Nutritional composition of Mutton bird (Puffinus griseus) meat

Nutritional composition of Mutton bird (Puffinus griseus) meat

Accepted Manuscript Title: Nutritional composition of Mutton bird (Puffinus griseus) meat Author: Saleh Al-Amer Alaa El-Din Bekhit Ravi Gooneratne Susa...

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Accepted Manuscript Title: Nutritional composition of Mutton bird (Puffinus griseus) meat Author: Saleh Al-Amer Alaa El-Din Bekhit Ravi Gooneratne Susan L. Mason PII: DOI: Reference:

S0889-1575(15)00229-X http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2015.10.006 YJFCA 2647

To appear in: Received date: Revised date: Accepted date:

14-5-2015 21-10-2015 22-10-2015

Please cite this article as: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2015.10.006 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

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Nutritional composition of Mutton bird (Puffinus griseus) meat

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Saleh Al-Amer1, Alaa El-Din Bekhit2*, Ravi Gooneratne3, Susan L. Mason3

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Dunedin, New Zealand

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Canterbury, New Zealand

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4 Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, Al-Qassim

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Department of Food Science, Division of Sciences, University of Otago, PO Box 56,

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Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Division, Lincoln University, PO Box 85084,

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*Corresponding Author

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Department of Food Science

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University of Otago,

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PO Box 56

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Dunedin, New Zealand

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Phone: ++64 3 479 4994

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Email: [email protected]

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Abstract

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Mutton birds (Puffinus griseus) are wild seabird chicks traditionally harvested by Maori but

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available commercially for seasonal consumption in New Zealand. Little information is

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available on the nutritional content of the meat from these birds. Proximate analysis and

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amino and fatty acid composition of mutton bird breast meat (MBBM) were measured over

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two harvesting seasons, 2007 and 2008. Protein content was lower, and fat and ash contents

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were higher (P < 0.05) in meat from birds harvested in 2008 (18.5, 13.0 and 11.7%,

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respectively) compared with that from 2007 (20.3, 11.8 and 10.3%, respectively). Higher

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lysine concentrations and lower proline, cysteine and methionine were found in MBBM

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compared with literature values for beef, lamb and pork. The essential amino acid content in

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mutton bird (41.7 and 38.4% for 2008 and 2007 respectively) was slightly lower than those

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reported for common meats (42-43%). Palmitic, arachidonic, DHA, stearic, EPA, and oleic

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were the major fatty acids (FA) detected in MBBM and accounted for approximately 60% of

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the FAThe cholesterol concentration was not affected by season. Seasonal variations MBBM

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existed which may be of little nutritional consequence but might be a useful indicator for

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ecological events including changing feed availability.

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Keywords: composition, proximate analysis, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol, Mutton

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bird, Puffinus griseus, New Zealand

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1. Introduction

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Meat from birds has always been a source of protein for human and there is an increasing

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trend in poultry consumption (Magdelaine et al., 2007). At present, many birds are

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domesticated and farmed commercially for food (e.g. turkey, chicken) while others are still

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gathered from the wilderness for the same purpose (e.g. quail, Mutton bird). Because of their

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feeding habits, the meat of some birds is suspected to have additional nutritional benefits.

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Mutton birds eat krill and other small seafood organisms. Thus, there may be some nutritional

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advantages of eating Mutton bird since their diet is perceived to contain a high percentage of

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polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Several publications have demonstrated the effects of

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diet on manipulating the quality and the nutritional value of poultry meat (Crespo and Esteve-

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Garcia, 2001; Cortinas et al., 2004; Zelenka et al., 2008). For example, the protein profile of

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chicken breast was modified by enriching the diet with different digestible lysine/ crude

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protein ratios (Abudabos & Aljumaah, 2010). Similarly, the fatty acid profile of chicken meat

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was modified when linseed oils were incorporated in their diet, which increased the muscle n-

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3 polyunsaturated fatty acids concentrations (Cortinas et al., 2004; Zelenka et al., 2008). The

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unique diet of Mutton birds may play an important role in increasing nutritionally important

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nutrients such as n-3 PUFA. Currently, Mutton birds are of commercial value with controlled

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harvesting of these birds practiced in South America, Australia (Puffinus tenuirostris) and

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New Zealand (Puffinus griseus) although the colonies of these birds are spread throughout

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the world (Ito, 2002; Reyes-Arriagada et al., 2007; Petry et al., 2008; Ainley & Hyrenbach,

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2010). Information on the composition and nutrition value Mutton bird meat is scarce.

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Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate the nutritional aspects of New Zealand

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Mutton bird breast meat (MBBM).

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2. Materials and methods 3 Page 3 of 24

2.1. Chemicals and materials

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Forty carcasses of mutton birds were purchased from the same fish monger in 2007 and 2008

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(20 carcasses/year). Breast meat, without skin, was separated from carcasses, weighed and

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their percentages of body weight calculated. Each sample was minced, divided into several

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subsamples to accommodate the various analyses, vacuum packed, and frozen at -30 °C until

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analysis. All the chemicals were analytical grade and solvents were HPLC grade (supplied by

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Biolab, Auckland, New Zealand).

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Proximate composition (moisture, crude protein, fat, and ash) of MBBM was determined in

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duplicate as described in standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists

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(AOAC, 2000). Carbohydrate content was calculated by the difference of the sum of moisture,

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fat, protein and ash contents from 100%.

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2.3 Fatty acid analysis

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Individual vacuum packed MBBM samples were thawed at 4 °C overnight and the lipid

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extraction was carried out as described by Smedes (1999). A 10 g muscle sample was

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blended with 32 mL of isopropanol: cyclohexane mixture (4:5, v/v) for 2 min using Ultra-

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turrax homogeniser at 9500 rpm. Deionised water was added to the mixture to give water:

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isopropanol: cyclohexane ratio of 11:8:10 (v/v/v) and the mixture further homogenized for

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another 2 min on ice. The mixture was centrifuged for 5 min at 4000 ×g and the top organic

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phase (lipid containing layer) was transferred to a pre-weighed pear shaped flask. The

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resultant pellet was re-extracted with cyclohexane/isopropanol (20 ml, 83:13 v\v) using

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Ultraturax for 2 min at 9500 rpm. The mixture was centrifuged for 5 min at 4000 ×g and the

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upper organic phase (containing the lipid) was combined with the first extract. The solvent in

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the extracts was evaporated using a rotary evaporator for 10 min at 40 °C and the flask

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containing the lipids was weighed to calculate the oil yield. The oil was transferred to a pre-

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weighed glass vial and the flask was rinsed twice by a mixture of cyclohexane/ isopropanol

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(1ml, 87:13 v/v) and the liquid added to the glass vial. Each sample was filtered into a vial by

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adding sodium sulphate in a syringe that contained hexane pre-washed cotton and the oil

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sample was evaporated in water bath under nitrogen stream. All the samples were flushed

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with nitrogen and kept in the freezer (-30°C) until analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)

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were prepared using 1% sulphuric acid in methanol. Heptadesanoic acid (C:17) was used as

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an internal standard and the FAME analysed by a GC-2010 (Shimadzu, Japan) equipped with

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an auto-sampler (AOC-20i, Shimadzu, Japan), a flame ionization detector (FID) and a

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column (JW-Innowax, 30 m * 0.25 mm ID * 0.25 µm film thickness), controlled by

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GCSolution (Version 2.300 SU4). The oven temperature was initially 50 °C, raised to 205 °C

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over 30 min and then to 240 °C at a rate of 1°C/min and maintained at 240°C for 5 min. The

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injector and the detector temperatures were set at 230 and 250 °C, respectively. The sample

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size was 1 µl and the carrier gas (helium) was initially at 55.7 KPa, and then increased to 107

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KPa and 200 KPa following the time for the change in the oven’s temperature. The inlet split

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ratio used was 30:1 with an initial column flow rate of 0.6 ml/min. Fatty acids were identified

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by comparing the retention times of FAME with a standard of mixed known composition

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(WE-411, GLA-411, GLA-411-EP, Nu-Check, Elysian, USA). Two replicate GC analyses

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were performed for each sample and the results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation

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of fatty acid %.

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2.4 Amino acid analysis

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All the amino acids, except tryptophan, cysteine and methionine, were determined by HPLC

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analysis after acid hydrolysis as described by Fountoulakis & Lahm (1998). The analysis was

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performed on an Agilent 1100 series HPLC (Agilent Technologies, Walbronn Germany),

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including a degasser, a HPLC quaternary pump, an auto-sampler with a thermostat, heated

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column compartment and a fluorescence detector, controlled by ChemStation (version

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A10.02). The amino acids were separated using the method described by Carducci et al.

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(1996) using a Prodigy reverse phase column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5µm) connected to a guard

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column (Phenomenex, New Zealand). Cysteine and methionine were analysed as cysteic acid

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and methionine sulphone after oxidation of the sample with performic acid followed by

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hydrolysis with 6 M HCl (Bekhit et al., 2009). The amino acids were identified and

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quantified from standard curves constructed with a mixture standard of Asp, Glu, Ser, His,

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Gly, Thr, Agr, Ala, Tyr, Val, Phe, Ile, Lys, Leu, Pro, Tau, Cys, Met and Try (Sigma Aldrich,

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St. Louis, MO) at concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 250 and 500 µM.

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129 2.5 Cholesterol analysis

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Cholesterol content of Mutton bird oil was analyzed using Liberman-Burchard method as

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described by Sabir et al. (2003).

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2.6. Statistical analysis

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Statistical analysis was performed with Minitab® Software (Version 16.0, Minitab Inc.,

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Pennsylvania, USA). All measurements were carried out in triplicates. Data for proximate

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analysis, amino acids, fatty acids, and cholesterol content were analyzed using one way

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analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the year as dependent variable. Significant differences

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among the means were determined using Tukey test at a confidence level of 95% (P < 0.05).

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3. Results and discussion

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Mutton birds are harvested in New Zealand by customary agreement to Maori people. The

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birds are harvested in traditional way by Maori families on isolated islands around New

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Zealand (please see the following link for more information Tītī – muttonbirding in Te Ara -

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the Encyclopaedia of New Zealand). The samples were brought from a fish monger and thus

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the exact information on processing of the birds is not available.

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3.1 Proximate analysis of Mutton bird breast meat

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The chemical composition of MBBM over two years (2007 and 2008) is shown in Table 1.

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Higher ash and fat contents (P < 0.05) were found in 2008 samples compared with 2007

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samples; while the protein content was lower (P < 0.05) in 2008 samples compared with

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2007 samples (Table 1). The low moisture content and high ash content of MBBM compared

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with traditional muscle foods (Table 2) is because the mutton birds are preserved by salting

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which causes diffusion of the salt into and water out of the meat.

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There were no differences in the moisture and carbohydrates contents over the two years. The

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crude fat content was higher in MBBM (average 12.41%) than those of beef, lamb and

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chicken (Table 2) but lower than the fat content of the Australian Mutton bird (18.7%)

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reported by Woodward et al. (1995). The crude protein content of MBBM (18.5%) was lower

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than in beef [21.17%; Almeida et al., 2006], lamb [19.28%; Rowe et al., 1999], chicken

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[28.78%; Barroeta 2007] and Australian Mutton bird [23.9%; Woodward et al., 1995].

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However, the protein content of MBBM was within the range reported for fish (Vlieg, 1988).

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3.2 Amino acid composition of Mutton bird breast meat

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The amino acid content in MBBM over the investigation period (2007 and 2008) is shown in

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Table 3. The contents of Leu, Met, Val, Arg, Ala, Cys, Pro, Ser and Tyr were not different in

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the samples from both years. Slightly but significantly higher (P < 0.05) Lys, Phe, Thr, Ile,

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His, Asp and Gly concentrations were found in 2008 samples compared with 2007. The

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higher protein (Table 1) and amino acids (Table 3) contents observed in 2008 samples

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suggested better feeding that year. Montague et al. (1986) and Ogi et al. (1980) found that

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diet from different seas could lead to differences in seabird’s proximate composition due to

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variation in plankton species, which can vary from one ecosystem to another leading to

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differing dietary inputs. The overall essential and non-essential amino acids content were

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similar over the two years (P > 0.05).

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The dominant essential amino acids in MBBM were Lys and Leu (10.06 and 8.15 g/100g

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protein, respectively) and among the non-essential amino acids, relatively high amounts of

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Glu and Asp were observed which accounted for 14.11 and 9.06%, of the total amino acids

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respectively (Table 3).

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Amino acids are important components of meat and are markers for the protein quality. A

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comparison of the MBBM amino acid composition in the present study compared with those

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of other red meats (camel, lamb, goat, and beef) and bird meats (chicken, garganey, pintail,

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and fish) is shown in Table 4. Four essential amino acids (Thr, Lys, Leu, Ile) of the MBBM

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were at the high end of the scale compared to those found in other red and white meats.

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Similarly, the concentrations of seven non-essential amino acids (Glu, Asp, Ser, Gly, Ala, Pro,

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Arg) were either the same or slightly lower compared with other meat sources. The Val

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concentration in other wild birds (garganey, pintail) was higher than in the Mutton bird.

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Mutton bird meat had higher Tyr content than in chicken and fish, but lower Try content than

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in Pintail and goat meats. The Met and Phe concentrations in pintail, chicken and goat were

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higher than in the Mutton bird (Table 4).

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The main source for dietary protein for Mutton bird is krill which have a proximate

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composition of 60–80% protein, 7–26% lipid, and 12–17% ash on a dry weight basis

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(Grantham, 1977). Some authors have suggested decreased digestibility of krill protein which

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may be related to the presence of the unavailable exoskeleton protein (Ikegamie et al., 1990).

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192 3.3 Fatty acid composition

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The fatty acid profile in MBBM over two years (2007 and 2008) is shown in Table 5.

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Generally, there were few significant variations in the content of saturated and

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monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) over the two sampling years. There were no differences

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(P > 0.05) found in the concentrations of the following fatty acids, C 12:0, C 16:0, C 17:0, C

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18:0, C18:3(ω3), C18:3 (ω6) and C20:4(ω6). The most relevant changes were detected in the

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concentration of MUFA concentration. Significant differences were found in composition of

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C14:1, C 18:1ω6, C 20:1 and C 24:1(ω9) fatty acids (P < 0.05) which are all

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monounsaturated. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in the total MUFA or total poly

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unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations over the two year sampling period (Table 5).

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The fatty acid composition of MBBM was found to be 31.38% saturated fatty acids (SFA),

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52.82% MUFAs and 6.74% PUFAs. A higher ω3/ ω6 was found in 2007 New Zealand

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MBBM samples compared to 2008. These results indicates the importance to investigate the

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influence of annual variation on the fat content and the fatty acid composition of the Mutton

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birds in order to estimate the impact of annual variation on ω3 fatty acids available from

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Mutton birds. Marked variations have been reported in the fat content and fatty acid

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composition of several marine organisms over a sampling year (Shirai et al., 2002; Luzia et

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al., 2003).

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Mutton birds as marine birds are subjected to considerable environmental changes and

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fluctuations in the availability and compositions of their feed, which may affect the chemical

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composition of their muscles including the fatty acid profile. A seasonal difference in the

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MBBM from the same geographic area during (2007-2008) is not unexpected and is probably

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affected by the different composition of the fish species eaten. Diet, location and the season

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are the major factors that determine the fatty acid composition (Gruger, 1967) which may

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influence the nutritional and health status of chicks. Annual changes in water temperature and

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nutrients are the major factors affecting the nutrient composition which is very important

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since it is used for feeding the chicks.

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Seafood is generally the main source of ω3 PUFA in the human diet. For example, lipids

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from marine fish species are characterized by high levels of long-chain ω3 PUFA (Vlieg,

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1988). Mutton bird is a sea bird surviving on small marine organisms such as fish and krill. It

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is hypothesised that they would have high content of ω3 PUFA. However, this does not

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appear to be the case. The fatty acid profiles of MBBM and other common white and red

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meats are shown in Table 6. The results of the fatty acid composition show that MBBM is

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rich in MUFA (52.82%), which was higher than in other common meats (Table 6) but it was

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lower than in the Australian Mutton bird (60.9%). Individually, the highest proportion of the

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fatty acids in MBBM was C18:1ω9 (33.88%) compared with 30.3% in lamb, 28.72% in

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chicken, 16.52% in beef and only 9.83% in fish (Table 6). The MBBM contained a higher

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concentration of PUFA compared with lamb (5.36%) but lower compared with fish (53.17%)

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and chicken (31.85%). It has been reported that ω3 PUFAs have various beneficial health

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effects including reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (Gigliotti et al., 2008). Among

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the PUFA, EPA (C20:5 ω3) and DHA (C22:6 ω3) are the dominant ω3 fatty acids in sea

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birds. These fatty acids are of great importance to humans because many of the ω3 fatty acids

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cannot be synthesized in the body (Mozaffarian et al., 2005). The fatty acid composition of

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marine organisms (e.g. fish) reflects the fatty acid composition of their natural foods (Tocher,

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2003).

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The concentration of EPA (C 20:5(ω3) in MBBM was lower than in other sea bird (Arctic

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Fulmar, 1.95% and Australian Mutton bird, 3.3%), a trend which was also found for DHA

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C22:6(ω3). These fatty acids are mainly obtained from the diet since marine organisms (such

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as fish) may need PUFA to provide adaptation to lower water temperatures (Chanmugam et

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al., 1986).

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Saturated fatty acid content in MBBM was lower than in chicken (40.79%), lamb (55.07%)

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and beef (32.33%), but it was higher compared with Australian Mutton bird (26.5%) and fish

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(25.15%). Among the saturated fatty acids, C 16:0 (palmitic acid) was the most abundant

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fatty acids in the lipid extracted from MBBM (19.37%). Other meats had similar average

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values, e.g. Australian Mutton bird (18.1%), beef (18.27%), lamb (19.23%) and fish

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(19.34%), but lower than in chicken (23.03%) and an earlier study on NZ Mutton bird (23.8).

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The SFA/PUFA ratio in MBBM was 4.83, which was quite high compared with the other

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common meats [chicken (0.92), lamb (0.10), beef (0.98) and fish (0.48)].

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The total ω3 and ω6 fatty acids in MBBM was 3.95% and 0.79%, respectively, which was

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lower than in chicken (4.94% and 19.96%, respectively) and Australian Mutton bird (9.3%

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and 3.3%, respectively). However, MBBM had a ω6/ω3 ratio of 0.2 which was twenty times

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lower than in chicken (4.04) but lower than in Australian mutton bird (0.35). It is worth

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noting that these results are based on the total fatty acids and considering the ratio on meat

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fresh weight basis the results could vary as the fat content in mutton bird is much higher than

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in chicken. This could also potentially be affected by the diet of the birds in both cases. The

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high ω6/ ω3 ratio for MBBM in the present study was expected because of the seafood diet.

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The high MUFA and intermediate ω6/3 fatty acid ratio favourably support the good

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nutritional value of MBBM. An low in the human dietary ω6 ⁄ω3 fatty acid ratio is essential

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to help prevent coronary heart disease by reducing plasma lipids (Gökçe et al., 2004) and thus

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MBBM appears to have a good balanced ratio.

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The beneficial effect of fish consumption on human health has been related, among other

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factors to the high content of ω3 fatty acids, particularly, EPA (C20:5 ω3) and DHA (C22:6

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ω3) (Sidhu, 2003). Results of clinical and epidemiological research suggest that EPA and

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DHA, found in fish and sea foods, possess extremely beneficial properties such as prevention

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of human coronary artery disease (Leaf & Weber, 1988). The ω3 ⁄ω6 ratio is a good index for

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comparing relative nutritional value and MBBM has a good ω3 ⁄ω6 ratio.

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The average cholesterol level in MBBM in 2007 (184 mg/100g fresh meat) was significantly

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higher (P < 0.05) than that found in 2008 (134 mg/100g fresh meat). The magnitude of

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variation of the MBBM cholesterol content between 2007 and 2008 was quite high (≈27%).

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Cholesterol content in marine organisms is influenced by several factors, among which diet

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plays an important role where free-ranging in different locations and eating different diets can

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influence the cholesterol content (Al-Othman, 2000). Cholesterol and PUFA content in

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marine organisms have an inverse relationship with an increase in PUFA content associated

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with a decrease of cholesterol content (Al-Othman, 2000). This appears to reflect the trends

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observed across the various species (Tables 6 & 7).

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Comparing the cholesterol content in MBBM with other common meats (Table 7) reveals

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that MBBM has a higher cholesterol content (134.4-184.4 mg/100g) than in other common

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meats such as chicken (80.3-88.9 mg/100g), lamb (66 mg/100g), fish (52.79 mg/100g) and

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beef (51.97 mg/100g). The cholesterol content of MBBM in 2007 was similar to that reported

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for Australian Mutton bird. In the USA, the recommendations for dietary cholesterol intake

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should be less than 300 mg/day (Piironen et al., 2002). Information on the daily dietary intake

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of cholesterol can be quite important, especially to those with hypercholesterolemia and

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cardiovascular problems. The high cholesterol content in MBBM (184 mg/100g) indicated

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that consumers with heart problems need to be made aware of the level of cholesterol in this

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product. A large serve (200 g of MBBM) would exceed the daily recommended limit for

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cholesterol. This is an important issue since the product is seasonal and is frequently

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consumed during the season especially within ethnic groups which have cultural sentiment

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and traditionally consume Mutton bird meat.

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Mutton bird breast meat contains a high amount of fat but the main fatty acids were of the

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monounsaturated type. Despite mutton birds being raised on a marine diet, their meat

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contained low amounts of ω3 PUFA but the ratio of ω3/ω6 is better than meat from land

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animals. The high concentrations of cholesterol may also be of concern. Consumption of

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mutton bird meat is regarded as a delicacy and not a regular daily food item. The information

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presented in this study suggests that MBBM is a nutritionally-dense food but its consumption

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needs to be carefully considered because of its high cholesterol content.

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302 References

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Abudabos, A., Alijumaah, R. (2010). Evaluation of digestible lysine needs for male broiler.

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population trends in the California current system (1985–2006). Progress in

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Oceanography, 84, 242-254.

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Almeida, J., Perassolo, M., Camargo, J., Bragagnolo, N., Gross, J. (2006). Fatty acid

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composition and cholesterol content of beef and chicken meat in Southern Brazil.

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Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 42(1), 110-117.

Al-Othman, A. (2000). Growth and lipid metabolism responses in rats fed different dietary fat sources. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 51, 59-67. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Ed. AOAC International. Gaithersburg, Maryland, 20877-2417. USA.

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Carducci C., Birarelli, M., Leuzzi, V., Santagata, G., Serafini, P., Antonozzi, I. (1996)

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liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 729, 173-180.

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Chanmugam, P., Boudreau, M., Hwanm, D. (1986). Differences in the n-3 fatty acid content

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Research Highlights • •

The mutton bird essential amino acid content was slightly lower than in common meats. About 60% of the fatty acids consisted of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C20:4, C20:5 andC22:6. 17 Page 17 of 24

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The cholesterol concentration was generally higher than in traditional meat sources. Seasonal variations MBBM existed which may be of little nutritional consequence.

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Table 1. Proximate analysis on fresh weight basis of Mutton bird breast meat in 2007

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and 2008

Crude fat

11.8 ± 1.59a

Ash

10.3 ± 0.89a

Protein

20.3 ± 0.83b

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13.0 ± 1.75b 11.7 ± 0.64b

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18.5 ± 1.09a

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Carbohydrates 3.0 ± 0.51 2.8 ± 0.93 a-b = Means with different superscripts within each component are different (p < 0.05) Mean ± standard deviation (n =20 independent samples/birds)

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2008 54.0 ± 1.55

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Moisture

Average (Mean ± SD) 2007 54.5 ± 1.20

Component (%)

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Protein% 18.5 23.9 20.4 – 23.2 19.3 – 23.4 19.3 23.4 19.3 11.6-26.4 18.8 – 28.8

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Moisture% 54.0 ND 73.4- 74.5 69.0 – 72.9 68.3 – 74.5 77.2 64.7-81.2 66.0 - 77.5

Fat% 13.0 18.7 2.8 – 4.7 4.6 - 6.7 3.3 - 5.0 2.6 0.5-14.0 3.5 – 5.4

Ash% 11.7 ND 1.4 – 1.5 0.9 - 1.5 1.4 - 1.7 0.9 0.8-1.6 1.3 – 1.7

Authors present study Woodward et al. (1995) Almeida et al. (2006); Williams (2007) Rowe et al. (1999), Williams (2007) Elgasim and Alkanhal (1992), Elgasim and Alkanhal (1992), Vlieg (1988) Elgasim and Alkanhal (1992), Almeida et al. (2006), Barroeta (2007)

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Species NZ Mutton bird Australian Mutton bird Beef Lamb Goat Camel Fish Chicken

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Table 2. Proximate composition of different animal meat

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Table 3. Amino acid composition (g/ 100 g protein) of Mutton bird’s breast meat over two years (2007 and 2008). 2008

7.97±0.36 9.46±0.69a 0.94±0.43 3.89 ±0.35a 4.46±0.18a 4.44±0.15 4.32±0.25a 2.88±0.08a

8.26±0.41 10.56±0.56b 0.91±0.29 4.28±0.43b 5.18±0.30b 4.60±0.25 4.60±0.35b 3.26±0.14b

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Amino Acids Essential Amino Acids Leu Lys Met Phe Thr Val Ile His

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Non Essential Amino Acids Arg 7.28±0.36 6.89±0.50 Ala 5.58±0.17 5.52±0.82 Asp 8.40±0.18a 9.06±0.49b Cys 0.29±0.15 0.32±0.14 Glu 13.58±0.65 14.11±0.68 Gly 4.34±0.11a 4.64±0.32b Pro 4.13±0.58 4.37±0.47 Ser 3.89±0.0.15 4.04±0.21 Tyr 2.96±0.17 3.03±0.20 TAA 88.8 93.6 EAA 38.4 41.7 NEAA 50.5 52.0 TSAA 1.23 1.23 TAAA 9.73 10.6 EAA/NEAA 0.76 0.80 TAA = total amino acids. EAA = essential amino acids. NEAA = non-essential amino acids. TSAA = total sulphur amino acids. TAAA = total aromatic amino acids. a,b Values within row with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05) Mean ± SD (n = 20 independent samples/birds).

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Table 4. Comparison of the amino acid content of Mutton bird breast meat with other common meats (g/100g of protein). Amino acida Mutton bird

Other wild birds Chicken3 Fish5 Camel2 Beef2 Lamb2,4 Goat2 1 1 Garganey Pintail

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Essential Amino Acid Leu 8.16 5.44 5.43 6.14 6.66 7.92 9.34 9.10 7.29 Lys 10.07 6.23 6.98 6.23 9.91 8.39 7.96 8.00 10.15 Met 0.95 2.08 3.44 NR 4.03 3.24 2.30 3.09 3.60 Phe 4.10 5.62 6.31 5.96 3.77 4.43 4.92 4.59 6.04 Thr 4.85 4.97 4.93 3.29 5.15 4.53 4.78 4.00 4.04 Val 4.53 8.54 8.29 3.75 4.78 5.91 5.76 5.53 6.30 Ile 4.46 NR NR NR 4.24 5.52 5.69 5.53 5.60 His 3.08 2.57 3.83 2.95 2.66 5.27 5.41 5.58 4.37 Non-essential Amino Acid Arg 7.13 5.75 5.45 4.98 6.55 7.10 7.05 6.85 7.05 Ala 5.58 6.88 5.67 4.34 4.93 3.85 7.74 6.73 4.96 Asp 8.75 8.47 7.28 6.80 10.16 10.8 10.8 10.3 10.8 Cys 0.31 1.28 0.88 NR NR NR NR NR NR 18.6 16.5 17.9 15.6 Glu 13.95 14.86 15.81 11.25 15.04 Gly 4.50 4.92 5.93 3.13 4.78 6.11 6.23 5.49 5.21 Pro 4.27 3.25 2.23 3.38 1.91 3.87 4.54 3.81 3.82 Ser 3.96 4.78 3.58 2.92 3.58 3.18 4.22 2.98 3.56 Tyr 3.02 3.86 4.91 1.95 2.85 3.81 4.10 3.51 5.92 Total 93.09 94.15 Protein% 91.67 NR NR NR Nr 86.7 86.5 90.8 90.2 1 Khalifa and Nassar (2001); 2Elgasim and Alkanhal (1992); 3 Almeida et al. (2006); 4Rowe et al. (1999); 5Vleig (1988). - = not all the amino acids were available for total NR = Not reported

441 442 443

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444 445 446

Table 5. Fatty acid composition (fatty acid % and mg/100 fresh weight) of Mutton birds’ breast meat over two years (2007 and 2008).

448

Mean ± SD (n = 20 independent samples/birds)

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Fatty acid % Mg/100 g fresh weight Fatty Acid 2007 2008 2007 2008 12:0 0.02 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.01 2.83 ± 0.97 2.94 ± 1.06 14:0 1.31 ± 0.18 1.32 ± 0.18 156 ± 38.0 176± 47.8 15:0 0.18 ± 0.05b 0.21 ± 0.02a 25.4 ± 4.25 23.9 ± 8.09 16:0 19.60 ± 0.78 19.13 ± 0.96 2258 ± 362b 2625 ± 613a 17:0 0.30 ± 0.05 0.44 ± 0.45 54.6 ± 20.0 39.4 ± 9.0 18:0 9.77 ± 1.30 9.99 ± 1.18 1170 ± 134 1295 ± 288 20:0 0.22 ± 0.03 0.26 ± 0.33 22.3 ± 9.72b 29.2 ± 5.54a 14:1 0.08 ± 0.02b 0.11 ± 0.04a 13.4 ± 3.73a 10.5 ± 4.41b 16:1 5.46 ± 1.35 5.28 ± 2.36 614 ± 304 740 ± 283 17:1 0.28 ± 0.08 0.30 ± 0.03 35.2 ± 5.09 39.0 ± 15.2 18:1ω9 34.03 ± 0.85 33.73 ± 0.82 2972 ± 539 4169 ± 1244 18:1ω6 4.44 ± 0.30b 4.73 ± 0.22a 561 ±73.2 592 ± 0.22 18:1ω11 0.53 ± 0.06 0.63 ± 0.28 74.9 ± 35.5 71.4 ± 17.6 20:1 7.01 ± 0.82a 5.71 ± 1.54b 661 ± 34. 9b 935 ± 228a 22:1 1.07 ± 0.28 1.10 ± 0.16 130 ± 34.9 141 ± 44.8 b a 0.61 ± 0.17 73.2 ± 23.2 69.0 ± 13.3 24:1(ω9) 0.52 ± 0.08 18:2 2.10 ± 0.15 1.80 ± 0.65 209 ± 80.1 279 ± 58.4 18:3(ω3) 0.18 ±0.02 0.18 ±0.02 21.0 ± 3.84b 26.3 ± 5.88a 18:3(ω6) 0.08±0.03 0.08±0.03 8.33 ± 3.66a 6.01 ± 2.22b 20:4(ω6) 0.79 ± 0.17 0.79 ± 0.17 94.2 ± 13.4 88.3 ± 22.1 20:5(ω3){EPA} 1.40 ± 0.29 1.46 ± 0.37 177 ± 28.5 185 ± 45.2 22:5(ω3){DHA} 0.26 ± 0.15 0.24 ± 0.14 29.0 ± 17.0 35.1 ± 21.1 2.15 ± 0.51 2.03 ± 0.45 248 ± 52.2 283 ± 70.7 22:6(ω3){DHA} Others 8.28 ± 1.83 9.87 ± 2.83 1197 ± 385 1095 ± 292 SFA 31.39 ± 0.83 31.36 ± 1.04 3690 ± 479b 4192 ± 914a MUFA 53.43 ± 1.94 52.20 ± 3.07 6137 ± 946 6769 ± 1359 PUFA 6.91 ± 0.96 6.57 ± 1.37 785 ± 155b 903 ± 190a SFA/PUFA 4.63 ± 0.69 5.02 ± 1.30 4.90 ± 1.32 4.70 ± 0.71 ω3 4.00 ± 0.88 3.90 ± 0.84 474 ± 81 529 ± 131 ω6 0.71± 0.11b 0.86 ± 0.17a 102 ± 13.8b 98.7 ± 25.9a ω6/ω3 0.19 ± 0.06 0.22 ± 0.03 25.6 ± 2.98 25.0 ± 7.59 a,b Values within row with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05)

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Table 6: Comparison of Mutton bird fatty acid composition breast meat with other common meats.

451 452

Other seabirds Chicken7 Lamb4 Beef6 Fish5 Arctic Fulmar2 Australian Mutton Previous bird1 Mutton bird3 12:0 0.02 ND ND ND ND ND 0.8 ND 14:0 1.32 2.46 2.5 2.13 0.55 1.75 0.22 0.2-6.0 15:0 0.20 ND 0.3 0.35 ND 0.86 0.19 0.1-1.1 16:0 19.37 9.55 18.1 23.8 23.02 19.23 18.27 11.7-38.4 17:0 0.37 0.28 0.2 0.03 17.21 2.12 0.55 0.2-1.3 18:0 9.88 3.00 5.1 7.02 10.06 30.11 13.12 4.0-14.3 20:0 0.24 0.25 0.3 0.35 ND 0.47 0.09 0.1-1.2 14:1 0.10 ND 0.2 ND ND ND 2.2 Tr-1.1 16:1 5.37 ND 8.0 8.35 3.61 2.19 0.31 2.1-14.4 17:1 0.29 ND ND ND ND ND 0.68 0.2-1.2 ND ND ND 28.72 30.3 16.52 33.88 18:1ω9 ND ND ND ND ND ND 14.8-37.1 4.59 18:1ω6 ND ND ND ND ND 1.93 0.58 18:1ω11 20:1 6.36 ND 8.8 7.17 0.79 ND 0.06 2.1-16.7 22:1 1.09 ND 6.6 1.03 ND ND ND 1.5-10.7 ND 0.6 ND ND ND ND ND 0.57 24:1(ω9) 18:2 1.95 ND 2.3 ND 17.02 ND 20. 0 ND 0.53 ND ND 2.03 1.92 1.19 ND 0.18 18:3(ω3) ND ND ND 0.21 0.02 0.11 ND 0.04 18:3(ω6) 0.33 0.8 0.7 2.15 1.09 0.63 ND 0.79 20:4(ω6) 1.95 3.3 ND 0.75 0.93 1.22 ND 1.43 20:5(ω3){EPA} 1.26 0.6 ND 0.47 0.84 1.81 0.6-3.5 0.25 22:5(ω3){DPA} 4.77 5.2 ND 2.14 0.30 0.07 1.9-29.6 2.09 22:6(ω3){DHA} Others 9.08 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND SFA 31.38 ND 26.5 ND 40.79 55.07 32.33 25.15 MUFA 52.82 ND 60.9 ND 34.31 31.37 21.94 23.70 PUFA 6.74 ND 12.6 ND 24.90 5.36 44.98 4.2-47.5 SFA/PUFA 4.83 ND ND ND 0.92 0.10 0.98 0.48 ND 9.3 ND 4.94 ND ND ND 3.95 ω3 ND 3.3 ND 19.96 ND ND ND 0.79 ω6 ND 0.35 ND 4.04 ND ND ND ω6/ω3 0.20 1-Woodward, et al., 1995) Australian Mutton bird, 2- Wang, et al., 2007). Arctic Fulmar 3. Quigley et al., 1995) Previous Mutton bird, 4- Rowe et al., 1999) Lamb meat 5- Vlieg and Body (1988). Fish, 6- Williams (2007) Beef 7. Crespo and Esteve-Garcia ( 2001) chicken. ND = not determined NZ Mutton bird

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Fatty acid

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Table 7: Cholesterol content of Mutton Bird breast meat (mg/100 fresh weight) over two years (2007 and 2008) compared with the cholesterol content in other common meats (mg/100g). Species content (mg/100g) Reference NZ Mutton bird (2007) 184.4* present study NZ Mutton bird (2008) 134.4* present study Lamb 62.03-92.0 Rowe et al (1999); Williams (2007) Beef 51.97 – 86.0 Rowe et al (1999); Williams (2007) Chicken 80.3-88.9 De Almeida et al (2006), Barroeta (2007) Australian Mutton Bird 185 Woodward et al (1995) Fish 48-82 Vlieg and Body (1988), The values are the mean of 20 samples in each year (n=20). The standard deviations were 37.4 and 25.6 for 2007 and 2008, respectively.

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453 454 455 456

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460 461

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