tion, e.g. formulas, flow-sheets and tables, take the place of narrative descriptions. A comparison with the 3rd edition shows a decrease in the number of main headings. In the new edition related subjects are grouped under a new general heading, e.g. ‘aliphatic amines’ replaces several individual amine headings. This means that the text is more concise and much easier to read; the printing in two columns is also an agreeable improvement. The entries ‘acaricide’, ‘aerosole’ and ‘analgetica’ appear for the first time. The contents of the volume are well balanced. The individual entries are complete treatises and the ‘see’
1974, Vol. 29, p. 1846.
D. M. HIMMELBAU.
Basic Principles and Calculations
3rd Edn. Prentice-Hall,
Cliffs. N.J. Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering by David M. Himmelblau is one of a handful of texts available for use in introductory courses in Chemical Engineering. The book introduces the basic concepts of material and energy balances, phase relations, and general problem solving techniques through the use of a limited number of physical principles and equations and a wide variety of illustrative examples. The recently released third edition of Himmelblau’s book is primarily an updating of material presented in previous editions without substantive change in either the basic content or format. The most useful of the few changes in content is the addition of a section on the use of the phase rule to help determine whether more complex problems involving simultaneous heat and mass transfer have been adequately specified. Several brief examples illustrating its use are presented. Also with the trend toward the metric system, a section on SI units and their relation to engineering units has been added although most of the examples are still worked in engineering units. In preparing the new edition Himmelblau has devoted
and Design, Prentice-Hall
1974, Vol. 29, pp.
and WILDE, eds. Optimization Englewood
references have been kept to a minimum such that there is little need for distracting cross-referencing. 208 uniformly designed figures and 211 clear tables complete the text. The critically selected references cover the literature up to 192 and SI-units are adopted for all chemical and physical data. To date there is no other work comparable to this volume, and doubtless to the other volumes still to be published. Ullmanns Encyclopedia should be present in every chemical engineering library. This work is strongly recommended to all who are interested in chemical engineering. ULRICH HOFFMANN
Cliffs, N. J. (1973).
This well-done book is the result of a two week summer session held in 1971 at the University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. The purpose of the book is to show how optimization theory can have an impact on design. The book starts with an introduction to mathematic programming by Elmer Peterson and continues through a series of excellent, although too detailed, articles on the fundamentals of optimization theory. Direct unconstrained optimization, penalty functions, geometric programming, serial systems, and several combinatorial techniques are discus-
his major effort to updating many of the examples as well as the problems at the end of each chapter to include problems on air and water pollution, ecological balances, energy needs and utilization, etc. The use of such current and relevant problems should not only help to hold student interest but also foster increased social and environmental awareness in our future engineers. To take advantage of the increased utilization of computer facilities in Chemical Engineering education in the past few years, problems have also been added for students to solve on the computer by either writing their own programs or using ‘canned’ programs. These problems are primarily aimed at students with previous programming experience as programming and numerical methods for solving problems on the computer are not discussed. Furthermore, the use of ‘canned’ programs must be used cautiously, if at all, since they may lead merely to black box solutions without providing insight into the underlying principles. Although these changes in this new edition are not substantive, they nonetheless strengthen the book’s major asset, the extensive array of examples and problems.
C. H. SWANSON
sed. The section on combinatorial techniques is excellent and is where optimization theory finally starts to have an observable impact on design. Cutteridge, in his paper on electrical network and general system synthesis, points out one of the key problems with optimization theory in design. When parameter optimization is applied to structures invented by experienced designers from starting points which are near-optimal values the change in the objective function from start to finish is commonly small. If optimization theory is going to make a big difference it will need to be applied to the earleir stages of design, to synthesis. At the synthesis level decisions are made which could produce novel and inherently better designs on
BookReviews which further parameter optimization could be performed. In the synthesis of systems the problem is usually discrete, hence the importance of the combinatorial techniques. Wilde and Buynoski set the stage near the end of the book for a discussion of synthesis with a problem on serial refrigeration systems. This is followed by a discussion of the decomposition of structured systems which, while it is not directed at synthesizing a system, does introduce several discrete search concepts. The Wilde and Atherton paper surveys branch and bound techniques and closes with several excellent suggestions on how a number of synthesis problems might be solved by these methods. Garfmkel and Nemhauser follow with sections from their book Integer Programming and Peter
Hammer closes with a paper on bivalent optimization. It is not obvious from the book that optimization theory will have a large effect on design but in the combinatorial search sections the seed is planted. Unfortunately, there is no detailed discussion of how these problems should be formulated, It may be time for optimization theorists to join forces with psychologists and artificial intelligence researchers who are working on forma1 means for representing a wide range of problems. A detailed analysis of alternate design problem representations may yield new optimization approaches for network, machine or process synthesis. GARY J. POWERS