Nutrient Content of Tuna Meal

Nutrient Content of Tuna Meal

RESEARCH NOTES Nutrient Content of Tuna Meal DOUGLAS ZAVIEZO Precision Microblenders, P.O. Box 1423, dales, Puerto Rico 00638-1423 NICK DALE1 Poultry ...

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RESEARCH NOTES Nutrient Content of Tuna Meal DOUGLAS ZAVIEZO Precision Microblenders, P.O. Box 1423, dales, Puerto Rico 00638-1423 NICK DALE1 Poultry Science Department, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602

1994 Poultry Science 73:916-918

INTRODUCTION Fish meal has been a popular feed ingredient for poultry for many decades. Numerous species of fish are used in the manufacture of fish meal in different parts of the world. However, in most cases, whole fish are employed in the manufacturing process. By contrast, fish meal made from tuna is a by-product of processing in which fillets have been removed for human consumption. The resulting offal would presumably have different composition than meals made from whole fish. Readily available tables of nutrient composition (NRC, 1984; Janssen, 1988) generally do not include a listing for tuna meal. A table that does include information on tuna meal (Allen, 1993) lists a protein value of 60%. However, this is markedly higher than the 55% reported by Ross (1968) in studies with Hawaiian tuna meal, and 54% found by Balogun et al. (1986) in tuna meal from Nigeria. A more complete description of the nutrient content of tuna meal is needed by

Received for publication August 27, 1993. Accepted for publication February 7, 1994. ^To whom correspondence should be addressed.

those routinely employing this product in feed formulation. Toward this end, a study was conducted to better define the nutrient content of tuna meal. MATERIALS AND METHODS Samples of tuna meal were taken from three different batches produced by the Starkist Caribe, Inc. plant in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Samples were obtained during late 1992 and early 1993. At this plant, all leftovers from tuna processing, including skins with scales, heads, tails, fins, bones, viscera, and some off-color tuna meat are processed into fish meal. Very dark meat is used for the manufacture of pet food. In addition, varying amounts of whole fish of other species are processed together with tuna. However, the whole fish component never exceeds 10% of the total bulk of incoming material. These components are steam cooked and then pressed to remove 48 to 50% of water. The final product is dried in a drum-dryer where the material stays for 15 to 20 min at a temperature of between 75 and 95 C. After exiting the dryer, the product is ground and treated with 400 ppm of liquid ethoxyquin. Proximate composition and mineral content, along with vitamin E, riboflavin,

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ABSTRACT Tuna meal is distinct from many other types of fish meal in that fillets have previously been removed for human consumption. Three samples of tuna meal were found to have less protein but a proportionately higher mineral content than reference values for meals made from whole fish. The metabolizable energy content of tuna meal was lower than values reported for most common types of fish meal. (Key words: fish meal, tuna meal, protein, energy, minerals)

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RESEARCH NOTE TABLE 1. Proximate analysis and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy of tuna meal Sample Analysis

1

2

3

S

Protein, % 52.3 51.9 53.6 Fat, % 11.0 12.0 10.2 Fiber, % .5 .5 .4 Ash, % 24.7 25.0 24.5 Moisture, % 5.9 5.5 5.8 TMEn, kcal/kg 2,417 2,576 2,604

52.6 11.1 .5 24.7 5.7 2,532

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Sample Analysis

1

3

2

X

0

I /,,)

Protein Amino acids Arginine Glycine Serine Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Cystine Phenylalanine Tyrosine Threonine Tryptophan Valine

52.33

52.92

54.12

53.12

3.47 4.41 1.75 2.00 2.06 3.76 3.89 1.39 .36 2.25 1.42 1.85 .63 2.82

3.67 4.23 1.69 2.03 2.36 3.94 4.22 1.41 .41 2.13 1.62 1.83 .60 2.84

3.52 4.40 1.90 2.04 2.30 3.94 3.89 1.39 .37 2.24 1.57 2.01 .64 2.80

3.55 4.35 1.78 2.02 2.24 3.88 4.00 1.40 .38 2.21 1.54 1.90 .62 2.82

Proximate composition and TMEn values are listed in Table 1, amino acids in Table 2, and vitamin and mineral contents in Table 3. As expected, the crude protein content of tuna meal was substantially below values listed by the NRC (1984) for whole fish meals, but in close agreement with previously cited observations from Hawaii (Ross, 1968) and Nigeria (Balogun et al., 1986). It is not clear whether the high crude protein (60%) reported in the Feedstuffs Ingredient Analysis Table (Allen, 1993) was based on tuna meals containing the dark portion of the meat. Most amino acids were proportionately lower in tuna meal than in menhaden or anchovy meal

TABLE 3. Vitamin and mineral analysis of tuna meal (as-fed basis) Sample Analysis Vitamin E, IU/kg Riboflavin, mg/kg Choline, mg/kg Calcium, % Phosphorus, % Sodium, % Potassium, % Magnesium, % Iron, ppm Zinc, ppm Manganese, ppm Copper, ppm Selenium, ppm

1

2

3

3c

40.90 7.94 2,640 8.71 4.31 .70 .38 .29 660.00 220.00 10.00 5.00 8.30

40.00 7.00 2,160 8.22 4.12 .76 .39 .27 690.00 220.00 10.00 5.00 7.00

42.90 5.98 2,660 8.35 4.17 .68 .24 .28 620.00 280.00 10.00 6.00 5.10

41.27 6.97 2,487 8.43 4.20 .71 .34 .28 656.67 240.00 10.00 5.33 6.80

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TABLE 2. Amino acid analysis of tuna meal (as-fed basis)

and choline were determined by a commercial laboratory employing standard methods of analysis (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1990). Amino acid analyses of fish meal were also determined by a commercial laboratory and performed as described in Method 982.30 published in the Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1990). The hydrolysis procedures 982.30-E (a, b, c) include a performic acid oxidation pretreatment for Met and Cys (E-b) and a separate hydrolysis for Trp (E-c). True metabolizable energy was determined by the method of Sibbald (1976) as modified by Dale and Fuller (1984).

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ZAVIEZO AND DALE

REFERENCES Allen, R., 1993. Ingredient analysis table. Page 25 in: Feedstuffs Reference Issue. 1993 ed. Miller Publishing Co., Minnetonka, MN. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC. Balogun, A. M., S. Talabi, S. Sorinmode, and O. Roberts, 1986. Biological evaluation of the nutritive quality of fish meal produced from tuna wastes. Nutr. Rep. Int. 34:35-47. Dale, N. M., and H. L. Fuller, 1984. Correlation of protein content of feedstuffs with the magnitude of nitrogen correction in true metabolizable energy determinations. Poultry Sci. 63: 1008-1012. Janssen, W., 1988. European Table of Energy Values for Poultry. 2nd ed. Spelderhold Center for Poultry Research and Extension, Beekbergen, The Netherlands. National Research Council, 1984. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 8th rev. ed National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Ross, E., 1968. A comparison of Hawaiian tuna meal and other protein supplements for raising broilers. Hawaii Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. #77, Honolulu, HI. Sibbald, I. R., 1976. A bioassay for true metabolizable energy of feedingstuffs. Poultry Sci. 55:303-308. Sibbald, I. R., 1986. The T.M.E. system of feed evaluation: methodology, feed composition data, and bibliography. Technical Bulletin 1986-4E, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

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(NRC, 1984), with the exception of His and Gly. The TMEj, content of the samples tested was substantially lower than that of other types of fish meal (Sibbald, 1986). Due to the higher proportion of bone, calcium and phosphorus levels were substantially higher in tuna meal than in other types listed by the NRC (1984). Trace mineral concentration in tuna meal was generally comparable to that of other fish meals (NRC, 1984). However, selenium, iron, and zinc levels were somewhat higher in tuna meal. Riboflavin and choline content of tuna meal were generally similar to those reported by the NRC (1984) for menhaden meal. However, vitamin E was far higher in tuna meal than for meals from other species. This may be due to the relatively high fat content of tuna meal, or to its proportionately greater content of viscera. It is concluded that tuna meal made largely from cannery by-products contains less protein, but more calcium and phosphorus, than meals made from whole fish. The ME content of tuna meal samples was approximately 10% lower than meals made from more common fish species, presumably reflecting a lower protein and somewhat higher ash content.