitchen biodegradable waste and Biomethanation is carried out. Biogas generated by Bioethanation has around 55 % methane. After Bioethanation, over flow from bio digester is used as liquid manure. The biogas is used as 1) boiler fuel to generate steam. 2) generate electricity by removing traces of H2S gas 3) convert in to CNG gas and use as motor fuel. 2.2.6 Proposed quantification products obtained from of MSW Apart from non-biodegradable recycles, Typically, from 1 MT of MSW we can have following value added products (pl. refer chart 2.2.7) 1) 2) 3) 4)

Biodiesel-26 to 29 kg Fuel ethanol- 9 to 11 lit CNG –14 to16 kg Liquid manure-1550 to1650 kg liquid manure

2.2.7 Calorific value of MSW Vs Ethanol & Biogas MSW - 7300 MJ/ for 1 MT of MSW Bioethanol- 1154 MJ/ for 50 Liter ethanol BioCNG- 4160 MJ/ for 80 KG BioCNG 3.1.4 Overall MSW management schematic representation 3.1 Conclusions Rather than looking solid waste as waste ,it should be looked as Source of energy. If managed properly, we can see that, biodegradable waste gives, biodiesel, Bio CNC, Fuel ethanol and liquid manure. There is no left over waste. From non-biodegradables, after recyclable material, rest goes to incineration or land filling. Major challenge is collection proper segregation and transportation. Praj has taken up the waste management as one of the major projects and achieved technological edge that will prove the “waste” is no more waste but is the major resource and can play important role in fulfilling energy requirement of mankind.

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Fig. 7.

References 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Solid waste management , Suresh Jagtap- Joint Municipal Commissioner, Pune Municipal Corporation. Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Management of Pune City using Geospatial Tools, Nitin Mundhe Department of Geography, S.P.College, Pune, Ravindra Jaybhaye Department of Geography, University of Pune, Pune, India Cekmecelioglu, D. and O. N. Uncu (2013). "Kinetic modeling of enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated kitchen wastes for enhancing bioethanol production." Waste management 33(3): 735-739 Choi, I. S., Y. G. Lee, S. K. Khanal, B. J. Park and H.-J. Bae (2015). "A low-energy, cost-effective approach to fruit and citrus peel waste processing for bioethanol production." Applied Energy 140: 65-74. Kim, J. H., Lee, J. C., & Pak, D. (2011). Feasibility of producing ethanol from food waste. Waste management, 31(9), 2121-2125.