Certain clinical evidence cited by Tho~uas and Bayne-J-ones,S supports the contention that the gonococcus ‘ ‘HI ag not, he pathogenic for all human beings. ’ ’ The lack of susceptibility oT laboratory animals to gonococcal infection has so hindered thr dir& study of possible variations in virulence between different strains of gonococci tha.t other indirect, Atkin,” and others, have atmethods of approach have been utilized. tempted to correlate est,ablished clini& virulence, as c+dcnced by the severit,y of local and general reactions, wit,11 variat,ions in the colony morphology on adequate media. The gonococci grown from acute cases of gonorrhea tend to form large, l,nl,illa-hearing colonies, while organof papilla-free isms from chronic cases may prodncc3 :l preponderance This investigator has also demonstrated that, old laborator; colonies. strains more commonl~~ show the papilla-free growths. More recently. Casper’ has stressed his bclirf thai ’ ’ t,lic formal ion of papilla-f rce colonies is a sign of degeneration probably due to growth on artificial to human tissues the organism may media, ’ ’ but that. by adaptation This “degeneration” is atundergo similar degenerative alterations. tributed to loss of an essential carboh,vdrate which is specific for the particular strain. It is of some int,erc& that in t,hc majority of cultures obtained in the present study the usual colony was smooth and papillafree or the papilla formaCon was onl?- slight. III view, however. of tile fact that a different medium was employ-cd, definite conclusions will not be drawn pending further st,ud;v now in progress.
Among 500 consecutive apparent,ly normal obstetric patients, organisms satisfying the bacteriologic critrria for gonococci were cultivated from the vaginas or cervices of 20, an incidence of 4 per cent. Although a history suggestive of gonorrhea wit,hin eight pears could be obtained from 10 of these 20 women, all were without manifestations of active infection at the time the cultures were made and consequently are viewed as i ‘carriers. ” The puerperal course in these patients was not different from t,hat of a control group. RFFFRFNCES > > A
(1) Carpenter, C. M.: Am. Pub. Health Assn. Year Book, p. 185, Mar&, 1937. (3) Thompson, L. : J. Infect. Dis. 61: 129, 1937. (3) Rzccwa, C.: Cited by Thomas, R. B., and Bayne-Jones, 8.: See reference 5. (4) PeEowe, P. S.: J. A. M. A. 103: 1819, 1934. (5) Thomas, R. B., and Ra~wdmrs, A’.: Am. ,J. Syph., Gonor. & Ven. Dis. 20: Supplement, January, 1936. (6) --ltkin, B. E’.: Brit. J. Exper. Path. 6: (7) Casper, W. 9. : J. Bart. 36: 111, 193X. 236, 1935.
Observations on Specimens of Human Semen,
Observations on more than five hundred specimens of human semen from 21; different men show that an arerage ejaculate has a volume of 3.9 c.c., contains 565 million sperms, and requires 3.0 CC. of N/100 acid to neutralize 1.0 C.C. of the fluid, HUGO