Nutrient Composition and Feeding Value of Proso Millets, Sorghum Grains, and Corn in Broiler Diets1,2

Nutrient Composition and Feeding Value of Proso Millets, Sorghum Grains, and Corn in Broiler Diets1,2

Nutrient Composition and Feeding Value of Proso Millets, Sorghum Grains, and Corn in Broiler Diets1'2 E. S. LUIS 3 and T. W. SULLIVAN Department of An...

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Nutrient Composition and Feeding Value of Proso Millets, Sorghum Grains, and Corn in Broiler Diets1'2 E. S. LUIS 3 and T. W. SULLIVAN Department of Animal Science, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583 L. A. NELSON Department of Agronomy, Panhandle Station, Scottsbluff

Nebraska 69361

(Received for publication February 23, 1981) ABSTRACT Seven cultivars of proso millet contained higher amounts of protein and ash than sorghum grains or corn. These millets were similar or slightly higher in fat than corn, much higher in fat than sorghum (milo), and similar to sorghum in calcium and phosphorus contents. All grains contained tannin except corn. On the average, proso millets contained more fiber and gross energy (GE) than corn and sorghum. Millets were similar to sorghum but lower than corn in true metabolizable energy (TME) and were lower in gross energy metabolized (TME/GE) than corn and sorghum. Protein of proso millets contained higher levels of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan than corn and milo proteins. However, millet proteins contained lower levels of arginine, glycine, histidine, lysine, and threonine than corn and milo proteins. Three trials with broiler chicks were conducted to determine the feeding value of proso millets, sorghum grains, and corn. All diets were made isocaloric and isonitrogenous by adjusting the levels of soybean meal, glucose (Cerelose), and cellulose (Solka Floe) in each trial. When the millets, sorghum grains, and corn were fed at nearly the same level in broiler diets which contained suboptimal protein (15%), the millet and BR-65 sorghum diets with no amino acid supplementation significantly depressed body weight gain and feed efficiency at 4 weeks of age. Methionine and lysine supplementation of these diets resulted in significant improvements in body weight gain and feed efficiency, with chicks fed millet and BR-65 sorghum diets showing the greatest improvements. When the "Dawn" (D) cultivar of millet was compared to commercial milo and yellow corn on an equal weight or a protein equivalent basis in broiler diets with adequate protein (22.5%), there were no significant differences in body weight gain or feed efficiency. Therefore, the nutrient composition and subsequent feeding value of proso millets in broiler diets were quite favorable. (Key words: millet, sorghum grain (milo), corn nutrient composition, broiler diets) 1982 Poultry Science 61:311-320

INTRODUCTION Millet contributes substantial amounts of energy and protein to the diets of people in many developing countries. The four varieties of millet which are grown extensively in certain parts of the world include: Proso (Panicum miliaceum), finger (Eleusine coracana), pearl

'Published as paper number 6521, Journal Series, Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station. 2 From a dissertation submitted by the senior author in partial fulfillment of requirements for the Ph.D. degree. 3 Present address: Department of Animal Science, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines.

(Pennisetum typhoideum), and foxtail (Setaria italica). Studies on the chemical composition of this cereal have indicated a wide range of protein contents, which vary depending on the varieties involved (Doesthale et al, 1970, 1971; Yarosh and Agafonov, 1978). Lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids are the most limiting in millet proteins (Jansen et al, 1962; Pushpamma, 1968; Kovalev et al, 1974). Lipid content is higher than that of corn (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) (Rooney, 1978; Bhatia et al, 1978; Freeman and Bocan, 1973; Burton et al, 1972). The ash content is higher (Carr, 1961; Kies et al, 1975; Kurien and Doraiswamy, 1967), but millets are similar to other cereals in calcium and phosphorus contents (Burton et al, 1972). The greater ash content of proso

311

312

LUIS ET AL.

millets is apparently due in part to the presence of silica. Daniel et al. (1974) compared diets of pearl millet, finger millet, and sorghum grain alone and with supplements of minerals, vitamins, pulses, and skim milk powder in a rat experiment. All diets benefited from the supplements, but the best growth rate in every instance was obtained from pearl millet, followed by finger millet, and then sorghum. Rats fed unsupplemented pearl millet gained 28.6% and 16.1% faster than rats fed unsupplemented sorghum and finger millet, respectively. Pushpamma (1968) similarly observed the greatest growth rate in rats fed an unsupplemented pearl millet diet compared to unsupplemented finger millet sorghum and corn diets. Howe and Gilfillan (1970) reported the addition of .3% lysine hydrochloride to a millet diet increased growth response in rats to about 93% of that observed with casein. Jansen et al. (1962) had also reported that lysine supplementation of millet raised the protein efficiency ratio to that obtained with an ANRC casein diet. Simhaee et al. (1971) compared corn, wheat, pearl millet, and their combinations as the main sources of energy in broiler diets. They found no significant differences among grains in body weight gain. However, millet diets supported poorer feed efficiency than corn or wheat diets. Sanford et al. (1973) reported that the performance of chicks receiving pearl millet was equal to sorghum grain when diets contained equal protein levels. Sharma et al. (1979) compared wheat (Triticum aestivum), yellow corn, pearl millet, and sorghum in broiler diets. These diets were of equal nitrogen and energy content and each cereal was included at two levels to contribute 4.2 or 6.3 MJ ME/kg of diet. In terms of body weight gain, millet was significantly better than wheat or sorghum at the lower inclusion rate and better than wheat at the higher inclusion rate. Feed conversion of chicks receiving millet also was significantly better than for chicks fed wheat or corn at either inclusion rate and better than chicks fed sorghum at the lower inclusion rate. The research presented in this paper was designed to determine the following: a) chemical composition, TME, tannic acid content, and amino acid composition of proso millets, sorghum grains, and yellow corn; b) compare the feeding value of proso millet and sorghum grains in broiler diets.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Seven cultivars each of proso millet and sorghum plus commercial sorghum (milo) and yellow corn were obtained from the Department of Agronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, and evaluated in this study. Proso millet cultivars were grown at the Panhandle Station, Scottsbluff, NE, on summer fallow ground without fertilization. The seven sorghum cultivars were grown at the Mead Field Lab, Mead, NE, on ground fertilized with 45.36 kg (100 lb) of N per acre from ammonium nitrate. Commercial milo and yellow corn samples were also grown at the Mead Field Lab on ground fertilized with 36.3 kg (80 lb) and 54.4 kg (120 lb) of N per acre, respectively, from anhydrous ammonia. All grains were assayed for moisture, crude protein, ether extract (fat), ash, calcium, and phosphorus (Association of Official Analytical Chemists [AOAC], 1975). Tannic acid equivalents (Burns, 1963 ; AOAC, 1975), acid detergent fiber (Van Soest, 1973), and true metabolizable energy (Sibbald, 1976) were also determined. Gross energy values for grains and fecal collections were determined using a Parr adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The amino acid profiles of three proso millets (Cerise, Dawn, and Panhandle), a commercial milo, and yellow corn were determined by ion exchange chromatography following sample preparations described by Kohler and Palter (1967). Norleucine was added to each sample as an internal standard for acidic and neutral amino acids. The internal standard for basic amino acids was AGP (a-amino-b-guanidino propionic acid). Tryptophan was analyzed separately after alkaline hydrolysis using the method of Hess and Udenfriend (1956), which was automated by Lewis et al. (1976). Three experiments were conducted to determine the feeding value of proso millets and sorghum grains in diets for broiler chickens. Day-old, Vantress X Hubbard chicks were used in Experiment 1 and 2, while 1-week-old Vantress X Hubbard chicks were used in Experiment 3. Chicks were randomly distributed to treatment groups, wingbanded, weighed, and placed in electrically heated battery brooders with raised wire floors. Six chicks consisting of three males and three females were placed in each battery pen. Each treatment was replicated five times in Experiments 1 and 2 and six times in Experiment 3. Feed and water were

COMPOSITION OF MILLETS, SORGHUM GRAINS, CORN, AND BROILER GROWTH

313

provided ad libitum during the entire experimental period. Experiments 1 and 2 were conducted until birds were 4 weeks of age. Experiment 3 was conducted for 5 weeks, being terminated when birds were 6 weeks of age. Broiler chicks in Experiment 3 were moved from electrically heated starting batteries to unheated growing batteries at four weeks of age and reared to 6 weeks old. Experiments 1 and 2. In Experiment 1, proso millets C, D, and P, BR-65 sorghum, a commercial milo, and yellow corn were compared on an equal weight basis in diets containing a suboptimal protein level (15%) without amino acid supplementation (Table 5). All diets were made isocaloric and isonitrogenous by adjusting the level of soybean meal, glucose (Cerelose), and cellulose (Solka Floe). Experiment 2 was essentially the same as Experiment 1 except that diets were supplemented with lysine and methionine in an attempt to equalize and satisfy 70% of the National Research Council (1977) requirements for those two amino acids in all diets (Table 6).

yellow corn on an equal weight and on a protein equivalent basis in starting broiler diets containing an adequate level of protein (22.5%) (Table 7). All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous and supplemented with adequate amounts of methionine in the form of methionine-hydroxy analog, calcium (Hydan). All chicks were weighed in replicate groups of six initially, and then individually at 2 and 4 weeks of age in Experiments 1 and 2, and at 4 and 6 weeks of age in Experiment 3. Feed consumption of each experimental pen was determined and recorded at each weighing time. Mortality was checked daily and recorded as it occurred. Analysis of variance (Statistical Analysis System, 1970) was used to statistically analyze the final body weight and feed efficiency data from each trial. Individual treatment differences were tested by Duncan's multiple range test (Steel and Torrie, 1960).

Experiment 3. Proso millet D was compared in Experiment 3 with a commercial milo and

Chemical Composition of Different Grains. Proximate composition data for the different

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

TABLE 1. Dry matter, crude protein, ether extract (fat), ash, calcium, and of different grains phosphorus Percent of dry matter1 Grain Corn, yellow Sorghum Milo (comm.) High lysine BR 65 CK60 9040 AR64 RS626 Waxy Average Proso millet Cerise Dawn Panhandle Minn 55 Cope Minco Abarr Average 1

% Dry matter

Crude protein

Fat

Ash

Calcium

Phosphorus

90.05

9.31

4.64

1.22

.010

.24

90.1 89.5 87.8 88.4 88.1 89.6 88.0 88.8

9.88 13.47 10.24 10.59 10.27 9.96 11.06 11.80 10.91

3.36 4.30 3.52 4.14 2.10 3.31 3.32 2.94 3.37

1.60 2.11 1.63 1.93 1.63 1.76 1.62 2.24 1.82

.022 .031 .019 .017 .022 .019 .014 .021 .021

.32 .36 .30 .34 .32 .36 .34 .37 .34

90.7 90.8 90.8 90.7 90.7 90.6 90.4

15.41 16.68 15.58 15.40 15.78 15.10 15.54 15.64

4.88 4.63 4.83 4.58 4.48 5.01 5.26 4.86

3.63 3.30 3.12 2.81 3.35 3.18 3.22 3.23

.015 .021 .020 .017 .020 .017 .018 .018

.33 .28 .31 .31 .28 .31 .31 .30

Average of four determinations per sample.

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LUIS ET AL.

grains are presented in Table 1. Proso millets contained more protein and ash than corn and sorghums. Millets were similar or slightly higher in fat content than corn and much higher than sorghums. Calcium and phosphorus contents were similar for all the grains except corn which had the lowest levels of both minerals. Protein contents ranged from 15.10 to 16.68% for proso millets and from 9.88 to 13.47% for sorghum grains. Fat contents ranged from 4.58 to 5.26% for proso millet and from 2.10 to 4.30% for sorghums. Similar values for proso millets have been previously reported by other workers for protein (Yarosh and Agafonov, 1978; Kovalev et al, 1974) and for fat (Bhatia et al, 1978). Although proso millets had higher ash values, their calcium and phosphorus contents were similar to the sorghum grains. The higher ash values for proso millets may have been due in part to the presence of silica. All the proso millets and sorghum grains contained tannin, but yellow corn contained none (Table 2). Tannin contents ranged from

.15 to .26% for millet and from .18 to 1.47% for sorghum grains. Proso millets contained on the average much higher acid detergent fiber (ADF) and gross energy (GE) than did corn and sorghum. Millets were similar to sorghum but lower than corn in true metabolizable energy (TME), and lower in gross energy metabolized (TME/GE) than both corn and sorghum. Sorghum had higher ADF and was similar in GE but lower in TME and TME/GE than corn. With the exception of the high tannin sorghum varieties (BR-65 and AR-64), the other sorghums were lower or equal in TME and TME/GE values than corn. The two high tannin sorghum varieties yielded much lower TME and TME/GE values than the low tannin sorghum varieties. Correlation analysis (Table 3) revealed that tannin (TA) in proso millet varieties was not significantly correlated to TME and TME/GE but was significantly and positively correlated to ADF (P<.05) and GE (P<.01). The TME was significantly and positively correlated to TME/GE. Similar correlation analyses with sorghum grains showed that TME and TME/GE

TABLE 2. Tannic acid equivalents (TA), acid detergent fiber (ADF), gross energy (GE), ture metabolizable energy (TME), and percentage of GE metabolized in the various grains Percent of dry matter 1 Grain

ADF

TA

(" Sorghum Milo (comm.) High lysine BR 65 CK60 9040 AR64 RS626 Waxy Average Proso millet Cerise Dawn Panhandle Minn 55 Cope Minco Abarr Average 1

TME/GE

(%)

(kcal/kg)

\">) Yellow corn

TME

GE

2.1

4442

4130

92.97

.27 .34 .56

4.86 3.09 4.80 2.54 2.64 4.58 3.11 5.16 3.85

4485 4551 4536 4538 4552 4366 4474 4528 4504

4123 4015 3688 4145 4112 3549 4122 4204 3995

91.93 88.22 81.30 91.33 90.33 81.29 92.13 92.84 88.67

.26 .20 .20 .22 .18 .15 .21 .20

13.87 12.64 11.59 10.84 10.99 10.30 13.84 12.01

4622 4568 4550 4560 4522 4533 4547 4557

4027 3909 4014 4032 3998 3959 4108 4007

87.13 85.57 88.22 88.42 88.41 87.33 90.37 87.92

0

.30 .33

1.47 .20 .18

1.41

Average of four determinations per sample.

COMPOSITION OF MILLETS, SORGHUM GRAINS, CORN, AND BROILER GROWTH

315

TABLE 3. Simple correlation coefficients for proso millet and sorghum grain contents

Proso millet Tannin (TA) Acid detergent fiber (ADF) Gross energy (GE) True metabolizable energy (TME)

ADF

GE

.67*

.87*' .63

Sorghum Tannin (TA) Acid detergent fiber (ADF) Gross energy (GE) True metabolizable energy (TME)

.46

.51 .40

TME

.42 .37 .06

-.96** -.30 .59

TME/GE

.02 .09

-.37 .91** -.95** -.24 .41 .98**

*P<.05. **P<.01.

decreased (P<.01) as the tannin content increased (Table 3). No significant correlations occurred between TA and ADF and between TA and GE. Increased TME was also highly and positively correlated with GE metabolized (P<.01). These results with sorghum grains corroborated the report of Nelson et al. (1975) in that utilization of energy from sorghum

varieties as either ME per gram or percent of GE decreased as tannin contents increased. These results also indicated that utilization of energy from proso millets was greatly influenced by the GE content. As GE increased, TME/GE was consequently reduced. In contrast, tannin content appears to be a major factor which determines energy utilization in sor-

TABLE 4. Amino acid profile of three proso millet varieties, commercial milo, and yellow com' Millet Amino acid

Millet

C

D

Millet P

Milo

Yellow corn

(AA contents as a percent of protein, dry matter basis) Arginine Glycine Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine2 Phenylalanine Tyrosine Threonine Tryptophan Valine

2.89 2.26 1.88 4.14 12.43 1.50 1.95 5.28 2.32 3.01 1.64 4.77

3.05 2.13 1.79 4.26 13.19 1.33 2.13 5.47 2.53 2.88 1.62 5.01

3.00 2.11 1.86 4.29 13.19 1.40 1.60 5.57 2.49 2.82 1.92 4.99

3.87 3.58 2.33 3.88 13.10 2.33 1.55 4.94 2.90 3.49 1.33 5.04

4.36 3.62 2.78 3.34 12.24 2.69 1.57 4.64 2.41 3.33 1.06 4.45

Alanine Aspartic acid Glutamic acid Proline Serine

10.74 5.72 19.79 6.34 5.72

11.41 5.76 20.98 7.15 5.99

11.26 5.82 20.67 6.78 6.01

9.40 6.68 19.48 8.14 4.46

7.42 6.94 17.53 8.44 4.36

1 2

Average of two determinations per sample.

Performic acid hydrolysates for analysis of SAA were not made; therefore, methionine values may be unreliable.

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LUIS ET AL.

ghum grains. No explanation can be offered by the authors at this time for the low TME/GE of high lysine sorghum (Table 2). The amino acid composition of three proso millet varieties (Cerise, Dawn, and Panhandle), commercial milo, and yellow corn expressed as percent of protein are presented in Table 4. The three proso millets contained more or less uniform levels of amino acids. The protein of proso millets contained higher levels of isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine and tryptophan than corn and milo proteins. However, millet proteins contained lower levels of arginine, glycine, histidine, lysine and threonine than corn and milo proteins. Feeding Trials on Broiler Chicks. Data presented in Table 5 show the effect of different grains fed on an equal weight basis in diets containing a suboptimal protein level (15%) without amino acid supplementation. Broiler chicks fed proso millet diets had significantly (P<.05) lower 4-week body weights and poorer feed efficiency compared to those fed corn, milo, and BR-65 sorghum diets. Millets C and P diets supported similar body weight gains and feed efficiencies which were significantly better than with millet D. The marked depression in 4-week body weight and feed efficiency of chicks fed millet diets was apparently due to a lysine deficiency brought about mainly by the lower levels of soybean meal in millet diets compared to corn, milo, and BR-65 sorghum diets. The same explanation may also account for the poorer performance obtained with millet D compared to millet C and P diets. The BR-65 diet similarly supported significantly poorer performance than did corn and milo diets. This is in agreement with earlier reports (Armstrong et al., 1973, 1974a,b; Rostagno et al, 1973; Elkin et al., 1978) which indicated that high tannin sorghum grains markedly depressed broiler chick performance. The milo diet also supported significantly (P<.05) lower 4-week weight, but not poorer feed efficiency, compared to the corn diet. This indicated the superiority of corn over milo in supporting body weight gain in the absence of amino acid supplementation. Lysine and methionine supplementation of the same diets used in Experiment 1 resulted in general improvements in performance of broiler chicks (Table 6). However, chicks fed the millet diets remained significantly (P<.05) lighter at 4 weeks and had poorer feed efficiency when compared to those fed corn or

milo diets. Millet P supported significantly (P<.05) greater body weight gain and better feed efficiency than millets C and D. The BR65 sorghum gave statistically similar 4-week body weight but remained poorer in feed conversion compared to commercial milo. This agrees somewhat with the results of Armstrong et al. (1974a), who reported that methionine supplementation of bird-resistant sorghum supported similar weight gain as the nonresistant sorghum, but the former remained inferior in feed efficiency. The nonsignificant or slight differences in 4-week body weight and feed efficiency of broiler chicks fed corn and milo diets supports the work of Bornstein .and Lipstein (1971). They reported that corn and milo were of equal feeding value for broiler chicks provided that the latter was adequately supplemented with methionine. The poor performance of broiler chicks fed millet diets with lysine and methionine supplementation suggests that essential amino acids other than lysine and methionine may have been limiting. Subsequent amino acid analysis of the grains revealed that proso millets contained lower levels of arginine, glycine, histidine, lysine, and threonine than corn and/or milo (Table 4). Therefore, deficiencies of arginine, histidine, and threonine in addition to the lower levels of lysine could limit the feeding value of millets. The low glycine level was probably of no consequence because of the high serine content of millets. Another possibility for the poorer performance was that the ground millet diets may have been so bulky as to limit feed intake. The degree (%) of improvement in 4-week body weight and feed efficiency with lysine and methionine supplementation of each of the grains is summarized at the bottom of Table 6. Supplementation of three proso millets and BR-65 sorghum with lysine and methionine resulted in a marked improvement in body weight and feed efficiency. Supplementation of yellow corn and milo diets resulted in a much smaller percentage improvement with corresponding amino acid supplements. This observation on BR-65 sorghum supports the work of Armstrong et al. (1973) and Rostagno et al. (1973), which showed greater improvement in performance of chicks from methionine supplementation of a high tannin sorghum diet than with a low tannin sorghum diet. Results of the present study also indicate that lysine and methionine supplementation of millet and sor-

44 624 a 1.83 a

Broiler chick data Body weight, day-old, g Body weight, 4 weeks, g Feed/gain, 0—4 weeks 44 542° 1.95a

3150 15.1 .78 .45

19 4 3.1 .25 4.65 100.0

69

2

44 363 c 2.35 b

3150 15.1 .78 .45

4.65 100.0

19 4 9.5

71.4

3

Diet

2

31

1

'Premix furnished the following ingredients as a percentage of the diet: dicalcium phosphate, 2.25: ground limes diet: 8,800 IU stabilized retinol; 2,200 ICU vitamin D 3 ; 8.8 IU vitamin E; 3.5 mg menadione Na bisulfite; 7 mg rib folacin; 14 Mg vitamin B 12 ; 880 mg choline-Cl; 100 mg iron; 100 mg manganese; 100 mg zinc; 10 mg copper; 1 mg co

' , c ' ' Each value is the average of five replicates with 6 chicks per replicate (3 males and 3 females). Values for letter are not significantly different (P<.05).

3150 15.1 .82 .51

2.35 4.65 100.0

19 4

70

1

Calculated composition Metabolizable energy, kcal/kg Crude protein, % Lysine, % Methionine and cystine, %

Yellow corn Milo BR-65 Millet C Millet D Millet P Soybean meal (47%) Animal fat Glucose (Cerelose) Cellulose (Solka Floe) Premix 1 Total

Ingredients, %

TABLE 5. Composition of diets and effect of different grains on 4^week body weight and fee (Experiment 1)

3

See f o o t n o t e s for Table 5.

43 66 7 a 1.77a

3150 15.1 .84 .65

2.15 4.65 .17 .03 100.0

19 4

70

1

42 636ab 1.80a

3150 15.1 .84 .65

19 4 2.73 .3 4.65 .24 .08 100.0

69

2

.64

42 583 b 1.97 b

3150 15.1 .84 .65

4.65 .23 .08 100.0

19 4

71.4

3

Diet

Body weight, 4 weeks Feed/gain, 0—4 weeks

6.9 3.3

Corn 17.3 7.7

Milo

BR-65 60.6 16.2

62 17

Mi

3

31

1

of diets and effect of different grains supplemented with lysine and me and feed efficiency of broiler chicks (Experiment 2)

Percent i m p r o v e m e n t with lysine and m e t h i o n i n e s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n , E x p e r i m e n t 1 versus E x p e r i m e n t 2:

1,1

Broiler chick data 2 ' 3 Body weight, day-old, g Body weight, 4 weeks, g Feed/gain, 0—4 weeks

Calculated composition Metabolizable energy, kcal/kg Crude protein, % Lysine, % Methionine and cystine, %

Yellow corn Milo BR-65 Millet C Millet D Millet P Soybean meal (47%) Animal fat Glucose (Cerelose) Cellulose (Solka Floe) Premix 1 Hydan (85% L-methionine) L-lysine-HCl(78%) Total

Ingredients, %

T A B L E 6 . Composition

COMPOSITION OF MILLETS, SORGHUM GRAINS, CORN, AND BROILER GROWTH

319

TABLE 7. Composition of diets and effect of different grains on weight gain and feed efficiency of broiler chicks (Experiment 3) Diet Ingredients, %

1

Yellow corn Milo Millet D Soybean meal (47%) Fish meal (60%) Dehydrated alfalfa (17%) Glucose (Cerelose) Cellulose (Solka Floe) Dicalcium phosphate Ground limestone Salt (NaCl) Vitamin premix1 Trace mineral premix 1 Selenium premix 1 Hydan (85% L-methionine) Total Calculated composition Metabolizable energy, kcal/kg Crude protein, % Lysine, % Methionine and cystine, % Broiler chick data 2 Body weight, 1-week, g Body weight gain, 1 —6 weeks, g Feed/gain, 1—6 weeks 1

2

4

3

59.47 58.66 60

29.40

29.40

21.44

5 2.5

5 2.5

5 2.5 7.3 .16

.80

1.25 .98 .25 .80 .05 .10 .20

1.19 1.02

1.30 .98 .25 .80 .05 .10 .12

.25 .80 .05 .10 .23

35.2 29.40 5 2.5

23.8 1.63 1.11 .25 .80 .05 .10 .16

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

2930 22.5 1.37

2880 22.5 1.36

2912 22.5 1.09

2897 22.5 1.29

.94

.93

.93

.93

1317 2.11

1293 2.08

1300 2.07

1308 2.14

114

113

116

111

Levels of supplemental vitamins and trace minerals were the same as used in Experiments 1 and 2 (Table 5).

2

Each treatment mean is the average of six replicates of 6 chicks each. There were no significant (P<.05) differences among treatments.

ghum grains improved body weight gain more than feed efficiency of broiler chicks. The comparison of millet D with corn and commercial milo on an equal weight or a protein equivalent basis in broiler diets containing an adequate level of protein (22.5%) and supplemental methionine is presented in Table 7. These results showed no significant differences among grains in supporting body weight gain and feed efficiency of broiler chicks from one to six weeks of age. These data suggest that the protein of millet D is comparable to that of either corn or sorghum and could replace part of the soybean meal protein in broiler diets containing an adequate level of protein with enough supplementary methionine to meet the bird's requirement. REFERENCES Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, 1975.

Official methods of analyses. 12th ed. Ass. Offic. Agric. Chem., Washington, DC. Armstrong, W. D., W. R. Featherston, and J. C. Rogler, 1973. Influence of methionine and other dietary additions on the performance of chicks fed bird resistant sorghum grain diets. Poultry Sci. 52:1592-1599. Armstrong, W. D., W. R. Featherston, and J. C. Rogler, 1974a. Effects of bird resistant sorghum grain and various commercial tannins on chick performance. Poultry Sci. 53:2137-2142. Armstrong, W. D., J. C. Rogler, and W. R. Featherston, 1974b. Effect of tannin extraction on the performance of chicks fed bird resistant sorghum grain diets. Poultry Sci. 53:714—720. Bhatia, I. S., J. Singh, G. Singh, B. N. Sharma, T. D. Pruthi, and P. S. Sukhiya, 1978. Lipids in seeds of common millet and Japanese millet. Indian J. Agr. Sci. 48(7):432-434. Bornstein, S., and B. Lipstein, 1971. Comparison of sorghum grain (milo) and maize as the principal cereal grain source in poultry rations. 4. The relative content of available sulfur amino acids in milo and maize. Brit. Poultry Sci. 12:1—13.

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